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THE MINISTRY OF PUBLIC WORKS, TRANSPORTS AND HOUSES- GENERAL DIRECTION OF CONSTRUCTIONS

PRACTICE CODE FOR EXECUTION OF PRECAST ELEMENTS OF


CONCRETE, REINFORCED CONCRETE AND PRECOMPRESSED
CONCRETE

INDICATIVE NE 013-2002

DEVELOPED BY: PROCEMA SA

General Manager: PhD Eng. Traian Ispas

Works supervisor: PhD Eng. Ion Ionescu

Collaborators: Eng. Ilariu Copaci


PhD Eng. Prof. Iorgu Nicula- UTCB

INCERC Bucuresti PhD Eng. Prof. Augustin Popaescu

Coordinated by:

The General Technical Direction in Constructions

General Manager: Eng. Ion Stanescu

Works Supervisor MLPTL: Eng. Adrian Antonescu

CONTENTS

1
1. General provisions 5
2. Main technical regulations in the field 8
3. Terminology and notation 15
4. Materials used for preparation of concrete in order to obtain precast elements 24
5. Steel types used for precast element reinforcement 42
6. Requirements concerning concrete characteristics and concrete types necessary for
precast elements 46
7. Requirements for composition and establishing composition of concretes used for
precast elements 63
8. Formworks for precast elements 84
9. Preparation and transport of concretes in precast units 87
10. Cutting, bending and fixing reinforcements in precast elements 93
11. Reinforcement prestressing into precast elements 101
12. Casting, compacting and finishing of concrete into precast elements 109
13. Treatment and protection after casting of concrete, hardened at the environment
temperature 110
14. Additional requirements for concretes whose setting/ hardening is thermally
accelerated 111
15. Regulations concerning precast element striking and for transfer of pre-compression
forces when building the pre-compressed concrete elements, finished product
transport 124
16. Precast element protection in the interval removal of shuttering-delivery 126
17. Regulation concerning quality control within precasting units as well as precast
element reception on the site 127

Appendixes
Appendix 4.1 135
Appendix 5.1 138
Appendix 7.1 143
Appendix 7.2 154
Appendix 7.3 156
Appendix 7.4; 7.5; 7.6; 7.7 158
Appendix 9.1 160
Appendix 9.2 164
Appendix 17.1 165

1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

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1.1. Provisions of the current Practice Code apply to execution of precast elements of
concrete, reinforced concrete and precompressed concrete, used for building houses,
social-cultural, industrial, agricultural and zoo-technical, public utility and administration
constructions, road constructions etc.
The final revision of the code comprises requirements that must be observed by
component materials (cement, aggregates, additions, admixtures, preparation water),
fresh concrete, formworks for precast elements, reinforcements and reinforcement of
elements of reinforced, precompressed or post-compressed concrete, laying and
compactation, finishing treatment of the concrete within the elements etc. The code
establishes criteria for observance of these requirements within the context of the control
system and of ensuring quality in compliance with the law.
1.2 Provisions of the practice code will be adopted and detailed via task books, technical
specifications or other technical regulations, produced by the designer, in the following
cases:
- precast concrete elements specific to road, rail, maritime and aerial
communication ways (roads, road networks, bridges, tunnels, aerodrome lanes,
harbor constructions and navigable channels), hydrotechnical constructions,
maritime platforms, nuclear power stations etc;
- other construction works with special resistance structures or requiring special
exploitation conditions. Construction or special structure characteristics are
established by the designer
- constructions designed based on other technical regulations than Romanian ones,
or constructions for which new products, equipments and procedures are going to
be used, which must be rendered agreeable in compliance with current norms;
- precast elements of various special concrete types (heavy concrete, polymerized
concrete, refractory concrete, very high performance concrete, decorative
concrete etc).
- special technological procedures such as concrete injection, vacuuming etc.
1.3. The task books elaborated for works mentioned at item 1.2 will comprise:
- requirements regarding concrete component materials, reinforcements and other
materials to be used;
- requirements concerning concrete composition and its properties in fresh and
hardened state;
- technological requirements (preparation, transport, casting, measures in
exceptional climatic conditions etc);
- stencil projects (formworks);
- concrete treatment rules (if necessary);
- resistance to striking, transfer, delivery etc.
- rules of control and conformity certification.
In these situations it is recommended that research and academic institutes,
laboratories and authorized specialists collaborate for design and execution of works.
1.4. In order to ensure durability of the elements, designer will analyze exposure
conditions and aggressiveness of the environment establishing the exposure class (es), as
per chapter 6 and imposed requirements concerning:
- concrete composition, concrete type and the maximum A/C ratio;

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- impermeability degree;
- gelidity degree;
- if necessary, type of additive and mineral admixtures etc.
1.5. Precasting units will establish the rules of execution and quality control of precast
elements, via specific technical procedures, in compliance with provisions of current
code, with STAS 6657/1 and with other current technical regulations.
1.6. Before a new type of precast element is produced, the producer is obliged to examine
the element design, notifying the designer of the possible miscalculations and execution
difficulties, as well as of the lack of a signature and stamp of the project reviewer (in the
cases where the stamp and signature are not present).
1.7. In case of execution of precast elements on exterior tracks, provisions of normative
C16-84 must be observed.
1.8. Precasting units will comply with specific work safety Norms for preparation,
transport, casting of concrete and execution of works of concrete, reinforced concrete or
precompressed concrete, approved by MMPS (The Ministry of Labor and Social
Protection) with Order no 136/1995, and the fire prevention norms.

2. THE MAIN TECHNICAL REGULATIONS IN THE FIELD

No Indicative Title of regulations Published in


crt
0 1 2 3
I. GENERAL REGULATIONS
2.1.1 STAS Calculation and building of elements of concrete,
10107-90 reinforced concrete and precompressed concrete
2.1.2 P100-92 Normative for anti-seismic design of house, social- The Construction Bulletin No
cultural, agricultural, zoo-technical, industrial 1-2/92
constructions
II. VARIOUS REGULATIONS IN CONSTRUCTIONS AND FOR PRECAST ELEMENTS
2.2.1 C160-75 Normative concerning building and execution of Construction Bulletin No 6/75
foundation piles
2.2.2 C149-87 Technical instructions for malfunction remedy Construction Bulletin 5/87
procedures for concrete and reinforced concrete
2.2.3 NP007-97 Design code from structures reinforced concrete frames Construction regulations
INCERC no 70/97
2.2.4 P85-97 Design code for structures and structural walls Construction Bulletin 10/96
2.2.5 C26-85 Normative- concrete tests via non-destructive methods Construction Bulletin 8/85 and
2/87
2.2.6 C54-81 Technical instructions for concrete testing via drill cores Construction Bulletin 2/82
2.2.7 NE 012- Practice code for execution of concrete, reinforced Construction Bulletin 9+10/99
99 concrete and precompressed concrete works, vol I and II
2.2.8 C 155-89 Normative on preparation and use of light concretes Construction Bulletin 2/91
2.2.9 C 122-89 Technical instructions for design and execution of Construction Bulletin 2/91
natural parament constructions
2.2.10 Coming Guide for establishing performance criteria and
soon composition of metallic fiber reinforced concrete
2.2.11 Coming Guide of use for concrete admixtures
soon
2.2.12 C 16-84 Normative for completing construction and installation Construction Bulletin 6/86
works on cold weather

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2.2.13 C 150- 84 Normative concerning welded joints of civil, industrial Construction Bulletin 7/84
and agricultural constructions
2.2.14 C156-189 Reference book for application of provisions of STAS Construction Bulletin 1/91
6657/3-89 Precast elements of concrete, reinforced
concrete and precompressed concrete. Procedures and
devices for verification of geometric characteristics
2.2.15 P59-86 Technical instructions for design and use of concrete Construction Bulletin 10/86
element reinforcement with steel wire
2.2.16 C130-78 Technical instructions for application of mortars and Construction Bulletin 8/79
concretes via injection
2.2.17 C28-83 Technical instructions for welding of steel concrete Construction Bulletin 7/83
reinforcements
2.2.18 C170-87 Technical instructions for protection of reinforced Construction Bulletin 7/88
concrete and overground reinforced concrete elements
2.2.19 C210-82 Technical norms for anti-corrosive protection of Construction Bulletin 7/82 and
reinforced concrete basins, for neutralization and 4/85
purification of industrial waters
III. STANDARDS
2.3.1 SR 388-95 Portland Cement
2.3.2 SR 1500-96 Usual cement composites types II; III; IV and V
2.3.3 SR 3011-96 Cement with limited hydration heat, resistant to aggressiveness of
waters containing sulphates
2.3.4 SREN 196/1-97 Cement test methods. Determining mechanical resistances
2.3.5 SREN 196/3-97 Cement test methods. Determining hardening time and stability
2.3.6 SREN 196/6-94 Cement test methods. Determining fineness
2.3.7 SREN 196/7-95 Cement test methods. Cement sample probing and preparation
methods.
2.3.8 SREN 196/4-95 Cement test methods. Quantitative determination of constituents
2.3.9 SREN 196/21-94 Cement test methods. Determination of chloride, carbon dioxide and
alkali content in cements
2.3.10 STAS 1667-76 Heavy natural aggregates, for concretes and mortars with mineral
binders
2.3.11 STAS 662-89 Road works. Natural ballast pit aggregates
2.3.12 STAS 667-2000 Natural aggregates and processed stone for road works. Technical
quality conditions
2.3.13 STAS 4606-80 Heavy natural aggregates for concrete and mortar with mineral
binders. Test methods
2.3.14 STAS 2386-79 Light mineral aggregates. General technical conditions for quality
2.3.15 STAS 7343-80 Light mineral aggregates. Granulite
2.3.16 STAS 790-84 Water for concrete and mortar
2.3.17 STAS 8625-90 Plasticizer additive for mixed concrete
2.3.18 STAS 12472-87 Super-plasticizier additive for concretes- VIMC 11
2.3.19 SR EN 10002/1- Metallic materials. Tensile test at the normal environment
95 temperature
2.3.20 EN 206 part I Concrete-Specifications, performance, production and conformity
2.3.21 STAS 3349/1-83 Cement concrete. Prescriptions for establishing water aggressiveness
degree
2.3.22 STAS 1759- 88 Concrete tests. Fresh concrete tests. Determination of apparent
density, manageability, fine aggregate content, and start of concrete
setting
2.3.23 STAS 5479-88 Concrete tests. Fresh concrete tests. Determination of entrapped air
content
2.3.24 STAS 2320-88 Concrete tests. Demountable metallic forms for test pieces
2.3.25 STAS 1275-88 Concrete tests. Tests on hardened concrete.

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2.3.26 STAS 2414-91 Concrete. Determining density, compactness, water absorption and
porosity of hardened concrete.
2.3.27 STAS 3519-76 Concrete tests. Verification of impermeability to water
2.3.28 ISO 7031 Determination of concrete impermeability
2.3.29 STAS 3518-89 Concrete laboratory tests. Determination of freeze-thaw resistance
2.3.30 STAS 5440-70 Cement concrete. Verification of alkali-aggregates reaction
2.3.31 STAS 2833-80 Concrete tests. Determining axial contraction of hardened concrete
2.3.32 STAS 5585-71 Concrete tests. Determining static elasticity modulus during
compression of concrete
2.3.33 STAS 6652/1-82 Non-destructive concrete tests. Classification and general indications
2.3.34 STAS 9602-90 Reference concrete. Prescriptions for production and tests.
2.3.35 STAS 183/1-95 Road works. Cement concrete pavements in fixed formworks.
Technical quality conditions
2.3.36 STAS 1799-88 Constructions of concrete, reinforced concrete and precompressed
concrete. Type and frequency of verification of material quality and
concrete quality for construction works.
2.3.37 ISO 9812 Concrete consistency. Method of laying
2.3.38 STAS 6605-78 Metal tests. Tensile tests for steel concrete, wire and wire products
for precompressed concrete
2.3.39 SR ISO 7438-92 Metallic materials. Bending test
2.3.40 SR ISO 7801-93 Metallic materials. Alternative bending test
2.3.41 STAS 438/-1-89 Hot-rolled steel concrete
2.3.42 STAS 438/-2-91 Round fashioned wire
2.3.43 STAS 438/-3-89 Welded nets
2.3.44 Coming soon Specification regarding reinforcement performance requirements and
criteria.
2.3.45 Coming soon Guide for use of Romanian cements produced in compliance with
European norms, and for establishing concrete composition
2.3.46 STAS 8831-69 Concrete precast items. Classification and terminology
2.3.47 Pr. EN 13.369 Common rules for concrete precast products
2.3.48 STAS 6657/1-89 Precast elements of concrete, reinforced concrete and precompressed
concrete. General technical quality conditions
2.3.49 STAS 6657/2-89 Precast elements of concrete, reinforced concrete and precompressed
concrete. Quality verification rules and methods
2.3.50 STAS 6657/3-89 Precast elements of concrete, reinforced concrete and precompressed
concrete. Procedures and devices for verification of geometrical
characteristics.
2.3.51 STAS 7721-90 Metallic forms for precast elements of concrete, reinforced concrete
and precompressed concrete. Technical quality conditions.

3. TERMINOLOGY AND NOTATIONS

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3.1. Concrete- a composite material obtained by homogenous mixture of cement, sand,
gravel and water, to which in technically motivated situations- additives and/or mineral
admixtures are added, whose properties are developed through hydration or hardening of
cement. Concretes prepared with aggregates under 0-7 (8) mm, with minimum
resistances corresponding to class C25/30, are also called micro-concretes.
3.2. Concrete reinforced with metallic fibers- BFM- composite material obtained by
mixing cement with mineral aggregates, metallic fibers, additives, mineral admixtures
and waters, in pre-established proportions, whose properties are developed by hydration
and hardening of cement and by the interaction between metallic fibers and the concrete
matrix. BFM with aggregates 0-1; 0-3; 0-5; 0-7 (8) mm etc, with minimum resistance
corresponding classes C25/30 are also called reinforced micro-concretes with metallic
fibers- MBFM
3.3. Fresh concrete- The state of the concrete from the moment of mixture of the
components until the moment when cement begins to harden. During this interval the
concrete is subjected to plastic deformation and it can be compacted via specific methods.
3.4. Hardened concrete- composite material comprising gravel and matrix (made of
cement and fine aggregates) with a conglomerate structure, properties of artificial stone,
characterized by evolutive mechanical resistance.
3.5. Normal density concrete- the concrete whose volume mass (after drying process in
the oven at 105C) has the density> 2,000 kg/ m 3 .
3.6. Heavy concrete- The concrete whose density after drying is >2,600 kg/ m 3 .
3.7. Light concrete- The concrete whose density after drying is > 800 and 2000 kg/ m
3
.
3.8. High resistance concrete- HRC- the concrete with normal density or the heavy
concrete, which belongs to a compression resistance class equal or superior to C50/60
and the light concrete belonging to a compression resistance equal or superior to C45/55.
In the cases when, for high resistance concrete, other performances are also guaranteed-
for example a minimal impermeability degree P8, a minimal gelidity degree G100 etc-
the concrete is called high performance concrete- HIC.
3.9. Concrete mixture- the quantity of concrete freshly produced during a single cycle,
by a discontinuous mixer, or the quantity of concrete unloaded as a continuous mixture
during one minute.
3.10. Concrete transport- the quantity of fresh concrete transported with a vehicle,
containing one or more mixtures.
3.11. Designed concrete mixture- the concrete for which the beneficiary specifies the
necessary component materials; the producer has the responsibility to provide a concrete
that meets all performance requirements as well as possible additional characteristics.
3.12. Prescribed composition concrete mixture- the concrete for which the beneficiary
specifies component materials and components of the mixture; the producer has the
responsibility to provide concrete with the prescribed composition, but is not responsible
for the performances of the respective concrete.

3.13. Cement (hydraulic binder)- overground mineral material, which binds and
hardens after mixture with water, through chemical reactions during the hydration

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process; after hardening the material also preserves its resistance and stability under
water.
3.14. Mineral aggregates- granular materials compatible with use in preparation of
concrete. Aggregates can be natural (ballast pit or crushing aggregates), artificial or
recycled, obtained by processing materials previously used in constructions.
3.15. Fine correction sand- fine pure quartz material used for granularity completion for
aggregates of sorts 0.2-0.3 mm
3.16. Additives- products (solution or powder) compatible with cement, which are added
into the concrete during preparation, in a proportion of maximum 5% dry substance out
of the cement dosage, in order to influence cement structure formation and to improve
some properties of the material both in the fresh and in the hardened state.
3.17. Mineral admixtures- fine or very fine materials used for preparation of concretes,
in a proportion > 5% of cement dosage, meant to improve some cement properties.
Mineral admixtures are classified as admixtures of Type I (practically inert) and
admixtures of type II, which have a pozzolanic or latent hydraulic character.
3.18. Cementing material- CM- the mixture resulted during preparation of concrete
from cement and a type II mineral admixture.
3.19. Total water quantity from concrete mixture- A- comprises the water added
during preparation, the water resulting from aggregate and additive solution humidity,
and possibly the water resulted from admixture humidity or from the ice used in concrete
preparation.
3.20. Water/Cement Ratio- W/C- the mass ratio between the preparation water and the
considered cement dosage.
3.21. Fresh concrete manageability- represents the concrete property to maintain its
homogeneity for a sufficient time after preparation and to ensure filling of the forms and
inclusion of passive and active reinforcements. Manageability is appreciated based on
concrete consistency, determined via the methods of settlement, spreading, compactness
degree, VE-BE remodeling etc.
3.22. Entrapped air- represents the volume of air accidentally included in the concrete
during preparation.
3.23. Entrained air- represents microscopic air bubbles intentionally incorporated into
the concrete during mixing, by use of air drivers (regularly surface-active). The air
bubbles are practically spherical and generally have a diameter of 10-300 m.
3.24. Metallic fibers FM for concrete dispersed reinforcement- materials obtained via
various metallurgical industry procedures. One of the regularly used procedures for
obtaining metallic fibers is processing on special machines of hard carbon steel wires.
3.25. Reinforcement- the reinforcement from reinforced concrete elements, consisting of
bars, welded nets, carcasses etc, not subjected to pre-tensioning or post-tensioning.
3.26. Active reinforcement (precompressed reinforcement)- formed of cables, bars,
wires etc, subjected to precompression via pre-tensioning or post-tensioning.
3.27. Precompression- action by which initial strains and deformations are introduced
into a construction elements.
3.28. Pre-tensioning- action by which tensile stress is introduced into the high-resistance
reinforcement.
3.29. Pretensioned reinforcement- high resistance reinforcement with the help of which
precompression is performed. There are two types of pretentioned reinforcements:

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- Pre-tensile
- post-tensile.
3.30. Pre-tensile reinforcement- reinforcement that is pretensioned and fixed with
blockages before the element is cast, between fixed points, on spans (at stands) or on
fixed forms, capable of absorbing the strain within the pretensioned reinforcement, until
transfer; the pre-tensile reinforcement is included into the cast concrete, which once
hardened ensures cooperation with reinforcement, by adherence to the reinforcement. The
transfer is performed after concrete reaches its prescribed resistance, by freeing the
reinforcements from the blockages, slowly or abruptly (via cutting). Precompression is
performed by entraining the concrete in the tendency of elastic shortening of adherent
reinforcements.
3.31. Post-tensile reinforcement- the reinforcement that is pretensioned after laying and
hardening of the element; the post-tensile reinforcement is placed either in channels
inside the section of the element, or at the exterior of the element. The post-tensile
reinforcement is pretensioned with special devices lean directly against the element, so
that transfer is simultaneous with pretensioning. This category also includes elements and
constructions for which precompression is performed through whipping of the
reinforcement, under tension, on the hardened concrete (tubes, reservoirs etc).
3.32. Blockage - operation taking place at the end of the pretensioning process, by which
the pre-tensile reinforcement is fixed with locks on the spans or on a mechanical carrier
form, while the post-tensile reinforcement is fixed with anchorages on the elements.
3.33. Passive non-pretensioned reinforcement- non-pretensioned reinforcement that
mainly has a constructive role, in precompressed concrete elements.
3.34. Complementary non-pretensioned reinforcement- reinforcement of type PC 52
or PC 60, placed on the same direction as the pretensioned reinforcement together with
which it participates in reaching the capable load necessary for the limit resistance state;
the complementary non-pretensioned reinforcement also plays an essential part in
observing all verification conditions for fissuring and deformation.
3.35. Precompression strain, N 0 , N p - the compression load taken over by the
concrete and by the non-pretensioned reinforcement after transfer, representing the effect
of precompression in the section of the element.
3.36. Pretensioning force, N k - the force exercised on the reinforcement by
pretensioning machines and devices.
3.37. Transfer- transmission of the pretensioning force to the concrete and to the non-
pretensioned reinforcement of the element.
3.38. Anchorage of pretensioned reinforcement through adherence- anchorage used
for precompressed concrete elements with pre-tensile reinforcement, performed by
adherence of the pretensioned reinforcement to the concrete, on transmission length l t .
3.39. Anchorage or pretensioned reinforcement with braces- anchorage used for
elements with post-tensile reinforcement built with special locking pieces at the
extremities of the pretensioned reinforcement, which can either be metallic or made of
reinforced concrete, incorporated into the concrete mass or placed at the surface of the
concrete.
3.40. Initial phase- the stage considered immediately after the transfer.
3.41. Final phase- the stage considered after all tension losses in the pretensioned
reinforcement have taken place.

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3.42. Stressed area- area from the section of a precompressed concrete element where,
as per the considered calculation hypothesis, unitary compression tensions occur.
3.43. Compressed area- area from the section of a precompressed concrete element
where, as per the considered calculation hypothesis, unitary compression tensions occur.
3.44. Transmission length l t - length corresponding to the part of the transfer area
where the pretensioning force is transmitted progressively to the concrete, through
adherence. The transmission length only refers to the portion where the connection
between the pretentioned reinforcement and concrete is made in the stages of elastic and
elasto-plastic work.
3.45. Transfer area- The area stretching from the extremity of the element up to the
section where the pretensioning force left in the reinforcement is taken over, in its
entirety, by the concrete, and where the specific strains or the pretensioned reinforcement
and of the concrete become equal.
3.46. Anchorage length l a - the minimum length necessary so that the reinforcement
incorporated into the concrete can reach resistance (breaking) capacity, or a given force,
without being ripped.
3.47. Post-tensile reinforcement channel- a channel made of a reinforced concrete
element, where post-tensile reinforcements are introduced. The channels can be:
- lined (the pipe/shell forming the channel permanently remains incorporated in the
concrete);
- not lined (the shell is taken out and the channel remains with the concrete surface.
3.48. Precompression procedure- a procedure used in order to reach the precompression
strain with pre-tensile or post-tensile reinforcements.
3.49. Injection- operation of pressurized introduction of a mixture (regularly cement
paste) into channels where the post-tensile reinforcement is exerted, with the purpose of
achieving adherence of the reinforcement as well as protecting it against corrosion.
3.50. Characteristic resistance- Maximum 5% of the test results for the considered
concrete volume (see Appendix 7.1) can be lower than the value of the characteristic
resistance.
3.51. Potential resistance- Concrete compression resistance obtained on cubic or
cylindrical test pieces, produced and preserved in standardized conditions.
3.52. Concrete indirect structural resistance- the resistance to compression on cubic or
cylindrical test pieces, produced and preserved under factory conditions, or on precast
polygons, in conditions as close to the considered structure elements as possible.
3.53. Direct structural resistance- the concrete compression resistance obtained by drill
coring or on parallelepiped test pieces processed from the considered resistance element.
3.54.Concrete class- defined for light concrete, normal density concrete and heavy
concrete, based on the characteristic resistance to compression in N/mm 2 , determined on
cylindrical test pieces with H/d= 300/150 mm, or cubical, with l= 150 mm, at the age of
28 days. Concrete class is noted with C, followed by the value of the characteristic
resistance determined on cylinder/ value of resistance determined on cubes, ex. C16/20
C100/115.

3.55. Actions of the surrounding environment- represents physical, chemical and


biological actions to which concrete is subjected during exploitation.

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3.56. Exposure classes- represent the action(s) of the surrounding environment on
concrete elements and works, grouped on certain criteria, such as:
corrosion caused by carbonation
corrosion caused by attack of chlorides of other origin than sea origin
corrosion caused by attack of sea chlorides
corrosion caused by an aggressive chemical environment
Freeze-thaw action
3.57. Concrete carbonation- Process caused by the reaction of various components of
the cement stone in the concrete, mainly of Ca(OH) 2 with atmosphere carbon dioxide
(CO 2 ), which turns into calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), resulting into a reduction of
concrete pH value, starting from the surface of the elements, de-passivating the
reinforcement cover layer and favoring the process of reinforcement corrosion under
certain conditions.
3.58. Corrosion- the physical-chemical interaction between concrete/ reinforced concrete
and the surrounding environment, which results in negative modification of concrete/
reinforced concrete properties, its degradation and degradation of the surrounding
environment.
3.59. Concrete producer- legal or physical person who produces fresh concrete.
3.60. Precasting units- sections, workshops or testing grounds which have the equipment
and the specialized staff necessary for production of precast elements.
3.61. Precast element- a concrete, reinforced concrete or precompressed concrete
element, produced according to a design or to a norm, prepared and hardened in a
different location that the location of its use.
3.62. Complex element- a structure precast element completed with concrete at the place
of installation.
3.63. Concrete reinforcement cover- the concrete layer placed between the surface of
the element and the steel reinforcement.
3.64. Reinforcement cover according to element design- the value of the cover
indicated by the design, designating the free distance between the reinforcement and
element surface.
3.65. Real reinforcement cover- the size of the cover layer measured on finite products.
3.66. Main element sizes- length, width, height and thickness.
3.67. Production tolerances- the admissible error of thickness, length, width, flatness
and other characteristics of precast elements.

4. MATERIALS USED TO PREPARE CONCRETES FOR PRECAST


ELEMENTS

4.1. Cements
4.1.1. Cements used for concrete preparation in order to produce precast elements, must
meet requirements of national product standards or of professional standards, concerning
resistance classes and physical-chemical characteristics, as per tables 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3.

Table 4.1. Cement resistance classes as per SR 388-95, 1500-96 and 3010-96

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Resistance Resistance to compression
class Initial resistance after 2 days 7 days 28 days
32.5 - 16 32.552.5
32.5 R 10 - 32.552.5
42.5 10 - 42.562.5
42.5 R 10 - 42.562.5
52.5 10 - 52.5
52.5 R 10 - 52.5

Table 4.2. Cement physical characteristics


Resistance class Hardening time Volume constant
Start- minutes End- hours (expansion) mm
32.5; 32.5 R 60 <10 10
42.5; 42.5 R
52.5: 52.5 R 45 <10 10

Table 4.3. Chemical characteristics or usual cements (Appendix 4.1)


Characteristic Cement type Resistance class Limits %
Calcination losses I; III A 32.5; 42.5; 52.5 5.0
Insoluble residue I; III A 32.5; 42.5; 52.5 5.0
Sulphate content I; II; IV/A 32.5; 42.5; 52.5 3.5
(SO 3 ) V/A 32.5; 42.5; 52.5 3.5
I 42.5, 52.5 4.0
Other types 42.5; 52.5 4.0
Chloride content All types 32.5; 42.5; 52.5 0.1
Pozzolanicity IV/ A 32.5; 42.5; 52.5 Must satisfy
puzzolanicity test
Note: For ensuring durability of precast elements, in order to perform analyses, through
delivery contracts, cement factories are also required to register the following data in the
cement analysis bulletin:
- for delivered type I cements, the C 3 A and cement alkali content (Na 2 O, K 2 O)
- for delivered type II cements, the alkali content (Na 2 O, K 2 O);

4.1.2 Cements produced based on SR national standards 388-96, SR 1500-96 and SR


3011-96, are differentiated into the following types, depending on the percentage of
clinker and of mineral admixtures used in production (during grinding):
Type I Portland cements, obtained by grinding of Portland
cement clinker in a 95-100% proportion, minor components in a 5% proportion, with the
exception of additives and of sodium sulphate necessary for regulation of hardening time;
Composite Portland Cements (with mineral admixtures
during grinding) types II-V, whose composition in mass percents is presented in appendix
4.1. Each cement type with admixtures during grinding is produced in more composition
versions, differentiated through clinker, admixture percentage and through type of
admixtures used, appendix 4.1. Example:

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- Type II/A-S cements contain 6-20% basic granular slag; type II/ A-D contains 6-
10% SUF (?); type II/ A-P contains 6-20% proof (?); cement II/ A-V contains 6-
20% volant ash; cement II / A-M contains 6-20% slag mixture, natural pozzolana,
volant ash, calcinated schist/ shale/ slate etc.
- Type II/ B-S cement contains 21-35% basic-granulated slag etc,.

4.1.3. Cements of interest for the field of precast element of reinforced concrete
(including dispersed reinforced concrete) and precompressed concrete are conventionally
classified according to hardening speed and resistance, as follows:
Cements with minimum resistance and slow hardening
speed (L) types I 32.5; II A-S 32.5; II/ A-V 32.5; SRI 32.5; SRII/ A-S 32.5; HI/ 32.5
and HII 32.5 R;
Cements with minimum resistance and normal hardening
speeds (N), types I 32.5 R and II/ A-S 32.5 R
Cements with average resistance and normal hardening
speed (N), types I 42.5; SRI 42.5; HI 42.5; SRII/ A-S 42.5; HII/ A-S 42.5
Cements with average resistance and high hardening speed
(R), types I 42.5 R; II/ A-S 42.5
Cements with superior resistance and normal hardening
speed (N), types I 52.5; SRI 52.5; HI 52.5
Cements with superior resistance and high hardening speed,
type I 52.5 R
Notes: Cements of types BS 12, BS 4027, products by some factories, with similar
characteristics to type I or type SRI cements, are used depending on the resistance
class of the cement with the normal hardening speed.

4.1.4. In the design stage of the concrete elements and compositions necessary in precast
element production, selection of the cement type will be made considering the following:
Concrete class
Production cycle type and massiveness of the elements
Resistances necessary for striking, transfer of precompression forces, delivery,
etc.
Method of concrete hardening (with/ without thermal treatment) and temperature
of the working environment.
Execution conditions of the elements and the technology to be applied (including
treatment up to striking/ transfer up to delivery)
Element exposure conditions in works and structures (chapter 6)
4.1.5. Table 4.1.4. indicates cements that may be used in the composition of concretes for
precast elements of simple concrete, reinforced concrete, disperse reinforced concrete and
precompressed concrete. Table 4.5 indicates cements that can be used in composition of
concretes, which come into contact with various chemically aggressive substances. Other
types of cements will be used within composition of concretes for precast elements, with
approval from a specialized institute.

13
Table 4.4.- Cements to be used in composition of concretes, for production of precast
elements
No Concrete type Concrete class Concretes
Crt Recommended Usable
1 Simple (light) UC8/9- II/B-S 32.5; II/B-V 32.5; II/A-S 32.5; II/A-V 32.5;
UC16/18 II/B-M 32.5 II/A-M 32.5
2 Simple C16/20- I 32.5; I 32.5 R; SRI 32.5; II/A-S 32.5; HII/A-S 32.5;
C25/30 II/A-S R 32.5; HI 32.5 SRII/A-S 32.5; II/A-V
UC20/22- 32.5; II/A-M 32.5
UC25/28
3 Reinforced C16/20- I 32.5; I 32.5 R; SRI 32.5; II/A-S 32.5; II/A-M 32.5;
C25/30 II/A-S 32.5 R; HI 32.5 SRII/A-S 32.5; II/A-V 32.5
UC20/22-
UC25/28
4 Reinforced C25/30- I 42.5 R; II/A-S 42.5 R I 42.5; II/A-S 42.5; SRI
C50/60 42.5; HI 42.5; SRII/ A-S
UC30/33- 42.5, HII/A-S 42.5
UC50/55
5 Reinforced C55/67- I 52.5 R; I 52.5; HI 52.5; SRI I 42.5 R; I 42.5; HI 42.5;
C70/85 52.5 SRI 42.5
UC55/60-
UC70/77
6 Reinforced C80/95- I 52.5 R; I 52.5; SRI 52.5 HI 52.5
100/115
UC 80/88
7 Precompressed C30/37- I 42.5 R; I 42.5 SRI 42.5; HI 42.5
C50/60
8 Precompressed C55/67- 70/85 I 52.5 R; I 52.5; SRI 52.5; HI I 42.5 R; I 42.5; SRI 42.5;
52.5 HI 42.5
9 Precompressed C80/95- I 52.5 R; I 52.5; SRI 52.5 HI 52.5
100/115

4.1.6. For certain precast elements necessary for works that imply special execution
and/or exploitation conditions, cement type selection will be made during design, based
on precise specifications, or with the assistance with a specialized laboratory.
4.1.7 Cement is delivered packaged in paper sacks or in wrack Cement transport is made
on special conditions, so that cement properties are preserved during transport, in road
vehicles or Uces-type rail wagons, with pneumatic discharge.
4.1.8. Cement storage at precast element production units is made after the qualitative
and quantitative reception and after verification of the quality certification documents,
which must guarantee that product has all characteristics provisioned in the product
standard and meets all provisions of the contract between user and supplier. As per SREN
196-7, for verification of conformity of a delivery (a lot) of cement, with provisions of
product standards and requirements of the contract of order, collection of cement samples
must be performed in the presence of the producer (seller) and the user; usually sample
collection occurs before or during delivery. Nevertheless, if necessary, collection of
samples can also be performed after delivery, but not later than 24 hours.
4.1.9. Storage of cement packaged in sacks at precast element production units is made in
dry, ventilated closed rooms, in sack piles maximum 1.5 m in height, on wooden pallets

14
at least 15 cm from the floor, placed at least 60 cm away one from the other and from the
walls, in order to allow circulation. Each sack pile must be clearly labeled with cement
type and date of arrival.
4.1.10. Storage of cement provided in wrack is made in silo cells in a good state of
operation, after verification of free storage capacity and after silo has been cleaned,
prepared and clearly labeled, for the respective cement type. On the entire period the silos
are used daily records will be kept for arrivals and deliveries of every cement type and
assortment.
Cement storage duration will not exceed the 30-day duration of use guaranteed by
producer. The cement remaining in the storehouse after expiration of guarantee interval
will be used in concrete and reinforced concrete works only after verification of
preservation state and of physical-mechanical characteristics.
4.1.11. Use of supplied cements is made in the order of arrival of lots and within 30 days
after date of production.
4.1.12. Cement quality control is performed:
at supply department- through verification of quality certificate issued by
producer, and in case of any doubts, through tests in an authorized laboratory
in all cases when the terms of use are exceeded, through tests in an authorized
laboratory
cement quality control is performed as per provisions of Appendix 7.1.

Table 4.5- Cements recommended for use in concrete composition for precast
elements of concrete and reinforced concrete, which come into contact with
aggressive natural waters.
No Nature of aggressiveness Degree of Recommended cements Usable cements
crt aggressiveness Simple concrete Reinforced concrete Simple concrete Reinforced concrete
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1 Aggressiveness of Weak II/A-S 32.5 II/A-S 32.5 I32.5; HI32.5; I32.5; HI32.5; HII/A-
de-alkalization II/A-S 32.5 R II/A-S 32.5 R HII/A-S32.5; S32.5; I42.5; HI42.5;
II/A-S 42.5 II/A-S 42.5 I42.5; HI42.5; HIOI/A-S 42.5
HIOI/A-S 42.5
2 Carbon aggressiveness Weak II/A-S 32.5 II/A-S 32.5 I32.5; HI32.5; I32.5; I42.5; HI32.5;
II/A-S 42.5 II/A-S 32.5R HII/A-S32.5; HI42.5; HII/A-S42.5
II/A-S 42.5 HII/A-S42.5
II/A-S 42.5R
Intense or very I32.5; I42.5 I32.5; I42.5; I42.5R HI32.5; HI42.5; HI32.5; HI42.5;
intense SRI32.5; SRI32.5; SRI42.5
SRI42.5
3 Sulphate aggressiveness Very weak, weak II/A-S32.5 II/A-S32.5 HII/A-S32.5 HII/A-S32.5
II/A-S42.5 II/A-S42.5 HII/A-S42.5 HII/A-S42.5
Intense or very SRII/A-S32.5 SRI32.5 HII/A-S32.5 HI32.5; HI42.5
intense (all types) SRII/A-S42.5 SRI42.5 HII/A-S42.5
SRII/A-S42.5
4 Magnesium aggressiveness Weak HII/A-S32.5 HII/A-S32.5 HII/A-S32.5; II/A-S32.5R;
HII/A-S42.5 HII/A-S42.5 II/A-S42.5; II/A-S42.5R;
II/A-S32.5R; SRI32.5;
II/A-S42.5R SRII/A-S32.5
Intense or very SRII/A-S32.5 SRII/A-S32.5 II/A-S32.5-5; II/A-S32.5; II/A-
intense SRII/A-S42.5 SRII/A-S42.5 II/A-S42.5 S42.5; HII/A-S32.5;
HII/A-S42.5; HI32.5;
HI42.5; SRI32.5
5 Aggressiveness of Weak HII/A-S32.5 HII/A-S32.5 II/A-S32.5 II/A-S32.5; II/A-
ammonium salts HII/A-S42.5 HII/A-S42.5 II/A-S42.5 S42.5; SRII/A-S32.5;
SRII/A-S42.5

15
Intense or very SRII/A-S32.5 SRII/A-S32.5 HII/A-S32.5 SRI32.5; SRI42.5;
intense SRII/A-S42.5 SRII/A-S42.5 HII/A-S42.5 HII/A-S42.5

6 Aggressiveness of basic Weak HII/A-S32.5 HI32.5; HI42.5 II/A-S.32.5 HII/A-S32.5; HII/A-S


substances HII/A-S42.5 II/A-S42.5 42.5; II/A-S42.5; SRI
32.5; SRI42.5
Intense SRII/A-S32.5 SRII/A-S32.5 HII/A-S32.5 HI32.5; HI42.5;
SRII/A-S42.5 SRII/A-S42.5 HII/A-S42.5 HII/A-S32.5; HII/A-
S42.5

4.2 Aggregates
4.2.1. During concrete processing for precast elements, heavy, sorted and washed
aggregates are used, obtained by natural or artificial crushing of rocks, which must meet
technical conditions regulated by current standards and norms, as follows:
natural ballast pit aggregates, sorted into sorts 0-3, 3-7, 7-16, 16-31 mm or 0-5, 5-
10, 10-20 mm, under technical conditions as per STAS 1667-76;
quarry aggregates, obtained by crushing hard rocks, cribbage, sorted and washed
into sorts 3-8, 8-16, 16-25 mm, under technical conditions as per STAS 667-90;
fine quartz sand 0-0.3 mm, used for correction of fine aggregate sort granularity,
must have a content of SiO 2 92%, and levigation/ eluviation part content of less
than 0.3%, as per current mining specifications.
4.2.2. Aggregates must be obtained from homogenous rocks, with no traces of physical,
chemical or volcanic dismemberment; they must not contain pyrite, limonite, soluble
salts or other impurities. Aggregates containing crystalline or amorphous silica and
aggregates originating from reactive carbon rocks- must not be used, because these rocks
can react with the alkalis in the cement.
4.2.3. Aggregate impurity content must not exceed limits indicated in STAS 1667-76 or
STAS 662/89 if necessary.
Aggregates used in the composition of high resistance concretes, classes C50/60 must
have a content of levigation parts of maximum 0.50%.
4.2.4. Aggregate sorts with Dmin7 (8) mm must be characterized by the following
average ratio values: b/a0.66
c/a0.33
The content of flat and acicular grains <25%.
4.2.5 Aggregates must be obtained from sources periodically homologated and checked,
as per current regulations (STAS 1667-76).
4.2.6. During transport from supplier and storage at the precast element production units,
aggregates must be kept away from any impurities with the help of other materials, and
they will be stored on concrete platforms, divided intro compartments, so that aggregates
do not mix with or cause impurity to the sorts.
4.2.7. Maximum size of heavy natural aggregates used to prepare concrete of classes
C16/20C45/55 will be established according to item 7.12.1. The maximum size of
aggregates used in composition of high performance concretes of class 50/60 will not
exceed 16/20 mm.
4.2.8. Light natural or artificial aggregates used to prepare concretes or to build various
types of precast elements, must meet conditions stipulated in STAS 2386/79; 7343-80 and
in Normative C155-89.

16
4.2.9. Aggregates quality control is performed on arrival, based on the legal quality
certificate issued by the producer and, in case of any doubt, via laboratory analyses and
tests, as per STAS4606/80. Aggregate quality control is performed as per provisions in
Appendix 1.
4.3. Additives
4.3.1. For preparation of concrete for precast elements, the following groups of additives
will be used, in order to improve concrete properties in both the fresh and the hardened
state:
water reducer and super-reducers
mixed additives with plasticizing and air entrapping effect
additives based on precipitated amorphous silica
air entrappers
chloride-free gluing and hardening accelerators
In various situations, depending on the requirements, the following additives and
admixtures may also be used:
corrosion inhibitors
mass and surface hydrophobic/ moisture-repellent additives
colorants
4.3.2. Additives are used to prepare concretes in reduced quantities, generally 0.15-1%
(in rare cases additive proportion may reach 2%) dry substance in relation to the cement
dosage. Additives delivered in various mineral powder mixtures can be used in concrete
preparation in a maximum proportion of 5% of powder in relation to cement dosage.
Colorants can be used in a proportion of 2-8% or cement dosage, based on previous tests.
4.3.3. Additives used for concrete preparation must be compatible with the cement and
must meet all provisions of current technical regulation and of valid Technical
Agreements. Use of additives that contain chlorides or other substances possibly
damaging to concrete and reinforcement properties is forbidden during concrete
preparation for precast elements of reinforced concrete, disperse reinforced concrete and
precompressed concrete.
4.3.4. Use of additives for concrete preparation usually envisages the following main
objectives:
improving concrete manageability for reduced A/C ratios, or for equal A/C
ratios, in relation to the witness- in case of A/C ratios prescribed for use of
water reducers and super-reducers.
Obtaining the prescribed content of entrapped air, improvement within certain
limits of concrete manageability, increase of the impermeability degree and of
freeze-thaw resistance in case mixed additives or air entrappers are used.
Reduction of the A/C ratio for an equal manageability or fresh concrete- an
operation that offers the following advantages:
- increase of initial and final resistance values and increase of the degree of
impermeability and gelidity for an equal cement dosage.
- Limited increase of resistance and improvement within certain limits of the
manageability of fresh concrete in intermediary stages of water reducer and super-
reducer use.

17
Acceleration of the development speed of hydration and hydrolysis concrete
reactions, acceleration of gluing time, high initial resistances etc, in the case of
chloride-free gluing accelerators and hardening accelerators.
4.3.5. Use of additives in technology of concretes used for precast elements implies a
certain volume or engineering knowledge, a sufficient volume of preliminary tests and
thorough training of technical and production staff, in order to obtain the maximum
technical and economical efficiency, in a particular production situation from the precast
element production unit. This is because results obtained by use of additives can be
positively or negatively influenced by factors connected to composition of raw materials
used to prepare concretes, as well as by technological factors, such as:
Cement type and chemical-mineral composition of the cement. A high C 3 A 1
content, alkalis, as well as the proportion and form of calcium sulphate in the
cement, can reduce or, in extreme cases, even cancel the favorable effects of the
use of various super-plasticizers.
Type and percent of mineral admixtures used for grinding the cement with
admixtures may have a favorable or unfavorable influence, depending on the
type of additives used
Type and percent of mineral admixtures (ash, ultra-fine silica, chalk filler) used
as an admixture for concrete preparation- may also influence effectiveness of use
of certain additive types
Type, product group and structure of the used additive structure- differently
influence properties of concretes prepared with a particular type of cement
Fine aggregate granularity can particularly influence effectiveness of various
additives as well as the properties of fresh and hardened concrete
Training of laboratory and production staff sometimes essentially influences
effective use of additives etc.
4.3.6. Effects of additive use in concretes
a) Water reducers and super-reducers are characterized through main functions and
they mainly belong to the following product groups and subgroups:
Plasticizer additives, based on calcium, ammonium or sodium ligno-
sulphonates, used for 40-50 years in concrete preparation, form micro-gel
spheres that cover each cement grain at the moment of dispersion of
preparation water, ensuring better cement grain dispersion as well as
increased manageability, or a decrease in preparation water quantity by 5-
10 % for an equal concrete manageability. If lingo-sulphonates are used in
large quantities for concrete preparation, entirely undesired effects may
occur, such as prolongation of gluing time over allowed limits, reduction
of resistances because of a high percent of entrapped air etc; erroneous use
of such additives may even completely compromise the respective works.
Super-plasticizers based on Melanin-Formaldehyde-Sulphonate MFS and
Naphthalene-Formaldehyde-Sulphonate NFS, represent two product
families used frequently, also called water super-reducers or fluidizers,
characterized by the linear ribbon shape of super-plasticizer molecules,
which allows them to provide complete wetting for cement grains,
surrounding these grains with a lubricating film (layer); it also allows
significant improvement in manageability, as well as the possibility to

18
reduce quantity of preparation water, for an equal concrete manageability
with 12-30%, depending mainly on the cement type, percent and type of
additive, preparation technology etc. In cases when super-plasticizers are
used in high dosages, the wetting effect may in some measure delay of
cement grain hydration, prolonging gluing time, as well as the so-called
period of concrete sleep, irrespective of cement or super-plasticizer
(MFS or NFS) type.
Super-plasticizers based on acrylic polymers- PA, represent 4 families of
products (discovered in recent years, less studied in comparison with the
first two families), in whose case the cement grain dispersion mechanism
is attributed to the effect of steric hindrance (due to the lateral neuter
catena, ribbon-shaped and to the presence of the negatively charged
carboxylic group in the structure of the additive). PA additives also ensure
reduction of preparation water quantity by 12-32%, depending on factors
mentioned for MFS and NFS
Use of a super-plasticizer in concrete preparation with equal manageability
and cement dosage is considered effective in situations when increases of
the concrete initial resistance (after 24 h) are 2.5% and increases in
resistance after 28 days are 1.5% of the witness concrete resistance, for
each percent of reduced preparation water.
There also are other families of additives and products recommended as
water reducers or super-reducers, or products resulted from combination
of the above-mentioned (ex. NFS and ligno-sulphonates, MFS and ligno-
sulphonates), whose effects of use are more or less different than those
already presented, which implies the necessity of a certain volume of
cement-additive compatibility tests as well as preliminary tests on the
concrete prepared with the cement and with the additive selected during
compatibility tests, under the existent technological conditions at the
precast element production unit.
b) Mixed and air entrapping additives mainly represent classic products based on
ligno-sulphonates (bone clay, conifer resin etc), some products based on NFS,
which ensure both a quantity reduction of the preparation water and a certain
percentage of entrained air (microscopic bubbles) within the concrete, designed as
a concrete resistant to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Apart from the already
mentioned side effect of the groups of additives they belong to, use of these
additives in large quantities can cause significant reduction of concrete resistance
because of the high percentage of entrapped air within concrete structure during
preparation.
c) Additives based on precipitated amorphous silica also represent a more recent
product family. These additives are presented in the form of stable suspensions of
precipitated amorphous silica in water, which improve properties of fresh concrete
through an increase in manageability and structural homogeneity, water retention,
reduction of the segregation tendency, a certain acceleration of cement gluing due
to precocious reaction of amorphous silica nanoparticles with various cement
hydration products, as well as improvement of hardened concrete properties, via

19
reduction of macro-porosity and micro-pore interconnection, reduction of
permeability, increase of mechanical and freeze-thaw resistances.
d) Accelerator additives for gluing and hardening represent numerous products
groups, based on:
- calcium/ sodium/ aluminum chlorides, forbidden in the case of reinforced and
precompressed concrete;
- based on sodium and potassium, calcium nitrates and nitrites etc, which must be
carefully selected, because some of these additives contain forbidden substances
in the case of reinforced and precompressed concretes;
- based on calcium formates, trietanolamin etc, sometimes presented as products
with a super-plasticizing effect as well as chloride-free gluing and hardening
accelerators;
- based on precipitated amorphous silica in water solution, presented as chloride-
free, non-alkaline gluing accelerators.
All accelerators have the following main functions: acceleration of cement-water
reactions, reduction of gluing time and increase of concrete initial resistances. Some
accelerators can generate a rapid increase of the initial resistance, but they may cause a
more significant, 10-15% reduction of the 28-day resistance.
Selection of accelerator additives used in preparation of concrete for precast element
production is performed via compatibility and preliminary test, taking into account the
following:
- use of chloride-free additives and additives free or any other substances damaging
to reinforcements and to concrete.
- Acceleration of gluing time must comply with the rhythm of execution (a slow
execution pace may result in start of gluing of concrete with accelerators inside
the preparation, transport machines and in the forms, before finishing, with all
consequences derived from such situations);
- Increase of initial resistances (after 24 hours, hardening at temperature of
surrounding environment) and must represent minimum 25-40% in relation to the
witness concrete prepared without accelerators;
- 28-day resistance of concrete with gluing accelerators must represents minimum
90-95% of resistance of witness concrete, prepared in the same conditions.
4.3.7. During preparation of concretes with additives, the technical conditions for
component materials, preparation, transport, delivery, finishing and treatment of concrete
from the precast elements must be established in each separate case, depending on tests
results and on results of preliminary tests with the use of the additive type allowed.
4.3.8. In situations when the concrete to be prepared has characteristics that can
exclusively be obtained by the use of a certain type of additive, then the respective
additive must be mentioned in the design documentation of the respective elements,
together with precise demands such as A/C or A/MC ratio, resistance, impermeability and
gelidity degree etc.
4.3.9. Additive transport and storage must not modify their chemical and physical
characteristics, on the entire duration of the product guarantee. Example: additives in a
water solution must regularly be transported an stored in ventilated rooms, at
temperatures of 5-30C, powder additives must be kept away from humidity etc.

20
4.3.10. Additive quality control is performed in compliance with provisions of Appendix
7.1 and of the guide of additive use in concretes.

4.4. Mineral admixtures


4.4.1. Mineral admixtures represent fine cement-compatible materials, which can be
added during concrete preparation, in a percentage of over 5% of the cement dosage, in
order to improve various concrete features, such as manageability, impermeability
degrees, resistance to aggressive chemical actions etc. Mineral admixtures are classified
as follows:
inert admixtures, type I, used as a replacement for a part of the fine concrete
aggregate as well as for improvement of concrete manageability and
compactness;
active admixtures, type II, with various latent hydraulic properties. The
following active admixtures are used in preparation of concrete: high blast
furnace granulated baric, finely ground, various volant ashes (especially those
obtained by burning bituminous coal), ultra-fine silica- SUF etc.
4.4.2. Type II admixtures are taken into consideration for establishing cement dosages
and the A/C ratio, which, for concrete composition is noted as the A/MC ratio; The MC
term represents the cement plus the Type II admixture, also called cementing material.
Type II admixtures are only used, based on current Technical Agreements, in the
composition of concreted prepared with cements of types I, SRI and HI and in limited
proportions, depending on work exploitation conditions, as follows:
- SUF in a 7-12% proportion;
- Volant ash in a 8-15% proportion;
- Finely grazed granulated baric slag in proportion of 6-20% etc of the dosage of
cement for reinforced concretes.
For precompressed concrete elements, the only allowed mineral admixture is SUF.
4.4.3. The percent of admixtures used for simple concretes is limited only based on
technological considerations. Ex.: in case of light concretes used to produce small and
large masonry blocks, the percentage of slag can reach 60-70% of the total mass of the
light aggregate in the composition. (or up to 60-70% of MC mass ) etc.
4.4.4. Admixtures used in production of concretes must not contain any substances that
affect concrete properties, or that cause reinforcement corrosion. Moreover, use of volant
ash from a certain source must be approved by the specialized departments of the
Ministry of Health, apart from complying with conditions stipulated in STAS 8818-89.
4.4.5. Mineral admixture transport and storage are performed by taking the adequate
measures to prevent environmental pollution and modification of admixture physical-
chemical characteristics.
4.4.6. Quality control of mineral admixtures used for concrete preparation is performed
as stipulated in Appendix 7.1.

4.5. Preparation water


4.5.1. Water used in preparation of concrete is taken from the public water supply
network of settlements or from other sources (lakes, springs, wells etc). If taken from
other sources water must meet all technical requirements stipulated in STAS 790/84.

21
5. STEEL TYPES USED TO REINFORCE PRECAST ELEMENTS
Steel types used to reinforce precast elements made of reinforced or precompressed
concrete will be produced in compliance with the Technical specification concerning
requirements and performance criteria for steel products to be used as reinforcements in
concrete structures (ST 009/96) and with The practice code for execution of concrete,
reinforced concrete and precompressed concrete works (NE 012-99), no matter whether
they are produced in the country or they are imported.
Note: Resistance ductility and adherence classes, fields of use of reinforcement,
performance criteria for the main mechanical characteristics of reinforcements, taken
from ST 009/96 are presented in Appendix 7.1.
5.1. Reinforcement steels
5.1.1. Types of steels currently used for reinforced concrete elements (mechanical
delivery characteristics) are indicated in product standards STAS 438/1-89 for smooth
profile steels OB 37 and profiled steels PC 52, PC 60, and respectively STAS 438/2-94
and 438/3,/4-98 for wires and welded meshes for reinforced concrete.
5.1.2. For steel types currently used as pretensioned reinforcement in precompressed
concrete elements (bars, wires and wire products), delivery mechanical characteristics are
indicated in the series of standards STAS 6482 and EN 10138.
5.1.3. Fields of use of reinforcement types are stipulated that ST 009/96, STAS 10107/0-
90 or in other specific regulations.
Welded meshes made of smooth drawn wire SNTB or profiled wire STPB are used when
possible to reinforce surface elements, in compliance with STAS 10107/0-90. Execution
and use of welded meshes will comply with current technical regulations.
5.1.4. Other types of steel, including imported ones must be technically approved; field of
use must be clearly established for these types of steel.
5.1.5. For dispersed reinforcement, steel fiber reinforcements must comply with
requirements stipulated in The Guide for establishing performance and composition
criteria for concretes with dispersed metal fiber reinforcements.
5.1.6. Replacement of the steel used in a project with another type of steel can only be
done with approval from designer, even if the replacement steel shows superior features.
5.1.7. Steel products that have permanent protection pieces against corrosion, applied in
the factory, will comply with provisions in design task books, both as far as steel and
protection characteristics and as far as reception conditions for the producer. In case of
pretensioned reinforcement, if these steels are used without any additional protection,
then analyses will also be performed on tests concerning effectiveness of protection
against corrosion both in field of flow and especially in the anchorage area, on the entire
lifespan of the construction.
5.1.8. Apart from technical specification ST 009-1996, steel products for pretensioned
reinforcement, which will be subjected to mechanical processing necessary to the
anchorage system (cupping, tapping etc) will also meet requirement specific for such
processing, established by the performer of the procedures.

22
5.2. Acquisition/ supply with steel products
5.2.1. Only steel products delivered in compliance with current regulations will be bought
for production of precast elements. The products will have appropriate quality
certificates/ declarations of conformity for each product type and diameter.
5.2.2. Manufacturer documents accompanying delivery must comprise at least the
following:
- name and type of steel in compliance with the specified product standard;
- all information for identification of the lots;
- mass of bar bundles, or the coils and tambours established in the products
standard or in an agreement with the beneficiary;
- the determined values regarding the performance criteria.
5.2.3. The steel delivered by intermediary providers will be accompanied by a quality
certificate comprising all quality documentation data issued by the concrete steel
manufacturer, including results obtained in an authorized laboratory (as per The
regulations regarding control of materials, construction elements and products used for
constructions)
5.2.4. Each bundle, coil or tambour will bear a label, which will include:
- manufacturer brand
- type of reinforcement
- number of lot and of bundle, coil or tambour
- net weight
- CTC sign (technical quality control)
5.2.5. In case when, individual bundles and strands for precompressed concrete elements
are executed in central workshops, then they will be accompanied upon delivery by a
quality certificate, which must contain the quality certificate number for the wires making
up the bundles and respectively the wire strands.

5.3. Transport and storage

5.3.1. All reinforcement types (bars, welded meshes, precast reinforcement housing,
wires, wire strands) will be transported and stored such that they are not deteriorated or
come into contact with substances that might damage the reinforcement and/or concrete
or adherence concrete-reinforcement. Loading, unloading and transport of welded meshes
will be performed very carefully, so that deformation or breaking of the welding are
avoided.
5.3.2. Steels for reinforcements must be stored separately according to steel types and
diameters, in specially designed and appropriately equipped spaces, so that the following
mishaps are avoided:
Conditions favoring reinforcement corrosion (any type of chemical,
electrochemical or biologic attack that may cause corrosion). The spaced and
manner or storage must ensure ventilation in order to prevent stagnation of
product humidity;

23
Steels are made dirty with earth or other materials (any contamination that may
affect durability or reinforcement adherence properties);
Any reinforcement deformation not stipulated in the design;
Performing welding operations in the neighborhood of pretensioned
reinforcements, without taking special measures for reinforcement protection;
Deterioration of protection packaging for coils and tambours
Reinforcements are covered for too long with various materials that can
maintain humidity;
Mixing assortments and diameters. Any product must be correctly and rapidly
identifiable in the storehouse.
5.3.3. Surface conditions of the reinforcements will be examined before use, in order to
make sure they do not contain any substances that can damage the reinforcement and/or
concrete or the adherence between them.
5.4. Quality control.

Steel quality control is performed in compliance with provisions of chapter 7.1.

REQUIREMENTS CONCERNING CONCRETES AND TYPES OF CONCRETE


FOR PRODUCTION OF PRECAST ELEMENTS

6.1. Composition of concretes used in production of precast elements will be designed


such that it meets the following mandatory requirements, as per Law No 10/1995:
- resistance and stability requirements;
- exploitation safety requirements
- fire resistance requirements
- durability, which implies resistance to actions of the surrounding environment
(carbonation, chemical aggressiveness, freeze-thaw, deterioration by abrasion etc)
- hygiene, health and environmental protection
- thermal isolation and noise protection etc.
6.2. Strains of elements at a very early age and adoption of technical and technological
measure from the designing stage of the elements- must be taken into account when
designing concrete composition for cast element, so that they can ensure the following:
- resistances during striking, transport in the finished product storehouse and
storing elements of simple concrete, dispersed reinforced concrete and reinforced
concrete, so that element fissuring or breaking can be avoided;
- resistance to transfer of precompression forces, transport to storehouse storage of
precompressed concrete elements, until delivery.
- The appropriate treatment of the produced elements, at least in the first 7 says
after finalization. This is because strains that may occur during striking, transfer,
storage, delivery and transport at the place of assembly of the elements, can be
more severe that exploitation strains.

24
6.3. As far as reinforcement is concerned, precast elements can be classified as follows:
Precast elements (reduced size) made of simple concrete, classes C16/20
C45/55
Precast elements (reduced or average size) made of dispersed reinforced concrete
with metallic fibers BFM, classes C16/20 C100/115
Precast elements of precompressed concrete, with reinforcements made of bars,
housings, yokes, welded meshes, and in certain cases bar reinforcements and
dispersed reinforcements with metal fibers, BA, classes C20/25 C100/115
Precast elements made of precompressed concrete, with complementary and
active reinforcement (in certain cases dispersed and active reinforcement), BP
classes C30/37C100/115.
6.3.1. Small size elements (slabs, paving stones, small and large masonry blocks, sewage
pipes etc) are regularly executed using simple concrete. For simple concrete precast
elements, concrete classes are established depending on type of element, manufacturing
technology, strains during the transport period to the product storehouse, transport and
assembly at the use or exploitation location etc., as follows:
- classes UC8/9UC16/18 small and average simple concrete blocks;
- classes C20/25 C35/45 sewage pipes;
- classes C20/25 C30/37 various mine prefabricated blocks;
- classes C30/37 C50/60 paving stones etc.
6.3.2. Precast elements made of dispersed reinforced concrete with metallic fibers BFM
can have a small or average size. The disperse reinforcement of these elements can be
completed in certain cases with bar contour reinforcements OB, for transport and
assembly; the BFM class varies within very extended limits, for example:
- lids for district heating, gas pipes etc. C30/37C80/95
- pavement slabs- BFM classes C30/37C60/75
- heavy traffic slabs, BFM classes C40/50C08/95
- sewage lids, BFM classes C60/75 C100/115;
- various types of plane and spatial elements- BFM classes C20/25C80/95
- various types of panels, BFM classes C20/25C45/55
6.3.3. Precast elements made of reinforced concrete and precompressed concrete, of
various sizes, are produced depending on the established purpose and technical
production possibilities, as follows:
reinforced concrete elements, BA classes C20/25C100/115
precompressed concrete elements, BP classes C30/37 C100/115
6.4. Requirements for classes with increased resistance to compression, for normal
density concretes and for heavy concretes, used for manufacturing precast elements, are
presented in table 6.1, and requirements for light concrete are presented in table 6.2.
Value- fckcil (compression force on cylinder) represents the characteristic resistance at
28 days, determined on cylindrical test pieces with H/d= 300/150 mm, and value fckcub
represents the characteristic resistance at 28 days, determined on cubic test pieces with
sides of 150 mm. (Until replacement of the existing laboratory forms, the forms for cubic

25
test pieces with sides of 141 mm can also be used, as per STAS 1275-88, for
determination of mechanical resistances).
Notation of disperse reinforced concretes with metal fibers is made with the indicative
BFM in front of the concrete class, e. g. BFM C16/20 BFM C100/115.
Table 6.1. Classes of compression resistances for normal density and heavy concretes
Compression Characteristic resistance on cylinders fckcil Characteristic resistance on cubes
resistance classes fckcub
C16/20 16 20
C20/25 20 25
C25/30 25 30
C35/45 35 45
C40/50 40 50
C45/55 45 55
C50/60 50 60
C55/67 55 67
C60/75 60 75
C70/85 70 85
C80/95 80 95
C90/105 90 105
C100/115 100 115

Table 6.2. Heavy concrete resistance classes

Compression resistance Characteristic resistance on cylinders Characteristic resistance on cubes


classes fckcil fckcub
UC8/9 8 9
UC12/13 12 13
UC16/18 16 18
UC20/22 20 22
UC25/28 25 28
UC 30/33 30 33
UC35/38 35 38
UC40/44 40 44
UC45/50 45 50
UC50/55 50 55
UC55/60 55 60
UC60/66 60 66
UC70/77 70 77
UC80/88 80 88

NOTE: in justified cases, the designer can use intermediary levels of resistance in
comparison to those indicated in table 6.1. and 6.2., if this situation is possible due to
design norms.

6.5. Requirements for light concrete density classes are indicated in table 6.3
Table 3- Classification of light concretes depending on density
Density D1.0 D1.2 D1.4 D1.6 D1.8 D2.0
class
Density in 8000 >1000 >1200 >1400 >1600 >1800
kg/m 3 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

26
6.6. Requirements for classes of exposure to actions of surrounding environment are
indicated in table 6.4
Table 6.4. Classes of exposure to action of the surrounding environment
Class Notes regarding the surrounding environment Examples for selection of exposure class
name
4.1. No risc of corrosion
X0 Simple concretes without embedded metallic E g: Concrete at the interior of buildings
pieces. Exposure without freeze-thaw, abrasion, where air humidity is very low.
chemical attack. (Very) dry environment for
reinforced concrete or concrete with embedded
metallic pieces
4.2. Corrosion caused by carbonation
XC1 Dry or permanently humid environment E g: concrete inside buildings where air
humidity is very low; concrete entirely
immersed in water.
XC2 Wet environment, very rarely dry E g: Concrete surfaces immersed in
water on a long term
- a large number of foundations
XC3 Moderate humidity environments E g: concrete inside buildings where air
humidity percentage is average or high
- exterior concrete protected against
rainfall
XC4 Environment with alternative dry and humidity E g: Concrete surfaces exposed to water,
periods but not included in XC2 category
NOTE: Humidity conditions are considered those conditions to which the concrete in the reinforcement
and metallic fiber cover layers is exposed; it may often be considered that this humidity reflect the very
humidity of the surrounding environment. If there is a barrier between the concrete and the surrounding
environment then the concrete is considered protected against humidity.
4.3. Corrosion caused by chloride of other origin than those from maritime water or atmosphere
In case the reinforced concrete or the concrete containing metallic pieces is exposed to water with a
chloride content, including salts for thawing, different from those of maritime origin, then exposure classes
are grouped as follows:
XD1 Moderate humidity environment E g: Concrete surfaces exposed to
chlorides transported by air circulation
XD2 Humid, rarely dry environment E g: pools
- concrete exposed to industrial waters
containing chlorides
XD3 Environment with alternative dry and humidity E g: bridge elements, wetted and
periods sprinkled with waters containing
chlorides:
- roads
- slabs of vehicle stationing parks
4.4. Corrosion caused by seawater chlorides
In cases when the reinforced concrete or the concrete with embedded metallic pieces is subjected, during
exploitation, to action of seawater chlorides, or to the action of air re-circulating sea salts, the exposure
classes are the follwowing:
XS1 Exposure to air which re-circulates sea salts, but E g: Seaside structures or structures close
which is not in direct contact with seawater to seaside
XS2 Permanent immersion into seawater Marine structure elements
XS3 Marl clay areas, area subjected to wave projection Elements of marine structures
or to wetting (sprinkling)

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4.5. Attack of the freeze-thaw phenomenon
In situations when concrete is subjected to a significant attack caused by freeze-thaw cycles in a wet state,
the exposure classes are the following:
XF1 Moderated water saturation without thawing E g: Vertical concrete surfaces subjected
agents to rainfall and freezing
XF2 Moderate water saturation with thawing effects E g: Vertical surfaces of concrete works,
for road works exposed to freezing and
to the air re-circulating thawing agents
XF3 (High) Water saturation without thawing agents E g: Horizontal concrete surfaces
exposed to rainfall and freezing
XF4 (High) Saturation with water containing thawing E g: Bridge roads or decks exposed to
agent or seawater thawing agents
- vertical concrete surfaces
directly exposed to action of
thawing agents and to freezing
- marine structure areas subjected
to action of waves and exposed
to freezing
4.6.Chemical aggressiveness
Chemical aggressiveness over concrete occurs in soils, surface waters, underground waters, as indicated in
table 5, and exposure classes are presented below. Classification of seawaters depends on geographical
location and classifications must be validated for the location where the concrete is applied. Studies for
determination of class are necessary in the following situations:
aggressiveness is not within the limits indicated in table 6.5
polluting agent contains other chemically aggressive substances
chemically polluted soils and waters
high drainage speed of waters containing chemical substances indicated in table 6.5.
XA1 Surrounding environment with weak chemical
aggressiveness, as per table 6.5
XA2 Surrounding environment with average chemical
aggressiveness, as per table 6.5
XA3 Surrounding environment with intense chemical
aggressiveness, as per table 6.5

Table 6.5- Types of chemical aggressiveness


Chemical Test methods XA1 XA2 XA3
characteristics
Surface and underground waters
SO 2 in mg/l EN 196-2 200600 >6003000 >3000600
4
pH ISO 4316 6.55.5 <5.54.5 <4.54.0
Aggressive CO Pr/ EN 13557 1540 >40100 >100, up to
2 in mg/l
saturation
NH 4 in mg/l ISO 7150-1 or ISO 15.30 >3060 >60100
7150-2
Mg2+ ISO 7980 3001000 >10003000 >3000, up to
saturation
Soil
SO 2 EN 196-2 20003000 >300012000 >1200024000
4 in mg/l
Acidity ml/kg DIN 4030-2 > 200 Baumann Not encountered in current practice
Gully

28
Note: Classification depending on chemical aggressiveness is made in relation to the
highest degree of aggressiveness, when at least two characteristics lead to the same
category of aggressiveness, the environment will be classified into the immediately
superior class. Chemical aggressiveness indicated into the table 6.5 envisages water/soil
temperatures between 5-25 C and a water drainage speed low enough to be assimilated
to static conditions. Argillaceous soils whose permeability is below 10 5 m/s can be
classified into an inferior class.

6.7. Consistency classes for fresh concrete are indicated in tables 6.6, 6.7, 6.8 and 6.9.
Table 6.10 indicates tolerances admitted for performing measurements of consistency.
Table 6.6.- Consistency classes via method of settlement
Consistency classes Cone settlement (mm)
S1 10-40
S2 50-90
S3 100-150
S4 160-220
S5 1) 220
Table 6.7. - Consistency classes via remodeling methods
Consistency classes via remodeling VE-BE in sec.
V0 1) 31
V1 30-21
V2 20-11
V3 10-6
V4 1) 5-3
Table 6.8- Consistency classes via the compaction degree method
Consistency classes Compaction degree
C0 1) 1.46
C1 1.45-1.26
C2 1.25-1.11
C3 1) 1.10-1.14
Table 6.9- Consistency classes via spreading method
Spreading class Diameter M(mm)
F1 1) 340
F2 350-410
F3 420-480
F4 490-550
F5 560-620
F6 1) 630
1) Because of the methods lack of sensitivity, the classed hereby ticked are not
recommended in use.

29
Table 6.10. Tolerances admitted when performing consistency measurements
Settlement
Values, mm 40 5090 100
Tolerances, mm 10 20 30
VE-BE Remodeling
Values, seconds 11 10...6 5
Tolerances, seconds +3 2 1
Compaction degree
Values 1.26 1.251.11
Tolerances 0.10 0.08 0.06
Spreading
All values All values
Tolerances, mm 30

6.8.Concrete chloride content, expressed in percents of the cement mass must not
exceed values indicated in table 6.11. In order to determine concrete chloride content, the
sum of constituent contributions must be calculated with one of the following methods of
a combination of these methods:
calculation based on the maximal chloride content, established by norms for each
constituent, or the content declared by the manufacturer, for each constituent.
Calculation based on constituent chloride content, representing the average of the
last 25 measurements for chloride content, multiplied 1.64 times; the typical error
margins calculated for each constituent (this method is applied to mine
aggregates, in the absence of maximum values- declared or established by norms).
In case of important works, built with precast concrete elements, it is recommended that
determination of chloride content be performed experimentally (via laboratory tests).

Table 6.11- The maximum chloride content in precast element concrete


Concrete use Chloride class Maximum Cl content in relation
to cement mass
Simple concrete without Cl 1.0 1%
embedded metallic pieces (except
for lifting pieces made of
corrosion resistant steel
Concrete with embedded CL 0.20 0.20%
reinforcements and metallic Cl 0.40 0.40%
pieces
Concrete with precompressed Cl 0.10 0.10%
reinforcements Cl 0.20 0.20%
Note: Calcium chloride and chloride-based additives cannot be used in preparation of
concretes with steel reinforcements.
6.9. Notation of concrete classes depending on the maximum grain of the used
aggregate, is made starting from the maximum size of the aggregates used in various
situations:
Micro-concrete with the maximum aggregate grain 3; 5; 7 (8) mm or micro-
concretes 0-3; 0-5; 0-7 (8) mm;

30
Concretes with maximum aggregate grain 10; 16 (15); 20; 25; 31; 40 mm, or
concretes with aggregates 010; 0-16 (15); 0-20; 0-25; 0-31; 0-40 mm.
6.10 Concrete impermeability degrees are established in compliance with STAS 3622;
ex P4 10 ; P8 10 ; P12 10 ; P16 10 . For certain works included in the design lower degrees
of permeability can be established, e.g. P2 10 ; P6 10 ; P20 10 ; P24 10 ;
6.11. Concrete gelidity degree is established in compliance with STAS 3622- e.g. G50,
G100, G150. Depending on exploitation conditions, higher gelidity degrees can be
established through the designs, for example G200 G300 etc.
6.12. Concrete exposed during exploitation, included in one of the classes XF1 XF4,
must contain entrained air, as indicated in table 6.12.

Table 6.12.- Entrained air content in concrete


Maximum aggregate size, mm Entrained air ( 1%)
40 4
31 4.5
20 5
16(15) 5.5
10 6
7 6.5
5 7

6.13. Depending on exposure classes, the precast element concrete must represent a
durable, reliable material that resists physical-mechanical and physical- chemical strains
caused by exploitation conditions and by the surrounding environment; concrete
durability is ensured via a group of measures starting from element conception and
design to execution, exploitation and maintenance of constructions, which will not be
detailed in the present code.
In order to ensure proper durability to precast element concrete, the following measures
are absolutely necessary:
Selection of the adequate cement and an appropriate cement dosage
Selection of a high quality and maximum density aggregate mixture
Ensuring the necessary manageability for the fresh concrete, for a minimum A/C
(or A/MC) ratio in the given conditions, via use of plasticizer or super-plasticizer
additives
Providing the appropriate technology for preparation and production
Providing a structure for the hardened concrete, without any structure vices, and
with the maximum possibly impermeability degree in the work conditions proper,
so that reinforcements are well protected and concrete and the precast elements
have an increased performance.
Ensuring the appropriate percentage of entrained air, as per table 6.12, for the
concretes subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles during exploitation
PH in the reinforced concrete and the disperse reinforced concrete must not be
lower than 12, and in precompressed concrete- minimum 12.5. The chloride
content of the concrete must not exceed limits indicated in table 6.11

31
Table 6.13 indicates maximum recommended values for the A/C (or A/AMC)
ratio, minimum cement dosage, impermeability degree and gelidity for various
exposure classes of the concrete used to produce precast elements.
6.14. Requirements from items 6.1- 6.13 are transformed in performance criteria during
design of each element or when establishing the execution technology, via adequate
technical documentation:
Concrete class and/or stretch resistance, for works indicated by provisions of item
1.2.
Cement type and cement dosage
Mineral admixture and mineral admixture type, if necessary
Additive type and additive dosage
Metallic fiber type and dosage, if necessary
A/C report
Manageability of fresh concrete taking into account transport conditions,
placement conditions and protection of concrete after placement.
Other requirements, such as entrained air content, impermeability degree etc.

32
Table 6.13.- Recommended values for composition of precast element concretes in various exposure conditions

EXPOSURE CLASSES
No Carbonation CORROSION CAUSED BY CHLORIDES Freeze- thaw action Environment
corros FROM SEAWATER From other sources containing aggressive
ion chemical substances
risk
X0 XC1 XC2 XC3 XC4 XS1 XS2 XS3 XD1 XD2 XD3 XF1 XF2 XF3 XF4 XA1 XA2 XA3
Maximum A/C - 0.60 0.55 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.55 0.55 0.45 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.50 0.45 0.45
ratio
Minimum C16/2 C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C30/37 C35/45 C35/45 C35/45 C30/37 C30/37 C35/45 C30/37 C30/37 C30/37 C30/37 C30/37 C30/37 C35/45
resistance class 0
Minimum 300 330 350 380 400 400 400 400 380 .380 400 380 380 380 380 380 380 400
cement dosage
Recommended II/A- 3) II/A-S42.5; SRII/A-S SRII/ A-S42.5; SRI HII/A-S42.5; SRII/A- II/A-S42.5; I42.5; SRI42.5; SRII/A-S42.5;
S32.5;
cements II/A- 42.5; II/A-V42.5; 42.5 S42.5; SRI42.5 HI42.5 SRI42.5-52.5
V32.5 SRI42.5; I42.5
Entrapped air % - - - - - - - - - - - 4 2) 4 2) 4 2) 4 2) - - -
for preparation
min.
Aggregates - - - - - - - - - - - Ind Ind O O - - -
resistance to
freeze-thaw
Minimum - - - - - - - - - - - G50 G100 G150 G150 - - -
gelidity degree (100)
Minimum - P4 P8 P8 10 P8 P8 P8 P12 P8 P8 P12 P8 P8 P12 P12 P8 P12 P12
10 10 10 10 10 10
impermeability 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
degree

1) The minimum dosage is provisioned for concretes with aggregates 0-16 (0-20) mm and increases by 10% for concretes with

33
1) The minimum dosage is provisioned for concretes with aggregates 0-16 (0-20) mm,
increases by 10% for concretes with aggregates 0-7(8) mm and decreases by 10% for
concretes with aggregates 0-31 mm.
2) Depending on aggregate granularity- see table 6.12; ind= indicated; o= obligatory
3) II/A-S 32.5; II/A-V32.5; I32.5

7. REQUIREMENTS REGARDING COMPOSITION AND ESTABLISHMENT


OF COMPOSITION OF CONCRETES USED UN PRODUCTION OF PRECAST
ELEMENTS
7.1. General requirements
Concretes used for production of precast elements can be prepared as follows:
Based on concrete mixtures/ compositions designed at the production unit by a
authorized laboratory
Based on compositions prescribed by the designer and/or user
When designing/prescribing concrete compositions for precast elements, the following
technical regulation provisions must be taken into account:
- for design of hard concrete compositions used to produce precast elements of
simple, armed and precompressed concrete, provisions of the current Practice
code for execution of precast elements of concrete, reinforced concrete and
precompressed concrete will be applied;
- for designing compositions of disperse heavy reinforced concrete, provisions of
Guide for establishment of performance criteria and composition for disperse
reinforced concrete with metallic fibers- BFM will be applied.
- For light concrete compositions to be used in production of precast elements,
provisions of Normative regarding preparation and use of light concretes will
be applied.
7.2. Designed concrete mixture
7.2.1. General requirements
Selection of components and establishment of designed concrete composition are
performed by the precast element production unit, based on preliminary mixtures
established and verified by an authorized laboratory, Composition of concrete
preliminary mixtures must be established so that, under normal conditions of precast
element unit, it ensures the following:
- Manageability and homogeneity of the fresh concrete
- characteristics of the hardened concrete (resistance class, with a reserve
corresponding to work conditions in the respective precast element unit,
impermeability degree etc).
7.2.2. Data necessary for composition of the designed concrete
The following essential data must be specified for designed concrete mixtures:
a) resistance class and resistances in various stages (striking, precompression force
transfer, delivery etc).
b) maximum size of the grains of the used aggregate fresh concrete manageability
c) manageability of the fresh concrete
d) Data referring to the elements to be produces, such as simple concrete, disperse
reinforced concrete, reinforced concrete.

34
e) data referring to concrete composition
type and minimum cement dosage (taking into account the data in table 6.13,
depending on exposure conditions
maximum A/C maxim
type and dosage of admitted mineral admixtures
the ratio crushing aggregate/ natural aggregate and type of crushing aggregate.
Type and dosage of the metallic fibers in the disperse concrete mass
Entrained air connect (where necessary).
Concrete notation- for example a concrete of class C20/25 prepared with cement
I32.5 and aggregates 0-16 mm and settlement 120 mm can be noted as
C20/25-S s -I23.5/0.16
7.2.3. In certain circumstances of use of the precast elements, several additional
characteristics must be specified, which will be the subject of specific tests such as:
a) concrete features concerning compositions factors:
Density
Requirements concerning reaction aggregates-alkalis
Requirements concerning limitation of cement alkali content
Requirements concerning limitation of C 3 A and/or SO 3 in cement
Special conditions for aggregates (such as high resistances of base rocks
for crushing aggregates used in composition of concrete classes >C50/60
etc)
Conditions concerning use of mineral admixtures etc
b) requirements concerning hardened concrete c characteristics, such as:
A minimum value for bending resistance or chipping stretch for the
disperse reinforced concrete;
resistance to water penetration (impermeability)
resistance to repeated freeze-thaw cycles
resistance to wear and tear by abrasion
resistance to mechanical shock
characteristics connected to ductility of disperse reinforced concrete
content of entrained air in the hardened concrete
resistance to various types of chemical aggressiveness
If a certain degree of impermeability, gelidity etc is required, then the notation will also
comprise these characteristics, for example: C40/50-P8 10 -G100-S3-I42.5/0-16 etc.
Notations are conventional, chosen by agreement between designer, user and
manufacturer, but other notations can also be adopted, in compliance with the general
requirements concerning concrete features, indicated in the current Code.
7.3. The prescribed concrete mixture
7.3.1 The designer and/or user takes responsibility or designing composition of concrete.
In this situation concrete characteristics must be verified in the laboratory or via reduced
volume experiments, in all cases when there are no sufficient technical data concerning
previous use of similar concrete mixtures in close technological conditions.
Essential data specified for the prescribed concrete are similar to those for the designed
concrete.
7.3.2. Essential data concerning the prescribed mixtures (compositions) of concrete

35
At least the following essential data must be specified for the prescribed concrete
mixtures (compositions);
a) concrete class and resistances on stages (striking, precompression force transfer,
delivery etc)
b) type, class and dosage of cement per cubic meter
c) A/C or A/MC ratio
d) manageability and density of fresh concrete and entrained air content where necessary
e) type of aggregates, aggregate maximum size and granularity area;
f) type and dosage of mineral admixtures
g) additive type and dosage
h) Some of the data in item 7.2.3. if necessary, as well as other additional data considered
useful
In these circumstances the precast element production unit has the obligation to
manufacture concrete and precast elements in compliance with the design or order where
the concrete mixture was prescribed, as per 7.3.1 of current code.
7.4. For the designed concrete mixture, concrete composition is established by an
authorized laboratory
at start of concrete and precast element production
when changing cement and/or aggregate type
when changing additive type
when changing type and dosage of metallic fibers
when changing mineral admixture type and dosage
when preparing execution of precast elements that need concrete with
different features than those regularly produced, or concrete of class 30/37.
7.5. If concretes are produced with cements, additives, admixtures and aggregates that are
not indicated in the current practice code, or whose technical prescriptions are not
approved, then establishment of concrete composition will be based on studies developed
by research institutes that also fulfill attributions of authorized laboratories.
7.6. Design of mixtures (compositions) and introduction of high resistance (high
performance) concretes of classes 50/60 in precast element production is performed
with the technical assistance of an institute or an authorized engineer.
7.7. The laboratory of the precast element production unit will weekly analyze results
obtained from striking, precompression force transfer and delivery, and will establish the
necessary measures for to ensure concrete quality, with approval from the laboratory that
designed the recipe.
Resistances on stages that must be obtained upon striking of reinforced concrete
elements, precompression force transfer for production of precompressed concrete
elements or delivery of elements, are those resistances indicated in the designs of the
respective elements. In case such values are not indicated, then the minimal resistances
indicated in table 7.1 must be obtained.
Observation. Delivery resistances for the concrete in reinforced concrete elements, table
7.1, represent the minimum resistance values that must be reached upon delivery of
reinforced concrete elements when the concrete is made within 7-21 days after execution.
For reinforced concrete elements that reached the age of 22-28 days, resistances obtained
on delivery must ensure production of the concrete.

36
7.8. The laboratory of the precast element production unit will monthly analyze results of
tests performed after 28 days, will perform (with written agreement from the authorized
laboratory that designed the concrete mixtures) any necessary corrections of the cement
dosage and will also apply other necessary measures to ensure concrete class.
The analysis will be performed on concrete classes C16/20 and types of elements,
taking into account results obtained on minimum 6 series of 3 test pieces each, tested
from concrete of the same class, as per appendix 7.3.
In situations when 6 series of test pieces cannot be provided, the results will be
interpreted in compliance with criterion 2, appendix 7.3.
For concrete types for which the above-mentioned criterion is not met, all necessary
measures will be taken to produce the appropriate concrete class.

7.9. The appropriate material quantities for a concrete mixture will be established as
follows:
according to indications from the technical manual of the preparation machine, but
no more than:
- 80% of nominal capacity of forced mixture machines, for concretes of classes
C16/20... C45/55;
- 75% of nominal capacity of natural fall mixture machines, for concretes of class
C16/20... C45/55;
- 70% of the nominal capacity of forced mixture machines, for concretes of class
C50/60C100/115 (concretes of class C50/60 must not be prepared using
natural fall mixture machines).
7.10. During concrete preparation, concrete composition will be adjusted daily or any
time it needs adjustment, depending on test results regarding:
aggregate humidity
sort granularity
fresh concrete apparent density
concrete manageability
If preparation water quantity requires adjustment by maximum 5%, then the other
components may maintain previously established quantities, in the case of concrete
classes C16/20 C25/30.

37
Resistance CONCRETE CLASS/ RESISTANCE TO COMPRESSION CYLINDER/CUBE N/mm 2
on stages
C16/20 C20/25 C25/30 C30/37 C35/45 C40/50 C45/55 C50/60 C55/67 C60/75 C70/85 C80/95 C90/105 C100/115

Rc removal 12/13 14/16.5 17.5/20 20/23.5 22.5/27. 25/30 27.5/32.5 30/35 32.5/38.5 35/42.5 40/47.5 45/52.5 50/57.5 55/62.5
of 5
shuttering
of
reinforced
concrete
elements
Rc delivery 14.5/18.5 18.5/23 23/28 28.5/35 31.5/40. 35/43.5 38.5/47 42/51.5 45.5/55.5 50/61 56/68.5 64/75.5 71/83 82/90
reinforced 5
concrete
elements
Rc transfer - - 23.5/28 27.5/33.5 30/38.5 34/42 37.5/45.5 41.5/50 45/54.5 49/61 57/69 65/77 73.5/85.5 85.5/93.5
*)
precompres
sed
concrete
elements

7.11 Designing concrete mixtures (compositions)


7.11.1 Requirements for fresh concrete manageability:
Manageability represents the capacity of fresh concrete to be laid under the pre-
established conditions, and to be appropriately compacted in order to fill the forms
and produce concrete elements with a homogenous structure in any section.
Manageability is evaluated based on concrete consistency;
Consistency of each concrete type depends on the type and size of the produced
precast elements, on reinforcement presence and position, preparation, transport and
placement methods, duration of these operations, fresh concrete temperature and
environmental conditions etc.
Concrete consistency classes, determined by the methods of settlement, spreading,
compactness degree, VE-BE remodeling degree- are presented in tables 6.6-6.9.
Table 6.10 presents admissible tolerances for each consistency class.
In appendix 7.2 concrete consistency is presented generally, depending on precast
element type and on the transport means used. In appendixes 7.4-7.7 granularity areas for
aggregates are recommended depending on cement dosage (or cement +SUF), for a
certain concrete consistency value
7.11.2 During preparation of concretes with super-plasticizers and low A/C ratios,
especially during periods with temperatures over 23-25 C, significant reductions in
concrete consistency value can occur after preparation, especially if compatibility
between cement and super-plasticizer has not been previously verified. These situations
can be prevented through:
Verification of cement / super-plasticizer compatibility and selection of a super-
plasticizer compatible with the regularly used cement.
Dosage of super-plasticizer quantity has to be pre-established in two stages
(preparation and before casting;
Dosage of an additional 3-5 super-plasticizer quantity and maximum-rotation
mixing of the engine blender 2-3;
Ensuring placement of the concrete in the interval pre-established during
compatibility tests.

38
7.12. Requirements for aggregate granularity
7.12.1. Aggregates used in composition of concretes for precast elements must meet
requirements in Chapter 4.2 as well as the following:
Continuous or slightly discontinuous granularity, which ensures the maximum
possible density for the aggregate sort mixture;
Aggregates must contain a quantity of fine material (under 1.0 mm), almost
optimal for the following requirements (which can be contradictory in a certain
measure); ensuring maximum density of the sort mixture; reduction of A/C ratio
and ensuring good manageability of fresh concrete (a requirement that implies the
necessity of an increase in fine parts content);
Maximum aggregate grain size is established depending on the size of the
elements, in compliance with the following criteria:
max1/4D (in case of tables max1/3D);
max d 5 mm
max1.3 c, where
D= the smallest size of the precast element
d= the distance between reinforcement bars
c= thickness of the concrete layer covering reinforcement
For thin elements and for various containers max 1/6D
Appendixes 7.5-7.7 present the granularity area for aggregates 0-7 (8) mm; 0-16
mm; 0-20 mm currently used in precast element production units.
For massive precast elements, such as pillars, foundations, etc 0-31 mm and 0-40
mm granularities will be used, as per the Practice code for execution of
concrete, reinforced concrete and precompressed concrete works

7.13. Requirements concerning selection of cement type and dosage


7.13.1. Cements used for precast elements must meet the requirements indicated in
chapter 4; the prepared concretes must also meet demands regarding environmental
conditions, mentioned in chapter 6.
Establishment of the cement type to be used in precast elements is regularly performed
during design of the elements; replacement of the cement type for precast elements is
performed only with written approval from the designer. In situations when no cement
type is indicated in the design of the elements, then cement will be selected by mutual
agreement between the user and the manufacturer via delivery contracts, in compliance
with provisions of current code, items 4.1.4 and 4.1.5. concerning:
Concrete class
Technology and precise manufacturing conditions of the elements
Environmental conditions

39
7.13.2. The minimum cement dosage for elements made of concrete, reinforced concrete
and precompressed concrete of class 35/45 will be the one indicated in table 6.13, taking
into account granularity limits of the aggregates used in the mixture. For concretes of
class 40/50, the minimum cement type I dosage will be 400 km/cubic meter and 440
kg/cubic meter in case II/A-S cements are used.
7.13.3. Maximum dosage of I, SRI and HI cements, including SUF admixtures, is
recommended to have a maximum limit of 600 kg/ cubic meter, for concretes prepared
with 0-16, 0-20 and 0-31 mm aggregates, and a limit of 670-700 kg/ cubic meter for
concretes prepared with 0-7 (8) mm aggregates.
When cements with admixtures of grinded granulated basic slag are used (cement types
II/ A-S 42.5; II/A-S 52.5), the maximum dosages should be limited at 700 kg/m 3 of
concrete. In these cases no SUF admixtures will be used for preparation of concrete.
7.14. Requirements concerning selection of additives used in preparation of concrete
7.14.1. Additives used for preparation of concrete must meet all requirements indicated in
chapter 4.3. and must not contain any substances that may negatively influence concrete
and reinforcement properties or public health.
The total additive quantity in the concrete (including additives delivered in the form of a
dry powder mixture) cannot exceed 50g/ kg of cement and must not be lower than 2g/ kg
of cement. In case additives are delivered in liquid solutions, they must be taken into
account when establishing the water preparation quantity and the A/C ratio in all
situations when additive dosage exceeds 3l/ m 3 of the concrete.
7.14.2. Use of additives in preparation of concrete is made as follows:
By technical staff and workers trained in additive concrete technology;
After preliminary tests, with the technology available in the production unit
Based on technical specifications developed by specialized institutes or by
competent technical staff, in compliance with valid regulations and agreements.
7.15. Requirements concerning use of mineral admixtures for preparation of
concrete
7.15.1. Mineral admixtures used for concrete preparation must meet all requirements
specified in item 4.4. and must not contain substances that may negatively influence
concrete and reinforcement properties (including durability) and human health.
The quantity of admixtures used in preparation of reinforced and precompressed
concretes must be limited at values that do not cause pH decrease below 12 for reinforced
concrete and below 12.5 for precompressed concrete.
7.16. Establishing concrete composition
7.16.1. The concrete composition must be established in such a way (with the cement,
additive and admixture dosage appropriate both technically and economically) it ensures
that all requirements are met regarding the following:
- fresh concrete manageability and homogeneity
- concrete class and resistances on stages
- concrete durability and other requirements specified in design of the elements.
Concrete composition is established by authorized laboratories and engineering
personnel.
7.16.2 The main technological and composition factors that must be taken into account
when establishing concrete composition are centralized in table 7.2.

40
Table 7.2. Technological and composition factors influencing properties of fresh and
hardened concrete

No Composition Characteristics and elements which condition the selection Chapter of


crt factors code to refer
to
1 Cement (type - concrete class, resistances on technological and final Chapter 4, 6,
and dosage stages 7
- interval preparation- placement
- element massiveness (surface/volume ratio)
- hardening method
- environmental conditions
2 Additive type - preparation, transport, placement conditions Chapter 4, 6,
- characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete 7
(manageability, class, resistances on stages, durability
etc.)
- characteristics of elements (sections, reinforcement)
3 Mineral - characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete Chapter 4, 5,
admixture type (manageability, homogeneity, permeability to water 6, 7
and dosage and gases, freeze resistance)
- concrete class and resistances on stages
4 A/C ratio - characteristics of fresh and hardened concrete Chapter 4, 6,
(manageability, homogeneity, ;porosity, 7
impermeability, resistances, durability etc)
- type of element reinforcement and section of the
elements
- type of additive used in the concrete mixture
5 Manageability - preparation, transport, placement conditions Chapter 4, 6,
- type and dosage of additives and admixtures 7
- shape and size of the elements;
- reinforcement method and number of passive and
active reinforcements.
6 Maximum - shape and size of the elements Chapter 4, 6
grain of the - reinforcement method and number of reinforcements
used aggregate - preparation and transport conditions
7 Aggregate - cement dosage Chapter 4, 6
granularity - mineral admixture dosage
- adopted manageability
- placement method
- section and reinforcement method of the elements
8 Quantity of - pre-established manageability Chapter 4, 6,
preparation - cement type and dosage 7
water - additive type and dosage
- mineral admixture type and dosage
- granularity of the aggregate mixture etc

7.16.3. For concretes that require a certain degree of impermeability (table 6.13), the A/C
ratio must not exceed the following values:
- 0.56 for P 10
4 impermeability degree;
10
- 0.52 for P 8 impermeability degree;
- 0.45 for P 10
12 impermeability degree.

41
7.16.4. In order to establish composition of concretes necessary for precast elements, the
following stages are observed:
a) cement type is established based on provisions in element design as well as those
in tables 4.4, 4.5, 6.13 and item 7.13.2 of current code.
b) Dosage of active mineral admixtures (if necessary) is established as per item 4.4.2
of current code.
c) The maximum A/C ratio is established in relation to concrete class, exposure
classes (chapter 6 and table 6.13), type and class of cement- table 7.3, table 6.13
and item 7.16.5 of current code
Table 3
Maximum A/C ratios for concretes used for reinforced and precompressed concrete
precast elements

Concrete class Cement class


32.5 42.5 52.5
C16/20 0.54 0.56 -
C20/25 0.45 0.47 -
C25/30 0.44 0.45 -
C30/37 0.38 0.43 -
C35/45 - 0.40 0.45
C40/50 - 0.35 0.38
C50/60 - 0.33 0.35
C55/67 - 0.32 0.34
C60/75 - 0.30 0.32
C75/85 - 0.27 0.32
C80/95 - - 0.28
C90/105 - - 0.26
C100/115 - - 0.25
d) the maximum aggregate size and the total aggregate granularity are established taking
into account provisions of item 4.2, 7.12, appendixes 7.5-7.7 of the current code, as well
as the following:
In the composition of the aggregate mixtures used for preparation of concretes,
class 50/60, crushing aggregate made of hard rocks will be introduced, with a
fine grain shape (chippings) in a 25-70% proportion out of the aggregate sort
mixture;
Crushing aggregates used must be washed (with a levigable part content below
0.5%) and must represent the sorts over 3 or 8 mm. Use of crushing sand is not
allowed into high resistance concrete composition because it negatively
influences properties of fresh and hardened concrete.
Preliminary cement dosages C for concretes of classes C16/20-C40/55 are
established using the following equation:
A
C= (7.1)
A/C
In equation (7.1), A/C is the maximum ratio established according to table 7.3 and 6.13,
depending on concrete class, cement class and exposure class. The preliminary dosage C
is compared to the minimum dosage indicated in table 6.3 (depending on granularity
limits of the used aggregate) and the dosage with the highest value is taken into account.

42
e) The quantity of the preparation water for concrete, A, is preliminarily established in
compliance with table 7.4

Table 4- Preliminary preparation water quantities for additive-free concretes


Concrete class Water, l/m 3 for manageability
S1; C2; V2; F3 S3; C4; V4; F4 S4; F5
C16/20-C20/25 175-180 200 210
C25/30 190-200 215 225

Note: For concretes with additive content, A preparation water quantities are established
via preliminary tests depending on conditions required for concrete of classes C16/20-
C20/25 and by the additive type.
f) For high resistance (high performance) concretes, of classes C50/60-C100/115, the
approximate preparation water quantity A is established starting from a preparation water
quantity of 16015 l/m 3 , depending on concrete type and class, cement type, dosage and
class, on the SUF admixture, the type of super-plasticizer used, and on the A/C ratio
indicated in table 7.3
g) The additive dosage is established taking into account data from item 4.3. as well as
data from technical regulations and agreements and the results of compatibility tests (in
the case of super-plasticizers) or preliminary tests performed with the additive selected
for use.
h) The quantity of dry state aggregates Ag is evaluated by applying equation 7.2 and
separated into sorts, in order to comply with the pre-established granularity area
(appendixes 7.5-7.7):

C SUF Ad
Aag= ag (1000- - - - A- P) (7.2)
c suf ad

Where:
c = cement density equaling circa 3.1 kg/ dm 3 in case of type I cements, and circa
3.0 kg/ dm 3 for cements of type II/A-S
suf = apparent SUF density = 2.0 kg/ dm 3
ag = apparent density of the aggregates in kg/ dm 3 , established by laboratory analyses
in compliance with STAS 4606/80, or approximated as per table 7.5. (in case laboratory
analyses are not available)

Table 7.5 Apparent density of several aggregate types


Rock type Apparent density kg/ dm 3
Siliceous (ballast pit aggregates) 2.7
Calcareous 2.3-2.7
Granite 2.7
Basaltic 2.9

ad = as per the quality document

43
P the air volume entrapped, estimated at 2% (20 dm 3 / m 3 ) in case of concretes with S2,
S3 manageability, prepared without of with NFS-based additives, and at 1% (10 dm 3 / m
3
), for concretes prepared with MFS-based additives.
In case air entraining additives are used, the volume of entrained air is established by
laboratory measurements
C, A, SUF, Ad- represents preliminary dosages for cement, water, SUF and additives.
j) the apparent density of fresh concrete is calculated with equation (7.3):

b ' = C+ A+ Ag + SUF + Ad (7.3)


7.16.5. In order to establish the basic composition of concrete the following steps must be
taken:
An initial 30-40 l concrete mixture is prepared, in a laboratory concrete mixer, taking
into consideration quantities of cement, aggregates, SUF, additives and water,
evaluated as per item 7.16.4 of current code. The concrete component materials
calculated for a volume of 30-40l are introduced into the concrete mixer in the
following order:
- dry aggregates;
- cement
- circa 2/3 of the preparation water;
- content is mixed for 30-45
- additive is introduced if necessary
- mixing is continued
- the rest of the preparation water is added gradually and mixing continues for circa
1 minute after the final preparation water quantity has been added
- settlement is determined; if settlement is higher than initially established, then the
mixture will be remade with a reduced preparation water quantity. In case
settlement is lower, then water will be added via a graded cylinder, until pre-
established manageability value is obtained.
Apparent density is determined
Cement dosage is recalculated with equation (7.4):
A
C= (7.4)
A/C
The aggregate quantity is calculated with equation (7.5):
' b b
Ag = - A- C SUF (7.5)
2

7.16.6. For determination of mechanical resistances and other concrete characteristics, 3


30-40l concrete mixtures are calculated an prepared, with the following composition:
Basic composition established as per item 7.16.5 of current code
Two additional compositions: the first has 7% higher cement dosage, but minimum
25 kg/ m 3 , and the second has a 7% lower cement dosage, but minimum 25 kg/ m 3 -
for concretes of classes C16/20-C45/55
With 8-9% but minimum 40 kg of cement for concretes in classes C50/60- C100/115

44
These compositions are not applicable and will be dismissed if, after all calculations
for additional concrete mixtures with reduced dosages, the resulted dosage is lower
than the minimum dosage indicated in table 6.13.
In case of high resistance concrete mixtures with increased dosages, compositions
that exceed the maximum dosages indicated at item 7.13.3 will also be dismissed, and
other possibilities will be analyzed in order to increase concrete performance.
7.16.8 Production will start only with the preliminary concrete composition that provides
the pre-established requirements for manageability, resistances and impermeability
degree stipulated in design of the element in various stages, with the minimum cement
dosage.
In order to go from preliminary test results to production proper, the value of the 28-day
resistance and impermeability degree must be at least equal to values indicated in table
7.6.

Table 7.6. - Characteristics necessary for concretes during preliminary tests

Concrete class Concretes in precast elements


Preliminary fc Preliminary impermeability
Cylinder Cube P
C16/20 21 27 P 10
4
C20/25 26 32 P410

C25/30 30 37 10
P8
C30/37 36 45 P 10
8

C35/45 42 53 10
P8
C40/50 48 60 P 10
12
C45/55 54 66 P 10
12
C50/60 60 72 P 10
12
C55/67 66 79 P 10
12
C60/75 72 90 P 10
12
C70/85 84 102 10
P 16
C80/95 94 112 P 10
16

C90/105 105 123 10


P 16
C100/115 116 133 P 10
16

Note: 1) Designing of the mixtures and introducing concrete classes C50/60- C100/115 in
production are performed with assistance from an authorized engineer with experience in
the field.
2) The degree of impermeability for monolithic and precast elements made of concrete
C50/60-C100/115 is obligatorily established via design of the works.

45
7.16.9. Construction and precast element production companies that provide, in their
current production, degree I and respectively degree III of homogeneity decrease,
respectively increase the value in table 7.7 to, or respectively out of values indicated in
table 7.6.

Table 7.7.
Correction values of the results depending on degree of homogeneity

Concrete class (N/mm 2 ) (cylinder) (N/mm 2 ) (cube)


C16/20-C30/37 3 4
C35/45-C45/55 4 5
C50/60- C100/115 6 x)

x) Companies which provide degree III of homogeneity in concrete production are not
allowed to execute precast elements made of concrete classes C50/60-C100/115
7.16.10 In urgent cases, for execution or concrete C16/20-C45-55 works, one can adopt
the composition of concrete based on resistances obtained 7 days after laying, indicated
in table 7.6, applying the following resistance percentages:
- minimum 70% for concretes made with normal-setting cements;
- minimum 80% for concretes with fast-setting cements R;
The composition established this way will be corrected based on 28 day results.
7.16.11. In situations when precast element designs do not provision any technological
stage resistances during preliminary testing, the resistances indicated in table 7.1 will be
taken into account.
7.16.12. During concrete production, corrections will be performed on the compositions,
based on regular tests, which will also determine humidity, granularity, aggregate sorts
and mixtures, in order to respect all the adopted composition parameters.
7.16.13. Testing and interpretation of results obtained in regular production for each
concrete class will be performed as indicated in appendixes 7.1-7.3 and 9.2.
Depending on data obtained after processing of the results, the concrete mixtures
established via preliminary tests are maintained or modified in accordance with
production conditions, and in compliance with quality requirements for the produced
elements and structures.

8. FORMWORKS FOR PRODUCTION OR PRECAST ELEMENTS

8.1. Formworks for precast elements of concrete and reinforced concrete.

46
8.1.1. Precast elements are executed in forms made of metal, concrete, wood or wood
products, reinforced plastic materials etc. Selection of execution materials is based on
technical-economical criteria.
Forms are made of components whose class of precision must superior by one class of
precision to the precast elements to be produced.
8.1.2. Metallic forms must meet technical requirements indicated in STAS 7721-90.
Forms made of wood or any other materials will be designed and executed in such a way
that they achieve dimensional deviations of maximum of the dimensional deviations of
the precast elements indicated in the precast element design, as per STAS 6657/1-89.
8.1.3. Form components used to produce the surfaces that correspond to wet joints,
should be developed in such a way that they ensure occurrence of rough surfaces for a
better adherence with the monolithic concrete. For this purpose checkered or expanded
plate can be used, as well as profiled rubber mat or other materials and procedures that
ensure similar effects.
8.1.4. Form parts meant for apparent or decorative concrete must have the appropriate
processing degree and the adequate profile for the requirements of the architecture
design.
8.1.5. Forms and their locking or fixing pieces will be rigid enough not to be subjected to
deformation during manipulation/ handling, assembling and disassembling a part, cause
by concrete vibration and pressure etc, which may lead to production of elements with
higher size deviations than allowed tolerance limits.
The forms for which striking is performed by striking, will be anchored in such a way
that they resist to a striking force at least 2.5 times the mass of the element under
construction
8.1.6. Before use the forms will verified so that they comply with shape and size
tolerances.
During use ach form will be verified to that it complies with shape and size tolerances, as
follows:
forms with dismountable parts will be verified before each use;
forms without any dismountable parts will be verified periodically, but in such a
way that appropriate elements are obtained.
8.1.6. During each use, form surfaces that come into contact with concrete will be
washed thoroughly by adequate means and oiled with agents for striking, which must
meet requirements of STAS 11382-84 or of current Romanian technical agreements, as
well as conditions mentioned in item 8.2.2. of current code.

8.2. Forms for precompressed concrete precast elements


8.2.1. Forms used for production of precompressed concrete precast elements will be
executed only based on execution drawings developed by design units in compliance with
STAS 7721-90, as well as with 8.1 of current practice code:
- forms must be rigid enough to resist any action that might occur during the
execution process;
- forms must remain stable until concrete reaches a resistance sufficient for it to
support the strains it will be subjected to during striking;
- forms must ensure that allowed tolerances for the respective element are met.

47
The allowed deviations in production of forms will be mentioned in the design or will be
established by the manufacturer based on the precision class indicated in the design.
Apart from requirements in item 8.1 of the practice code, forms must also meet the
following conditions specific for precompressed concrete works:
- forms must allow mounting and dismounting of pre-tensile reinforcement
deflection devices;
- forms must ensure safe locking, in compliance with the design, of all pieces
embedded in extremity areas (distributor plates, joining funnels etc), and the
temporary assembly pieces crossing the concrete must be removed without
difficulty.
- Forms must allow appropriate compactation in the areas of pretensioned
reinforcement anchorage
- Forms must allow elastic shrinking during precompression and action of net
weight.
- Forms must ensure the possibility of movement and appropriate work positions or
the personnel that performs the concrete layer and compactation, so that
circulation on pretensioned reinforcements is avoided.
-
8.2.2. In case of forms for precompressed concrete, which must provide waterproofing or
isolation from gases, the connection pieces of the forms must avoid going through the
concrete. If this is not possible, then other solutions will be adopted, previously verified
via appropriate tests concerning the possibility of waterproofing and sealing the areas
crossed by the used form connection pieces.
Use of imported chemical waterproofing materials will be made based on technical
agreement.
Surfaces of reach form part must be finished in compliance with design provisions.
Agents for striking must not deteriorate the concrete, the reinforcement or the form.
Agents for striking must not influence quality of concrete, its color or the protections to
be applied.
Agents for striking will be applied in compliance with manufacturer specifications.

8.2.3. Forms must not be dismounted until concrete resistance has not reached the
appropriate values established for:
- avoidance of surface and edge deterioration after striking
- alleviating strains in the concrete elements
- avoidance of deformations caused by elastic and plastic (slow flow) behavior of
the concrete, which exceed specified tolerances.
Striking must be performed in such a way that the structure is not subjected to actions
such as hits, overloads or other deteriorations.
In case the form is part of the concrete treatment system, dismounting will be performed
taking into account the primary conditions described in chapter 14.

9. CONCRETE PREPARATION AND TRANSPORT IN PRECAST ELEMENT


PRODUCTION UNITS

48
9.1. The concrete mixing plant

9.1.1. Preparation of concrete in precast element production units will be performed in


authorized concrete mixing plants (stations), in compliance with current regulations, by
personnel specially trained and authorized to control and execute the concrete
preparation, delivery and transport processes.

9.1.2. A concrete mixing plant (station) is any subunit that produces and delivers
concrete, equipped with one or more concrete installations, batching installations, other
equipment necessary for proper operation, and a laboratory (see item 9.2.3.) in order to
ensure and certify concrete quality.
9.1.3. Concrete mixing plants of precast element production units are differentiated
through the activities they perform, as follows:
- Plants that produce concrete exclusively for the needs of the precasting unit; the
activities of these plants will be performed in compliance with the current code;
- Plants that also produce and deliver concrete for construction sites, for other
construction and precast element production units, whose activity is performed
based on provisions of code NE012-99.

9.2. Personnel, installations, laboratory


9.2.1. Personnel involved in concrete production, delivery and transport must have the
necessary qualifications, will be periodically tested and certified as per appendix 9.1.
The personnel handling the operation of the concrete station will be in appropriate
numbers, according to production volume and in compliance with quality assurance
provisions.
9.2.2. All installations (machines) for storage, sorting, transport of materials, dosage,
compactation, mixing, transport, casting and treatment of concrete must be in a good
operational state in order to insure proper performance and operation for concrete and
precast concrete elements.
9.2.3. In order to ensure the quality level in compliance with requirements, precast
element production units must have an authorized laboratory or collaborate with an
authorized laboratory, equipped will all devices and installations necessary for the
specific analyses of component materials and fresh/ hardened concrete, aiming at
concrete conto0l and quality.
9.2.4. Certification of the concrete production unit will be made in compliance with
current regulations. IN order to obtain certification the concrete precasting unit must be
included in the system of the quality assurance unit, which must be implemented, must
operate and ensure quality of the produced and delivered concretes in compliance with
provisions of current ode as well as with other technical regulations, orders and contracts
currently in force. Thus, the unit must be equipped with the following:
a) Documents concerning the quality assurance system (e.g. quality manual, general
and operational procedures, operational regulations, quality plan, job descriptions
etc);
b) Storehouses for aggregates, concreted and distributed on aggregate sorts, as well
as bunkers (warehouses) grouped by sorts, in the concrete unit.

49
c) Marked cement silos, for simultaneous storage of two types of cement, with the
necessary capacity to ensure operation of the concrete station for a minimum of 3
days. In case cement stored in bags is also used, then equipments will comply
with chapter 4 of current code;
d) Storage silos for mineral admixtures used in production, clearly labeled with the
admixture type;
e) Transport equipment in the concrete production unit for component materials and
dozers to ensure dosage of materials as per current code;
f) Operational concrete preparation materials;
g) Preparation installations, reservoirs and dozers for additives, for at least one of the
concrete production unit installations;
h) Equipment for washing concrete preparation and transport machines;
i) Appropriate installations for water heating as well as aggregate heating when
operating on cold weather;
j) Personnel as per provisions of Appendix 9.1;
k) Registry with concrete classes (types) produced by each installation, as well as
quality records;
l) Authorized laboratory with appropriate space and equipment for analyses of raw
materials, production, preservation and testing of test pieces with certified
technical personnel and appropriate workers; proof of contractual collaboration
between the unit and an outside laboratory is also accepted;
m) A registry with laboratory analyses and tests;
n) The laboratory must be authorized by the appropriate authorization institutions.
9.2.5. When the competent control authorities or the unit quality assurance departments
detect any deficiencies in the activity of the concrete production unit, the following
measures can be taken regarding activities of the concrete unit:
a) the concrete production unit can continue operations provided all malfunctions are
quickly remedied and appropriate quality conditions for the prepared concrete;
b) qualitative or quantitative limitation of concrete production, depending on
assurance of quality and of execution requirements, when one of the following
malfunctions are detected:
deterioration of the compartments of the aggregate storage facility, and mixing of
the aggregate sorts
deterioration of aggregate storage platform or of water evacuation slopes or ditches;
presence in the storage facility of sorts with an impurity content over the admissible
limits, or with inappropriate granularity (passages and rest higher that 10% above
stock limits)
lack of cement type corresponding to the concrete class and to provisions of precast
element designs
non-observance of machine maintenance instructions;
other malfunctions which may negatively influence concrete quality

c) The concrete production unit is stopped based on one of the following events:

50
malfunctions of component dosage machines, which cause deviations higher than the
limits indicated in current code, item 9.3.3.
analysis of test results show that in the case of concretes class C16/20 degree III of
homogeneity was registered, for a volume 10% higher than the samples collected for
a certain produced concrete class;
establishing the concrete homogeneity degree is performed as per Appendix 9.2

d) Cancellation of concrete production unit certification/ license is made as follows:


Test result analysis show that, for the second time, the concrete class was not
obtained, for a volume 10% higher of the total quantity of products;
Orders to close a concrete production unit were not observed

9.2.6. IN order to solve all shortcoming discovered upon internal auditing or during
inspections by authorized institutions, the precast element production units will take
preventive or corrective measures. Completion of correction measures will be
communicated to the proper inspection institution, which will make a decision.

9.3. Concrete preparation and dosage of component materials


9.3.1. Composition of concretes for precast elements is established in compliance with
the current Code, using the stored materials in order to ensure production.
9.3.2. The volume of a concrete charge is limited, to that proper quality and homogeneity
are ensured, for the following proportions of the preparation machine nominal capacity:
Maximum 80% for preparation of concrete classes C16/20 C45/55 in forced
mixture blenders.
Maximum 70% for preparation of concrete classes C16/20 C45/55 in natural
fall concrete mixers
Maximum 70% for preparation of concrete classes C50/60 C100/115 mixers
with forced mixture (preparation of concrete classes C50/60 C100/115 must
not be performed in concrete mixers with natural fall mixture)
Composition of each concrete class, as well as the materials necessary for each
charge (mixture) is displayed in a visible spot in the concrete production unit.
9.3.3. Dosage of concrete component materials is made gravimetrically, with the
following accepted deviations:
- 3% for mineral aggregates and admixtures
- 2% for cement and water
- 5% for additives
9.3.4. Verification of dosage methods is performed at least once a week (an interval of
maximum 50 hours of effective operation), using metrologically verified or other
operative procedures. If during verification, excess by of the maximum deviations
indicated in item 9.3.3. is detected, then the following procedures will be applied:
- the malfunction was detected at the aggregate, cement and mineral admixture
dozers- concrete preparation is ceased until malfunction is remedied.
- Malfunction detected at water and additive solution dozers- the production unit is
allowed to operate for 3 more days at most- during which dosage will be
performed with graded containers.

51
At least once a year and anytime it is necessary, the dosage devices will be subjected to
metrological verification.
9.3.5. The order of introduction of the component materials into the concrete mixer
begins with the maximum granularity aggregate, or it is performed in compliance with
the technical specifications of the machine.
9.3.6. Concrete mixing duration will be differentiated according to composition, concrete
class and type of preparation machine, as follows:
Minimum 1 minute after introduction of the last component into the mixer, for
concrete classes C16/20 C45/55 prepared without additives and mineral
admixtures.
Minimum 1 minutes after introduction of the last component into the concrete
mixer, for concrete classes C16/20 C45/55, prepared with additives
Minimum 2, respectively 2 minutes after introduction of the last component into
the concrete mixer, for concrete classes C16/20 C45/55, prepared with additives
and mineral admixtures.
Minimum 3 minutes, after introduction of the last component into the concrete mixer,
for concrete classes C50/60 C100/115, which include active additives and
admixtures for various classes.

9.4. Transport of concrete from the concrete production unit to the precast element
units
9.4.1. Transport of concrete from the concrete production unit to the technological liners
is performed depending on transport distance, concrete manageability and technical
equipment:
With belt carriers for S1, S2 concrete classes;
Hermetical bunkers, which may be self-propelled, installed on tractor trailers, electric
trucks, or transported on overhead traveling cranes, and other various types of crane
etc.
Self-agitators
9.4.2. Transport means must be in a good operational state, and concrete transport must
be performed in a minimum amount of time, avoiding bad roads. During concrete
transport outside the production halls, the concrete bunkers will be appropriately covered
and protected in order to avoid modification of any fresh concrete characteristics.

9.5. Verification and maintenance of concrete preparation and maintenance


machines

9.5.1. Every time the necessary interval for preparation of the next charges of concrete as
well as duration of load-unload of concrete from transportation means exceeds
1 hour at environment temperature <25 C;
hour at environment temperature >25 C,
then the machines used for concrete preparation and transport will be thoroughly cleaned
and washed with water. The same method applies for any work shift.
9.5.2. Verification of the technical condition of the machines used in concrete preparation
and transport is performed at the beginning of each work shift, by the personnel operating

52
them and every time verification is necessary, but at least once a week verification will be
performed by the technical and maintenance personnel of the production unit.
9.5.3. Tasks and qualifications of personnel operating the concrete production unit are
indicated in appendix 9.1 to current Code.

10. FASHIONING AND MOUNTING REINFORCEMENTS INTO PRECAST


ELEMENTS
10.1 Reinforcements for reinforced concrete

10.1.1. Fashioning of the bars, making and mounting the reinforcement carcasses will be
performed in strict compliance with provisions of the design.
10.1.2. Before fashioning the reinforcements, the executioner must analyze design
provisions, taking into account the practical bar mounting and fixing possibilities as well
as the technological aspects concerning concreting and compacting. If considered
necessary, the designer will reexamine the reinforcement provisions stipulated in the
design.
10.1.3. The reinforcement must be cut, bent, manipulated in such away as to prevent:
- mechanical deterioration (e. g. hits, indents);
- breaking of reinforcement welding in carcasses and in welded grids.
- Contact with substances that may negatively influence adherence properties or
may cause corrosion;
10.1.4. Fashioned reinforcements must be clean and straight. Thus, possible impurities on
reinforcement surfaces will be eliminated, as well as rust, especially in areas where bars
are to be joined together by welding.
After removal of rust, reduction of bar sections must not exceed deviations indicated in
the product standards.
The steel concrete delivered in bundles and the bent bars must be straightened before
cutting and fashioning, without deteriorating the profile (during stretching with the
winch, the maximum elongation will not exceed 1mm/m.
10.1.5. Cut and fashioned bars will be stored in labeled packages, so that they cannot be
confounded and their shape and purity is preserved until the moment of mounting.
10.1.6. Reinforcements cannot be fashioned at temperatures lower than -10C. Bars with
a periodical profiler and a diameter > 25 mm will be subjected to hot forming. Appendix
II.1 of NE012-99 Part A contains recommendations regarding forming, mounting and
joining of reinforcements.
10.1.7. The limit deviations during reinforcement mounting and forming are indicated in
STAS 6657/1-99.
10.1.8. Reinforcement joining is performed in compliance with design provisions and
with those in STAS 10107/0-90. Usually reinforcement joining is performed by
superimposition without welding, or by welding depending on bar type/diameter, type of
strain, areas of the element (for example potential plastic areas of the elements participant
in anti-seismic structures
10.1.8.1. Joining procedures can be performed via:
- superimposition
- welding

53
Reinforcement joining by superimposition must comply with STAS 10107/0-90 (Item
6.3).
Reinforcement joining by welding is performed through ordinary welding procedures
(electrical spot welding, electrical intermediary flash butt welding, manual butt arc
welding- shell welding, copper semi-sleeve welding- welding in a carbon dioxide
environment) in compliance with specific technical regulations concerning welding of
steel concrete (C 28-1983 and C 150-1984), that stipulate the minimum necessary lengths
for the welding seam, as well as execution conditions.
Authorized qualification of welders is compulsory.
10.1.8.2.Welding cannot be used to join reinforcements of steel whose qualities have
been improved mechanically (strained wire). This interdiction does not refer to multiple-
point welding from the knots of the welded meshes executed industrially.
10.1.8.3. When establishing distances between longitudinal reinforcement bars one must
take into account the supplementary spaces occupied by moulds, side bars, etc, depending
on the joining system adopted.
10.1.8.4. For loop joinings, the interior curve radius of the loops must comply with STAS
01107/0-90.
10.1.9. In case the assortments and diameters stipulated in the design are not available,
they may be replaced, with exclusive approval from the designer.
Replacement will be registered into the execution plans, which are submitted to the
Construction Book.
Minimum and respectively maximum distances between the bars, as well as the adopted
minimum diameters, must meet conditions stipulated in STAS 10107/0-1990 or in other
specific regulations.

10.2. Preparation and production of pretensioned reinforcements


10.2.1. Preparation for production of pretensioned reinforcements.
10.2.1.1. During the preparation works the following operations are included:
a) Verification of existence of the quality certificate, which will form the
reinforcement. In all uncertain cases concerning the corrosion state and its
consequences, approval from a specialized institute is required.
b) The steel surface will be cleaned of impurities, of the superficial non-adherent
rust layer and it will be degreased (where necessary), in order to ensure proper
anchorage into the locks, into the concrete or into the injection mortar.
c) Reinforcement that are to be simultaneously tensioned should, if possible,
originate from the sale lot.
d) Any reinforcement parts subjected to local bending and plastic deformation will
no longer be used, because the straightening operation is forbidden.
10.2.1.2. Portions of pretensioned reinforcements (wires, braids), which have been
pinched by the electric arc of the welding device, will not be used.
10.2.1.3. Superior steel bars that were subjected to slight deformation (less than 5 cm/m)
during transportations or storage will be mechanically straightened, at the temperature of
the surrounding environment, but at least +10 degrees Celsius. Rewinding of wire and
braids will be avoided, with various technological purposes, at rolling diameters smaller
than delivery diameters.

54
10.2.1.4. In case control of the pretensioning strain is also performed through elongation
of the reinforcement, then the reinforcement elasticity modulus must be known.
10.2.1.5. For individually pretensioned reinforcements, the elasticity modulus will be
determined by a specialized laboratory, in compliance with provisions of STAS 6605-
710.
10.2.1.6 Rewinding and cutting devices corresponding to the reinforcement type to be
produced are given thorough attention as far as length accuracy and inclination of cutting
sections (more exigent, for example, in the case of reinforcements with bulbs in its
extremities).

10.2.2. Production and positioning of the pre-tensile reinforcement


10.2.2.1. The method of production and positioning of the pre-tensile reinforcement as
well as of the other reinforcements and embedded pieces, will regularly be specified in
the technical design of the precompressed concrete element.
10.2.2.2. Length cutting will be performed so as not to cause damage to the cutting
section, which might prevent introduction of the reinforcement through the distancing
screen, in the inventory locks of the pretensioning installations or other technological
operations. During cutting, it is recommended that braid(ing) areas be eliminated where
one of the component wires is patched, if such areas can be identified.
10.2.2.3. Reinforcements must not be made dirty by contact with the oiled portions of the
form walls or those of casting platforms.
10.2.2.4. Deviations from the element section position of the pretensioned reinforcements
must not exceed 3 mm compared to designed positions, unless otherwise specified in the
product design/ specifications.
10.2.2.5. For laying and keeping the pre-tensile reinforcement in the design position,
distancing metallic screens will be used. In stand technology, some of these screens are
fixed and some are moveable. Diameter of screen holes will be larger than the diameter
of the pre-tensile reinforcement by 12 mm in case of wires and by 23 mm in case of
braids, unless otherwise specified.
Blockage devices at extremities of the stand will be placed in such a way that the
maximum reinforcement deviation from the last distance piece does not exceed a slope of
1/10.
10.2.2.6. In order to allow placement into position of the non-pretensioned reinforcement,
pretensioning will be admitted, in two stages. The first stage pretensioning force will be
established depending on the adopted execution technology, but it will not exceed 40% of
the prescribed control force. Nonpretensioned reinforcements will be installed and
positioned (without being connected with pretensioned reinforcements), and after these
operations definitive pretensioning can be performed in order to obtain the force of
control.
10.2.2.7. Pretensioned/ non-pretensioned reinforcement positioning systems whose
metallic pieces reach the concrete pieces are forbidden.
10.2.2.8. The devices used for pretensioned reinforcement anchorage will be those
specified in the precompression procedure documentation.

55
10.2.3. Production of post-tensile reinforcement
10.2.3.1. When cutting the wires, braids or bars in order to produce the post-tensile
reinforcement, the used tools and devices must not cause deformations to their
extremities, so that cases are not deteriorated when reinforcements are introduced into the
channels as well as to allow correct performance of various subsequent operations.
10.2.3.2. All necessary precautions must be taken so that the steel is not made dirty with
earth, greasy materials a. s. o. and that it is not bent or scratched during cutting and
production operations.
10.2.3.3 In order to avoid degradation of final reinforcement protections, the minimal
measures to be taken into account during production and positioning will be indicated by
the reinforcement producer or by the designer via the task book; the performer of the
works will thus adapt and complete the measures depending on the used work
technologies.
10.2.3.4. Stacks used for post-tensile elements can be produced prior to elements or
produced directly by pushing the reinforcement, gradually unwound from the bundle, and
by successive length cutting (if the applied procedure allows this operation).
Workshop equipment will depend on the average production capacities, as well as on the
type of stack to be produced.
Upon delivery, individual stacks and braids evacuated into workshops will be
accompanied by a quality certificate that must contain the number of the quality
certificate of the wires which make up the stacks, as well as braid quality certificates.
All data (conditions, performance criteria) concerning production of post-tensile must be
stipulated in the design (task book) based on data regarding technical agreements/
technical specifications (company standards) of the used precompression procedure.
INCERC procedures will comply with conditions in NE012-99, Part B, chp. 3 and table
in appendix 4.
10.2.4. Provisions regarding production of post-tensile reinforcement channels are those
included in the documentation of the precompression procedure, the execution procedure
and NE012-99, Part B.
10.2.5. Mounting of the post-tensile is performed before or after concreting, depending
on the precompression procedure, type of cases etc, in compliance with provisions of the
design. Supplementary case protection and use of procedures to increase their rigidity (or
example on cold or humid weather) will be mentioned for agreement.
Subsequent introduction of stacks can be performed via pushing or pulling.
The advance stack head will be equipped with a cone-shaped piece anchored by the wires
of the stack.
The alternative mounting of stacks by successively pushing the component elements,
unwound directly from the coil, into the channel, will be applied in the case of braids; the
advance head will be protected with a cone-shaped piece. For this procedure to be
applied, the braid must be unwound at the interior of the coil.
Before closing the formwork the state and position of the cases must be verified: this is a
stationary point for which a report for hidden works will be issued, concerning:
a) observance of deviation limits by the performed route, in compliance to design
provisions;

56
b) vertical or horizontal parasite deformations (winding) between support points,
which may introduce additional friction not taken into account in the design
c) Case deteriorations (cracks, penetration, slipping) that were not repaired.
d) Inappropriately sealed points at case joinings.
e) Mounting the joints for injection and aeration
In case infringements are discovered, all the necessary remedies must be performed.
In order to prevent water penetration into channels and corrosion, during the interval
between reinforcement mounting into channels and start of pretensioning and injection
operations the apparent extremities of the stack must be protected (with bituminous
carbon, plastic cases etc) and the stack exit area must be sealed.

10.2.6. Anchorages, blockages

The anchorage and blockage systems form precompression are regularly considered as a
component part of the precompression process, together with the used precompressed
reinforcement (The Specification Concerning Requirements and Performance Criteria for
Precompression Processes was elaborated and soon to be published).
Anchorages for post-tensile reinforcements and blockages for pre-tensile reinforcements
must have a resistance capacity at least equal to the characteristic ultimate strength of the
pretensioned reinforcement, without significant deformations of the component pieces.
Anchorage of pre-tensile reinforcements will be performed with homologated blockages
or blockages, which have a technical approval, appropriate for the various reinforcement
types.
In case individual braids are used as post-tensile reinforcements, anchorages (blockages)
that are insensitive to corrosion will be used.
For several technologies specific to certain elements, (tubes, pillars, sleepers) special
anchorage procedures can be used, homologated at the same time with the respective
technological installation, or separately, by technical agreement.
For pre-tensile reinforcements, anchorage safety will also be verified under the influence
of vibration for concrete compactation.
The components of anchorages and blockages will be handled and kept in conditions that
prevent deterioration and corrosion.
Based on periodical verifications, blockages that no longer insure anchorage safety to
pre-tensile reinforcements and no longer observe the limit values for slipping during
blockage- will be replaced.

57
11. PRETENSIONING OF THE REINFORCEMENTS INTO PRECAST
ELEMENTS

11.1. Precompressed concrete works will be executed exclusively based on a design


elaborated by a specialized design unit, and verified by authorized verification specialists.
The used precompression procedures will comply with conditions stipulated in the
Specification Concerning Requirements and Performance Criteria for Precompression
Procedures.
INCERC precompression procedures, machines and pretensioning equipment are
included in appendixes 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 13 from NE 012-99 Part B.
Precompression works (pretensioning, injection) will be executed only by teams with at
least a member has the appropriate valid professional certification, issued by INCERC or
PROCEMA SA.
11.2. The following items are used for pretensioning precast elements:
- pre-tensile reinforcements when using the elements on stands or in formworks
- post-tensile reinforcements, when manufacturing the following elements:
section elements
precast elements
elements with precompression performed in stages
11.3. Tensioning is performed according to a tensioning program previously developed
and approved.
Pretensioning devices will comply with the pretensioning system applied in accordance
with the approved documentation. Use of the installations will be made in compliance
with system manufacturer indications and with technological rules for execution of the
precompressed concrete element. Imported installations will be will be technically
certified as per Government Decision No 1046/1996, guaranteed by the suppliers and
verified by the users at their maximum capacity.
During tensioning special safety measures must be taken and reported in writing.
11.4. Reinforcement pretensioning will be regularly performed at temperatures of
minimum +5C. For pre-tensile reinforcements the limit can be reduced to 0C. In the
cold season the pretensioning stage will be correlated with measures to insure the
necessary temperature conditions for completion of the following operations, especially
protection through injection. In case of elements executed on stands, the temperature
difference of the surrounding environment between tensioning and concreting must not
exceed 15C.
11.5. The data resulted from verification of the pretensioning installations, and results of
reinforcement measurements, results of measurements concerning slipping of the
reinforcements in blockages/anchorages and of the strain in the pretensioned
reinforcement, as well as the pretensioning program- will be attached to the file of the
works.

58
11.6. Requirements concerning manometers used in precompression are indicated in
NE012-99, Part B, item 11.3.
11.7. For installations where reinforcement pretensioning is performed in a group,
measures will be taken to ensure uniformity of reinforcement strains (for example
INCERC type compensation cylinders, poly-cylindrical pieces, preliminary stretching of
each reinforcement, with a strain of at least 0.1 of the control strain value, a. s. o.)
11.8. Locking of pretensioned reinforcements is performed in blockages specific for the
used pretensioning installation, which correspond to provisions referring to anchorages
and blockages.
11.9. Except for verification performed during its reception, the pretensioning installation
will be verified periodically, at least quarterly, in order to establish the correspondence
between indications of the installation measurement device and the exerted force.
Verification will be performed after each replacement of any installation component as
well as in all cases when anomalies are discovered (different elongation values than those
calculated, deep scratches in the piston surface, high pressures during open circuit piston
movement a. s. o.)
Control may also be performed by an authorized institution/person.
It is recommended that verification materials have a precision class smaller or equal than
1.
At the beginning of each work shift installation operation will be verified.
11.10. The pretensioning program, included in the technological sheet, will comprise data
concerning:
- identification (element type, date of program elaboration)
- used technology (bearing form, stand)
- type and characteristics of the pretensioning installation
- pretensioned reinforcement type
- pretension force established in the design
- tension losses determined in compliance with indications of this chapter
- pretension force to be exerted, taking into account the measured tension losses.
- Control values for various time intervals (after pretensioning or prior to transfer)
established by mutual agreement by the designer and the manufacturer, necessary
for verifications to be performed; the possible variation limits, taking into account
the effect of strain relaxation/alleviation inside the pretensioned reinforcement;
the allowed deviations during the pretensioning strain obtained with hydraulic
pieces are 3% for the average strain in all reinforcements and 5% for a
separate armor.
11.11. For verification of tension losses necessary for the pretensioning program, design
provisions and manufacturing technological rules must be taken into account. When
determining the respective losses (up to the transfer phase), it is recommended that a
specialized, authorized institute or laboratory with appropriate equipment be asked for
collaboration.
Technological conditions must correspond to those in current production. Minimum 3
determinations will be performed on the same technological line, for different
technological execution cycles, and the average value obtained will be taken into account.

59
If the pretensioning force does not differ from design pretensioning force by more than
3 % (taking into account losses as mentioned in previous paragraph), then no
corrections will be necessary.
For bigger differences the necessary measures will be decided together with the designer.

11.12. In order to begin reinforcement pretensioning verification will be performed as


follows:
- blockage appropriateness;
- whether reinforcement diameter and placement in the blockages and in the
positioning screen comply with the design;
- whether safety devices of the pretensioning installation (for example pressure
limitation valves) are set to the prescribed value;
- whether the various installation components, especially joinings of hydraulic
installations are in a good condition and correspond to the operation program;
- whether the support piece of the press corresponds to the type of blockage used;
- whether the blockage piston stroke is sufficient for appropriate pressure of the
blockage wedges after reaching the control force inside the reinforcement (in the
case of unifilar/ single-core/ single-wire installations)
- whether all work safety are observed
- whether all conditions are provided so that all the other technological operations
can be performed in compliance with the rules of the technology envisaged during
elaboration of the pretensioning program, as well as in due time, in order to avoid
keeping the reinforcement in a tensioned and non-concreted state or too long.
11.13. Reinforcement pretensioning will be performed in compliance with the established
program; installation elements must be assembled the same way as during verification
sessions, without introduction of any additional sources tension loss (faucets, reduced
section pipes etc).
11.14. Control over generating and maintaining pretensioned reinforcement strain within
the established limits will be exercised by engineering personnel trained in the field
(certification by a specialized institute is recommended), base on a program of
observations and measurements that, apart from installation and manometer verification,
will also comprise at least the following operations:
a) Measurement of reinforcement slipping for each blockage, at least once every two
weeks.
The registered values must regularly observe limitations prescribed in the element design.
Prescribed values can be exceeded (by maximum 50%) in the case of reinforcement
longer than 18 m.
Research will be done in order to see whether exceeding of the slips is caused by
inappropriate operation of the pretensioning installation, for example lack or pressure or
insufficient pressure of the blockage wedges.
b) Verification of the pretensioned reinforcement strain, to be performed periodically, for
minimum 10% of the total number of reinforcements.
It is recommended that measurements be performed at the same time interval after
pretensioning, for all reinforcements. The respective interval will correspond to
indications of the pretensioning program.

60
11.15. Apart from verifications indicated at item 11.14 other measures may also be taken,
especially in the case of particular technological processes (intense vibration, centrifugal
action etc) that may influence reinforcement blockage conditions. In such cases possibly
reinforcement slipping during the various technological stages will be followed via
reference markings on the reinforcements (immediately after pretensioning), in order to
repair all malfunctions.
11.16. Data obtained from verifications, as well as data referring to reinforcement
pretensioning (for each element or for element groups) will be obligatorily registered
chronologically in a register of the pretensioning team, and which will then be kept for a
pre-established amount of time, in compliance with documentation of the manufacturer
quality system. The element production record will only comprise data indicated in 11.15.
Production units will also adopt other measures for recording and keeping pretensioning
data, in compliance with their own quality system.
11.17. Pretensioning records to be entered into the element production sheet will
comprise data concerning pretensioning force for various reinforcement types, findings
and observations representing possible differences compared to the pretensioning
program.
11.18. Tensioning of post-tensile reinforcements will be performed in the conditions
indicated in 11.1- 11.13, with homologated pretensioning installations. Work methods are
detailed in the technical books of the respective installations. It is recommended that as
far as the rhythm of works allows- tensioning be avoided during high environmental
humidity periods.
11.19. Determination of friction forces can be done either with appropriate force captors
of precision class I, or with another press of the same type, as per provisions of NE012,
Part B, item 11.18.
11.20. The following preliminary operations will be performed on the element to be
prtensioned:
a) Verify whether all measures were taken during execution, to allow deformation in
compliance with the static scheme adopted in the design.
b) Verify whether anchorages have been checked and whether they correspond to
pretensioning conditions.
c) Verify the quality certificate of the steel the stacks are made of.
d) Concrete will be examined, especially the anchorage support area, to that it does
not have any segregation, fissures or other malfunctions or degradations. Also,
position and diameter of distributor plate hole will be checked to see if they
correspond to the type of anchorage uses.
e) Verify whether degradations influencing the element resistance capacity have
been remedied; the duration of hardening process for materials used for repair
works.
f) Verify whether the extremity of the fascicle channel and the distributor plate are
perpendicular. In case this perpendicularity is not perfect on all directions
(maximum 3), then feather-shaped metallic plates will be used under the entire
anchorage, in order to correct the respective deviations.
g) The appropriate test bodies will be tried and will be kept under the same
conditions as the concrete element, in order to determine the concrete

61
compression resistance. For constructions made of arch bricks or precast panels
obtained via precompression, the quality certificates issued by the producer,
which guarantee appropriate concrete quality, must also be present on site. In case
there is any doubt concerning concrete quality, or in case of deteriorations of
precompression elements, non-destructive tests will be performed in order to
determine the effective concrete resistance.
For elements made of arch bricks, trials will be performed on the test pieces,
sampled from the joint filling materials. The test pieces will be kept in the
assembly location. Resistance to transfer for the joint material will comply
provisions of the design.
h) Formworks will be executed as far as the possibility to alleviate displacement
during precompression is concerned.
i) The possibility of fascicle movement into channels will be verified; with the help
of compressed air, dust or water that may penetrate into channels will be
evacuated.
11.21. The following preliminary operations will be performed for pretensioning
reinforcement:
a) Reinforcement state (its conservation method) will be verified. Individual
fascicles/reinforcements with a layer of superficial rust on the wire surface, which
can be cleaned by simple wiping with non-abrasive materials, will be kept in the
channels. In the other cases approval is necessary from a specialized institute
(laboratory). Findings concerning reinforcement state will be recorded into the
element production sheet.
b) Reinforcement section will be verified, to see whether it corresponds to section
indicated in design.
11.22. The designer will establish values of the force and control elongation in the factory
or on site, based on determinations, which are performed by the engineer responsible
with precompression; determinations refer to the following:
a) value of the control force, tasking into account the real value of losses through
friction.
b) Value of control elongation of the pretensioned reinforcement for the control
tensile-stress intensity, taking into account the established reinforcement elasticity
modulus and losses through friction, determined during execution. Elongation
will be calculated for the total fascicle length, including the portions leading to
press clamping anchorages.
c) Determinations concerning the special precompression program, if the design
stipulates that precompression must be performed in stages, taking into account
the conditions the respective operations are performed in.
Data from paragraphs a), b), c) and d) will be established together with the element
designer or, in the case of elements executed in compliance with a certain product
technical specification (standard), with a specialist certified for precompression
processes.
11.23. Detailed provisions concerning pretensioning post-tensile reinforcements are
included in Part B of NE012-99.

62
12. CASTING, COMPACTING AND FINISHING THE CONCRETE IN
PRECAST ELEMENTS

12.1. Preparation for precast element production


12.1.1. Production of precast elements made of reinforced concrete and precompressed
concreten is performed based on designs for each type of elements, developed in
compliance to STAS 6657/1-89 and to execution procedures elaborated by the precast
element production unit, on basis of provisions of current projects, the current Code and
technical regulations.
Simple concrete precast elements such as small and large masonry blocks made of light
concrete; simple concrete sewage pipes; concrete tiles (SR-EN 490-99); slabs, sidewalk
plates and boards, road norders etc- are built based on execution procedures developed by
the precasting unit in compliance with product standards and with current technical
regulations.
12.1.2. Management of precast element production works must be assigned to specialized
engineers with qualification and practical experience in the field, helped by experienced
foremen and technicians.
12.1.3. Before starting production of precast elements, the precast element production
unit must thoroughly examine the element design and must notify the designer and the
investor about possible mistakes or inaccuracies between provisions and the possible
execution difficulties of the design, trials on element types etc.
Suggestions for design improvement, results of the initial tests on types of elements,
proposals for changing concrete class or reinforcement methods- will be verified by the
designer and introduced into the design after their analyses and approval. No
modification in the production design for precast elements made of reinforced or
precompressed elements, is allowed without written agreement from the element
designer.
12.1.4. Before starting production of precast elements the following verifications must be
performed:
a) correspondence of the concrete composition (casting recipe) with the one
established by preliminary testing by an authorized laboratory, confirmed via
trials on types of elements or through application to another type of elements
during production, in the technological conditions of the precast element
production unit.
b) Verify whether machines and other means used for preparation, transport,
compacting, finishing and treatment of the concrete in the precast elements are in
good operation conditions.
c) In formworks correspond to provisions concerning the design of elements to be
built were correctly assembled and oiled
d) If reinforcements (including reinforcements for joinings, clamping, laminated
profiles, bowsprit guy, platbands etc) were mounted in compliance with the
design and if the reinforcements have not been stained with formwork oiling
solution
e) If precompression was executed in compliance with the design and with the
stipulations of this code, in the case of precompressed concrete.

63
f) If work personnel training has been complete, aiming at construction of each
technological operation mentioned in the internal technical procedures and
development of each type of precast elements.
12.2.1. The composition of concrete, established by an authorized laboratory and verified
as per item 12.1.4a is corrected any time is necessary, depending on daily variations in
humidity and sort granularity.
It is recommended that fresh concrete temperature at casting location stay within limits
+10-+30C. If temperature at casting location is below +10C then the measures
stipulated in normative C16-84 will be taken; if temperature exceeds +30 C, the
following measures will be applied for production of precast elements:
- measures to reduce concrete temperature by cooling the water and if necessary the
aggregates
- measures to delay start of hardening by using the adequate delay additives.
12.2.2. Transport of concrete from the concrete mixing plant to the form casting location
will be performed as per chapter 9, in adequate transport vehicles, on even roads,
distances as short as possible and in a time as short as possible, so that:
- no concrete segregations and cement grout losses occur
- no significant reductions occur in manageability of fresh concrete.
12.2.3. Concrete casting must be performed continuously and as evenly as possible on the
entire form surface. It is forbidden to cast concrete in the center of the form and to push it
with the vibrator towards the extremities and margin areas of the elements.
12.2.4. Compactation o the concrete in precast elements is performed by vibration, using,
depending on the circumstances, the following:
- formwork vibrators
- vibrating tables or support
- plate vibrators or vibrating rules
- pervibrator/ internal vibrator
Choice of vibrator type(s) is made depending on the type, shape and size of the elements,
on reinforcement number and on concrete consistency.
12.2.5. The number, position and characteristics of the vibrators must comply with
provisions of designs and internal technical procedures, for each type of element.
Establishing the ideal vibration duration is made by experiment, at the beginning of each
series of elements, through test trials depending on features of elements in production, on
the features of the used vibrators and on concrete manageability. The vibration duration is
recorded in the appendixes of the technical procedures or element production.
12.2.6. The following general directions should be taken into account in order to establish
the vibration process:
- surface precast elements, cast in a horizontal position with a thickness below 20-
25 cm can be compacted with vibrating supports, vibrating table or plates;
concrete settlement 50mm; thickness of fresh concrete before compactation
1.151.25 of the final thickness, depending on consistency; vibration duration
is 8-25, depending on concrete consistency, vibrator features, element shape and
number of reinforcement.
- Flat precast elements with height below 3 m, manufactured in a vertical position,
can be compacted with formwork vibrators or internal vibrators, depending on
element shape and size, on the placement and the number of reinforcement etc. In

64
these situations concrete settlement will be 10 cm, and vibration duration varies
between 6-20 depending on the previously indicated parameters
- Elements suh as piles or beams, produced in a horizontal position depending on
size, shape, reinforcement method, reinforcement number and concrete
consistency- can be compacted with formwork vibrators and vibrating tables or
supports. (in certain inside vibration cases). Vibration duration limits are very
elastic (depending on above-mentioned parameters)- between 6-84-6 minutes
or even more, for a 24 m long beam. Compactation is performed in three reprises.
- Plates less than 20 cm thick can be compacted with vibrating plates, tables or
supports; concrete settlement 4 cm; vibration duration 15-45 depending on
various parameters.
- When compacting very thick elements with interior vibrators, thickness of the
concrete layer subjected to compactation must not exceed 3/54/5 of the height
of the vibrator height (the flask). When compacting the following concrete layer,
the vibrator head must penetrate 10-15 deep into the previously compacted layer.
12.2.7. During casting and compactation of the concrete used in elements, reinforcements
and embedded pieces must preserve the positions indicated in the project and must not be
subjected to degradation or deformation.
12.2.8. Finishing of mass-production precast elements is generally performed with the
leveling board, smoothing board and smoother, taking care that their surfaces are always
perfectly plane, with no dimensional deviations, scratches etc.
Based on specific provisions of the architecture design, for certain types of elements
various high quality finishes are executed with the apparent aggregates, as well as various
models etc, whose technical prescriptions, attached to the design, also establish the
prouction and reception methods of the finishing works. Such finishes are considered
specific works and are not the object of the current code.
12.2.9. Operations of usual casting- compacting- finishing of precast elements on the
fresh concrete is executed continuously, without interruptions, until production of each
element.
12.2.10. Interruption of concrete casting during production of precast elements of
reinforced concrete is accepted in exceptional circumstances. Measures must be taken to
ensure concreting continuity when works are restarted, through adequate procedures. No
concreting interruption is allowed during production of precast elements made of
precompressed concrete.

13. AFTER-CASTING TREATMENT AND PROTECTION OF CONCRETE


HARDENED AT THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SURROUNDING
ENVIRONMENT
13.1. General provisions
13.1.1. In order to obtain the general potential properties of the concrete, the surface area
(especially) must be treated and protected for a certain period of time, depending on the
element type, on the environmental conditions during casting and exposure conditions
during the service period of the element/structure.
13.1.2. Concrete treatment and protection must begin as soon after compacting as
possible.

65
13.1.3. Protection materials will be used to cover the concrete as soon as it has gained
enough resistance, so that protection material does not adhere to concrete surface.
13.1.4. Concrete treatment is a protection measure against:
- premature drying, particularly because of solar radiations and wind action
Concreter protection is a measure to prevent:
- Effects of cement paste drainage because of rainfalls;
- Effects of high temperature differences inside the concrete
- Effects of low temperature or freezing
- Effects of possible shocks or vibrations that may lead to a decrease in concrete-
reinforcement adherence (after concrete hardening)
13.1.5. The main treatment/ protection measures are:
- maintaining the concrete into the forms;
- covering concrete with protection materials, maintained in a wet state
- periodical sprinkling with water
- laying of protection membranes/ films.
13.2. Duration of treatment
Duration of treatment depends on:
a) Concrete sensitivity to treatment, depending on its composition
The most important concrete composition characteristics influencing concrete treatment
duration are: the water/cement ratio, cement dosage, type and class and proportion of
additives.
Concrete with reduced water content (low A/C ratio), which contains fast-hardening
cements (R), reaches a certain impermeability level much faster than a concrete with high
A/C ratio and normally hardening cements; therefore the treatment duration differs
accordingly.
Because, depending on exposure class, concretes prepared with type II composite
cements are more sensitive to carbonation than concretes prepared with type I Portland
cements, extension of treatment duration for the former is recommended, in case the
same A/C ratio is used.
b) Concrete temperature.
Usually, the lower the exterior temperature, the shorter the treatment time is. Concrete
temperature after casting depends in temperature of surrounding environment, on the type
and class of cement, the size of the structural elements and on the insulation properties of
the formwork.
c) Atmospheric conditions during and after casting
Treatment duration depends on the temperature of the surrounding environment, humidity
and wind velocity, which may accelerate premature drying of the concrete.
d) Service and exposure conditions of the structure
The more severe the exposure conditions are, the longer treatment duration will have to
be extended. Table 13.1. presents a reference duration form concrete treatment depending
on development of concrete resistance, on concrete temperature and environmental
conditions during treatment.
Table 13.2 presents appreciations on development of concrete resistance depending on
the water/cement ratio and on the cement resistance class.

66
Table 13.1
Reference duration (in days) of concrete treatment
Concrete resistance Fast Average Slow
development
Concrete temperature 5 10 15 5 10 15 5 10 15
during treatment
Environmental conditions 2 2 1 3 3 2 4 4 2
during treatment. Elements
indirectly exposed to
sunlight, 80% humidity
Elements exposed to 4 3 2 6 4 3 8 5 4
sunlight or average velocity
wind, humidity over 50%
Elements exposed to 4 3 2 8 6 5 10 8 5
intense sunlight (or) at a
high wind velocity and
humidity below 50%

Table 13.2.

Speed of concrete resistance Water/ Cement ratio Cement resistance class


development
Fast <0.5 42.5R-52.5R
Average
0.5 0.6 42.5R
<0.5 32.5R-42.5
Slow All the other cases

Treatment duration presented in table 13.1 has a reference character; duration is


established for each particular case, depending on considerations presented in this
chapter.
Table 13.1 presents recommendations regarding concrete treatment duration for Type I
cements (Portland) and temperatures of 5C, 10C and 15C. Treatment duration
significantly depends on concrete temperature: for example treatment duration can be
shorter for 30concrete than for 20C concrete. Thus, insulation of the formworks can be
a method or treatment duration reduction.
The concrete prepared with cements that also contain components other than clinker (type
II, III, IV etc) or containing certain admixture types is much more sensitive to treatment
than concrete prepared with type I cement, for the same water/cement ratio. In these cases
it is recommended that, apart from conditions in the table, treatment duration increase by
an average of two days for concrete prepared with type II, III or IV cements.
In case the concrete is subjected to intense wear and tear or if the structure is subjected to
severe exposure conditions, the recommended treatment duration will be 5 6 days.
NOTE: If no data is available about concrete composition, exposure conditions during
construction service period, humidity will be maintained at least 7 days after casting, in
order to provide favorable hardening conditions and to reduce deformations through
contraction.
13.3. Concrete protection will be performed with various materials (tarpaulins, sand
layers etc). The protection material must be wetted permanently.

67
13.4. Water sprinkling will start 2-12 hours after casting, depending on the used cement
type and on temperature of the environment, but immediately after the concrete
sufficiently hardened, so that this operation doe not entrain the cement paste.
Sprinkling is repeated at intervals of 2-8 hours, so that the surface always remains wet.
The water used will meet the same quality conditions as those for mixing water.
In case water temperature is lower than 5C, no water sprinkling will be performed;
protection materials or films will be used instead. Generally, when concrete resistance
reaches at least 10 N/mm2, protection is no longer necessary. Protection films are applied
in compliance with special regulations.
In case of forms installed on exterior platforms, in polygons etc, during rainfalls the fresh
concrete surfaces will be covered by tarpaulins or with polyethylene, for as long as
rainfall risks to entrain the cement paste.

14. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CONCRETES FOR WHICH


HARDENING ACCELERATION IS OBTAINED VIA THERMAL TREATMENT

14.1. Concrete treatment procedures and methods


14.1.1. Acceleration of concrete hardening in precast element production units represents
an important technological operation, whose main purpose is significant reduction of
production cycles and ensuring resistance during striking and transfer of the
precompression forces, in reduced time intervals and in any temperature conditions.
Hardening acceleration is made through various procedures and requires adequate
installations and close control, in order to ensure precast element quality.
Note: In case of precompressed elements, the effect of the thermal treatment on tension
losses must be known indicated in design provisions.
14.1.2. Concrete hardening acceleration in precast element production units is performed
through various procedures, such as:
a) use or super-reducer additives (super-plasticizers) for a settlement of 6-10 cm,
maintaining cement dosages and increasing initial and final concrete resistances,
by reducing preparation water quantity in relation to the witness concrete sample;
b) use of chloride-free hardening and adherence acceleration additives;
c) thermo-wetting treatment of the concrete, by steaming (live/ working steam) at
normal pressure and temperatures under 60C
d) thermal treatment by contact heating, in heating forms
e) thermal treatment through electrical heating.
f) Thermal treatment with infrared or electromagnetic radiations
g) Thermal treatment with hot water, oil or other hot liquids with or without pressure
h) Other homologated procedures;
i) Some mixed procedures such as: preparation of concrete with reduced A/C ratio
(item 14.1.2a) with hardening and adherence accelerators (item 14.1.2b) and use
of thermo-insulating forms, for thermal treatment reduced to 2-30 hours necessary
to increase initial concrete temperature to 35-45C and continuation of concrete
hardening through conservation of concrete hydration heat;
j) Preparation of concrete as indicated in item 14.12c-g, at temperatures of 40-50C
etc.

68
14.1.3. In precast units, concrete hardening acceleration by thermal treatment is
performed as follows:
- thermal treatment in heating forms with low-pressure steam or hot water
(sometimes with hot oil) at temperatures of maximum 60C;
- thermal treatment in tunnels (thermal treatment chambers), or treatment tubs;
- various local procedures etc.
14.1.4. Heating forms represent formworks with double walls, within which temperature
increase up to the pre-established level is possible, by placing winding pipes at the
interior of the formworks, through which pressurized steam of hot water circulate.
Execution of the forms in the heaters must ensure the following:
- even heating on the entire surface that comes in contact with the concrete
- forms must have a thermo-insulating layer on the free surfaces, which must limit
energy losses to maximum 80 Kcal/m 2 /h.
- forms must have the appropriate rigidity in order to avoid occurrence of
permanent deformations, during manipulation, striking, forming, etc.
- uniformity of temperatures on the heating surface, so that the maximum
temperature difference between various points does not exceed 8C
14.1.5. Precast elements with a maximum thickness of 14 cm (boards, plates, wall
elements etc) can be heated on only one side during thermal treatment. In this case, the
other side will be covered with impermeable sheets over which thermo-insulating
mattresses are laid; is the unheated side is encased, then the respective forming must be
thermo-insulating.
During treatment with piles of heating forms, the superior form represents the heating lid
for the superior concrete surface in the inferior form; either a thermo-insulating lid or an
impermeable sheet and thermo-insulating mattress are placed over the last form.
Sealed enclosures with tarpaulins, plastic sheets, light panels etc are placed around the
piles of heating forms, in order to reduce energy losses cause by air currents and in order
to maintain even heating of the forms on all surfaces.
14.1.6. The tunnels (chambers, tubs, basins, enclosures etc) or thermal treatment
represent enclosed subterranean or surface spaces, thermally insulated, which ensure the
temperature and humidity conditions necessary for concrete hardening. In order to heat
these spaces, hot steam, water or oil winding pipes, placed in such a way as to ensure
uniform heating or the thermal treatment space; atomizers, water containers, steam is
used to ensure the appropriate humidity.
Tunnels, thermal treatment chambers etc must the thermally insulated and sealed, so that
energy losses do not exceed 80 Kcal/m 2 /h.

69
14.2. Thermal treatment and thermal treatment cycles for concrete
14.2.1. For concretes prepared with cements with a C 3 A content >8%, an SO 3 content
>3.5% and a total alkali content exceeding 3.5 kg/m 3 of concrete, the maximum
admitted temperature in heating forms, tunnels, thermal treatment chambers is 60C.
The maximum temperature of 60C is also admitted in the various measurement points in
the precast elements, complying with the following requirements:
- no fissures on the precast element surface must occur in the thermal treatment
interval
- the laboratory of the precast element production unit must demonstrate, via
periodical tests (recorded and performed at least once a semester), on a series of
concrete cubes, concrete class C30/37 or C40/50, that (14.1.)
R cub TT 0.90R cub 28IN (14.1), where: R cub TT= the average resistance of the
concrete cube series thermally treated;
R cub IN = the average resistance of the witness cube series, made of the same
concrete mixture and hardened in production conditions without thermal treatment.
14.2.2. The thermal treatment temperature in forms, tunnels, measurement points on
elements etc must not exceed 75C, in the following conditions:
- the C 3 A content in the used concrete- 8%; SO 3 content 3.5%; the total alkali
content in the concrete is 3.5 kg/m 3 ;
- no fissures on the precast element surface must occur in the thermal treatment
interval
- the laboratory of the precast element production unit must demonstrate, via
periodical tests (recorded and performed at least once a semester), on a series of
concrete cube tests pieces, concrete class C30/37 or C40/50, that (14.2.):
R cub 28TT and R cub 90TT = R cub 28IN and R cub 90IN (14.2.), where notations
have the same significance as in relation 14.1; trial tests range between 28 and 90
days. Tests are to be performed between 28 and 90 days.
14.2.3. The concrete thermal treatment cycle includes the following stages:
a) The waiting period (or pre-hardening T P ) from end of execution process up to
start of the treatment, which varies between 3 and 6 h, depending on the
temperature of the work environment and on concrete temperature.
b) The period of temperature increase (T R ) starting from heating of forms, tunnels,
chamber etc until the isotherm treatment temperature is reached. It is
recommended that temperature increase speed vary between the limits 10-15C
/h. In case of precast elements made of reinforced concrete of maximum class
C35/45, prepared from cements II/A-S (with reduced hardening) temperature
rising speed must not exceed 20C (recommended 12/18 C/h, depending on
massiveness of the elements.
c) The isotherm treatment period (T I ), which depends mainly on concrete
composition, but also cement type and dosage, A/C ratio, type and dosage of
additives and admixtures, maximum treatment temperature, massiveness of
elements, isolation capacity of forms, treatment chambers etc, and which is
established via preliminary tests for every precast element production facility.

70
d) period of temperature decrease (cooling of the elements- T r ), within the interval
between interruption of the thermal treatment and up to striking of the elements,
which must ensure a temperature decrease speed of 15C/ h.

14.2.4. Depending on the maximum isotherm treatment temperature, table 14.1 presents
reference durations for the various concrete thermal treatment cycles.

Maximum treatment Duration of period, in hours Concrete age during


temperature striking

Ta Tr Ti Tr
555 4 24 410 2-4 1222
455 4 2... 3 2 14 2-3 16 24
355 4 12 1221 1-2 1929

14.2.5. The isotherm treatment period (Ti) depends on concrete composition parameters
(maximum density granularity, cement type and dosage, type and dosage of additives
compatible with the cement used, type and dosage of admixtures during preparation, the
A/C ratio), isolation degree of the forms, tunnels and treatment chambers, maximum
treatment temperature, massiveness of the elements, extension of the element cooling
period within certain limits.
The minimum time for reaching the resistance to striking, to transport and delivery is
obtained through:
-use of high quality aggregate mixture in an appropriate proportion
- fast hardening cement s I42R, I52R, both in an appropriate dosage;
- performant additives (super water reducer) compatible with the cement, use to
reduce to maximum of the A/C ratio, in certain technological conditions (effective
thermo-insulations (thermo-insulation of forms, treatment chambers etc).
- effective prolongation of the element cooling period.
14.2.6. Establishment of the thermal treatment cycle is based preliminary tests, as
follows:
- during treatment of the first element of a certain type, 8 series of cubic tests pieces, for
tests that are subjected to the same thermal treatment with the tanks;
- Duration of isotherm treatment mentioned in table 14.1 is adopted and the following
procedures are used:
- -two series of cubes will be drawn cooled and tested after the minimal treatment
duration indicated in Table 14.1; then two series of test pieces will be extracted, at
intervals of
2 hours if Ti= 555 and 455 C
3 hours if Ti= 355 and
- of the two series of test pieces taken out in the same temperature treatment
interval, one is taken out after the minimum cooling period while the other one
will be tested after maximum cooling area. Prior to testing the test pieces will be
appropriately protected, so that their cooling is not abrupt. Test results are
recorded and analyzed in order to establish the optimal cycle of treatment, which
ensures:

71
obtaining striking resistance, transfer
integration into the technological production cycle
minimum energy consumption

The established duration of treatment cycle periods will be verified on 10-12 product lots
and recorded into the technical production procedures of precast elements.
14.2.7. The maximum thermal treatment temperature will be adopted taking into account
the available possibilities and the requirements of certain production cycles. Depending
on the case, other temperature intervals can be adopted, in compliance with the approved
intervals of 5C.
Thus, in the summer season, in case I42R and I52R cements are used, together with high-
performance additives, reduced A/C ratios and with the other measures indicated in the
previous item, resistances to striking, transfer can be obtained for certain elements at
temperatures of 255C (temperature of the surrounding environment) without any
thermal treatment, with all the advantages therein.
14.3. Control of thermal treatment
14.3.1. For each lot and type of elements the laboratory registry will record:
temperature of the working environment and fresh concrete temperature
hour when element production concludes
hour of start of thermal treatment
hour when the maximum temperature has been reached in at least three points
hour when thermal treatment is interrupted
hour when striking is approved and temperature during striking.
14.3.2. In situations when thermal treatment temperature does not comply with technical
procedures, or if a difference higher than 8C is recorded between two measurements on
the same element, then thermal treatment will be interrupted, installations will be verified
and all possible malfunctions repaired.

15. REQUIREMENTS CONCERNING STRIKING OF PRECAST ELEMENTS


AND TRANSFER OF PRECOMPRESSION FORCES, DURING PRODUCTION
OF PRECOMPRESSED CONCRETE ELEMENTS, TRANSPORT TO THE
FINISHED PRODUCT STORAGE
FACILITY
15.1. Striking of concrete and reinforced concrete precast elements
15.1.1. Striking of precast elements is performed in compliance with technical procedures
or specifications and only after resistances to striking are obtained, on concrete control
test pieces, produced and treated in the same conditions as the lot of elements from which
the test pieces were sampled, as per the product design or as indicated in table 7.1 of
current code.
15.1.2. Striking of concrete and reinforced concrete precast elements will be performed
with great care, in order to prevent breaks of the edges, fissures or deteriorations of the
finished elements. The devices for lifting the elements will be specially designed, so that
strains produced in various sections are kept to a minimum

72
15.1.3. After striking, the aspect and quality of each element will be checked and each
element will be visibly labeled with the series, number of production, production code etc
from the evidence registry, for verification of the precast elements and of the precast
element production unit etc. Other operations are also carried out, such as specific surface
treatments, treatment of pre-tensile reinforcement extremities against corrosion etc,
Precast elements made of mass-production concrete (masonry blocks, kerbs, paving,
sewage pipes etc) will be marked in compliance with standards or with product technical
specifications, in a sufficient number in order to identify each production lot. The
elements will be packaged or palletized.
15.1.4. Precast element transport to the finished product storage facility is carefully
performed with special machines and devices, to prevent deterioration of the elements.
The precast elements are placed in the finished product storage facility as per provisions
in the element design, taking into account the following:
a pile or area of the storage facility will only contain elements of the same
type
label and markings on the elements but be very clear
lifting pieces must be easily accessible
15.2. Requirements for transfer of precompression forces to the precompressed
concrete elements.
15.2.1. The pretensioning program included in the technological sheet must comprise
date concerning the pre-transfer control resistance.
15.2.2. The transfer operation is made only after verifying whether concrete resistance
corresponds to design provisions or to table 7.1 or current code by trials with control test
pieces, kept under the same conditions with the elements, as per STAS 1275-88.
15.2.3. It is recommended that the transfer operation be performed slowly.
In case slow transfer is not possible, but it is made by reinforcement cutting, (with silicon
carbide disks, special scissors or with a welding machine), the reinforcement cutting
order must comply with designer provisions; the operation is performed alternatively
from both extremities of the form or stand,
15.2.4. In the case of post-tensile reinforcements: if, during transfer, wire slipping from
anchorages with cones or wedges exceeds the limits value indicated in the design or
anchorage user instructions by more than 50%, then the pretensioning works will be
ceased and anchorages will be verified again.
15.2.5. For reinforcement pretensioning and transfer of precompression force, all
necessary measures will be taken in order to prevent working personnel from circulating
or stationing behind the presses. Warning signs will be installed
15.2.6. For precast elements, removing the mobile parts of the forms (formworks) after
transfer operation, will be performed very carefully in order to prevent element
deteriorations.
15.2.7. After removal of the forms mobile parts, the making and labeling of the elements
are executed in compliance with project provision or with technical production and
control procedures.
15.2.8. Lifting, transport and storage of the precompressed concrete is performed with
devices and machines indicated in the design and in the technical procedures,

73
16. PROTECTION OF PRECAST ELEMENTS IN THE INTERVAL
STRIKING-DELIVERY
16.1. After striking and storage, precast elements made of concrete, reinforced concrete
and precompressed concrete will be maintained wet as per chp 13 or for minimum 7 days
after production (or until delivery in case delivery is made earlier than 7 days, in the
summer season (April October), by periodical sprinkling with drinking water of water
from other sources, which complies with STAS 790-84 conditions.

17. REQUIREMENTS FOR QUALITY CONTROLIN PRECAST ELEMENT


PRODUCTION UNITS AND DURING ONSITE RECEPTION

This chapter includes the minimum compulsory verifications necessary for quality
control in precast element production units, on stages, as well as control of precast
element reception on the construction site. Quality control is performed in each separate
unit by the investor, in compliance with current code, STAS 6657/1-3 and with other
current legal regulations.
17.1. Verification of precast elements and their components is performed as follows:
- lot verifications
- periodical verifications
17.2. Lot verifications are performed on each product lot (which contains the same type
of precast elements, with identical size, shape, reinforcement and concrete class) and
include:
- verification of materials
- verification of aspect after casting
- geometrical feature verification (execution precision and integration within
tolerance limits) of precast elements
- verification of precast element execution method, concerning position or
reinforcement and pieces embedded prior to casting, verification of concrete
cover layer thickness
- lot verifications are performed for concretes, their component materials, steel
concrete as per appendixes 7.1-7.3; all other materials comply with product
technical agreements and standards.
- For structural and nonstructural elements, piece by piece for aspect conditions ,
position or reinforcement and embedded pieces; welding regime and thickness of
concrete cover layer; geometrical characteristics, concrete cover layer thickness
and concrete class are statistically verified
- Geometrical dimension control is performed for each element separately
Note: Concrete class statistical verification is performed as per Appendixes 7.1-7.3.

17.2.1. Control of component materials


For acquisition of materials to be used in production of concrete, reinforced concrete and
precompressed concrete precast elements, verification will be performed to see whether
the manufacturer:
- guarantees characteristics established in the product standards and performs
quality supervision and control during production process;
- has the necessary quality certification for the respective product

74
- has and applies a supervision plan for the essential product characteristics via
tests, established in the product standards and/or technical specifications
concerning requirements and performance criteria.
The precast element manufacturer is obliged to perform at least the tests/ determinations
indicated in Appendix 7.1, for each separate lot.
Quality control for concrete, aggregates, additives, admixtures is performed (before use
and during supply) within the precast element production unit, provided the units are
equipped with their own concrete mixing station, in compliance with provisions of
Appendix 7.1.
Control of used reinforcements is mandatory, in compliance with Appendix 7.1. Fresh
concrete quality control is mandatory, in compliance with Appendix 7.1.
The embedded metallic elements, materials uses as lubricants, plastic positioning pieces,
positioning pieces and deflection devices of pre-tensile reinforcements, pieces embedded
in extremity areas (distributor plates, joining nozzles, cases) and temporary assembly
pieces, anchorages, cases and any other material or product that belongs to the precast
element or that it used in the manufacturing process will be verified in compliance with
design requirements and those of the quality system documentation of the manufacturer.
17.2.3. Manufacturing control of precast elements
17.2.3.1. The following documents are required for control on production stages:
- the execution design or the precast element
- technical specifications or internal technical manufacturing instructions
- specific regulations (standards, norms)
- technological instructions of the production line
- operation instructions for production line machines
17.2.3.2. Reinforcement control must be performed so that it ensures reinforcement in
compliance with design. Before casting, the following verifications must be performed:
- whether the reinforcement indicated in the drawings exists and whether it is
mounted at the specified distances.
- Whether concrete cover layer is provided correctly through positioning of spacers,
in compliance with design provisions.
- Whether the reinforcement is not covered by oil, grease, paint or other damaging
substances.
- Whether reinforcement is correctly mounted and properly locked, to prevent
movement during concreting;
- Whether the space between bars is sufficient for concreting and for use of the
compacting equipment.
17.2.3.3 For production of precompressed concrete elements, attention must be given to
at least the following inspections:
- position of cables, ventilation pipes, channels, anchorages and coupling devices,
which must comply with working drawings, including concrete cover and
distance between cables
- length of braids (cables), which must ensure proper grip to the pretensioning net
- fixing cables and ensuring stability of their supports; in case a first tensioning
stage for the pretensioned reinforcement is necessary in order to correctly arrange
the other reinforcements, the state of the anchorages must be verified (position of
wedges). It must also be verified whether the carcasses have not been tied to the

75
pretensioned reinforcement during mounting and whether their routes do not
cross.
- Protection conditions for cases, ventilation pipes, anchorages, coupling pieces and
their waterproofing.
- State of anchorage surfaces and/or coupling pieces.
- Cleanliness of cases, anchorages and coupling pieces.
Before beginning of the tensioning process the necessary equipment together with the
tensioning program must be provided; presses will be verified (lifting screws, elbows/
square rules)
17.2.3.4. Before concrete placement, inspections must take into account the following
essential aspects:
- conditions necessary for effective concrete transport, compacting and treatment
measures depending on the specified concrete consistency
- qualitative concrete reception
- results and conclusions of verifications performed up to this stage
- specialized personnel
- measures for accident situations
17.2.3.5. During concreting control must stress on the following essential aspects:
- uniform distribution of concrete into the form
- uniform compactation and avoidance of segregation during compactation
- casting speed, taking into account of concrete activity over formworks
- special measures for casting works during cold and hot weather conditions.
- Treatment methods and concrete treatment duration depending on atmospheric
conditions and evolution of the resistance
- Avoidance of possible deteriorations that may occur following shocks or
vibrations on fresh concrete.
17.2.3.6. Quality control of pretensioning operations is performed according to provisions
in chapter 11 and includes verification of the way each reinforcement is tensioned
(whether the tensile strain and tensioning order established in the design are observed)
and safety of blockage.
17.2.3.7. In case of precompressed concrete elements, the transfer operation is only
executed after verification of concrete resistance and only with assistance from
authorized personnel. Verifications for this production stage are provided in chapter 15.
17.2.3.8. Before striking, concrete resistance is verified, as well as position of lifting
pieces and the state of the concrete surface in the neighborhood.

17.2.4. Control of fine precast elements


After striking, each precast element is subjected to quality control concerning aspect,
geometrical dimensions, reinforcement position (through direct measurement- in the case
of reinforcements pretensioned in their extremity sections- or through nondestructive
methods) etc.
17.2.4.1. Control of aspect mainly refers to looking for the following malfunctions:
apparent reinforcement, edge roughness, fissures, local segregations, local lumps, short
casting, detachment/ severance of concrete. Acceptance criteria for the discovered
malfunctions are established in product standards, technical specifications and/or
execution project or each element.

76
17.2.4.2. Control of geometrical dimensions is performed obligatorily for each element.
Tolerances and limit deviation allowed are those indicated in product standards, technical
specifications and/or execution designs for each element.
17.2.4.3. After performing the above-mentioned controls (17.2.4.1-17.2.4.2.) the precast
elements are marked in compliance with provisions of product standards, technical
specifications and/or execution designs for each element.
17.2.4.4. Before storage the element markings/ labels are verified, which must contain at
least:
- name of production unit
- type of precast element
- no. or design/standard
- date of production
- element serial number
17.2.5. Control of precast elements prior to delivery
Before delivery the correspondence between product to be delivered and delivery
documents will be verified. After delivery of the precast elements, all manipulation and
storage rules must be observed.
Expedition is not approved products that do not have a quality certificate, or that are of
another type than the products indicated on the order, or to products that are not properly
placed and anchored in the transport means.
Products can also be delivered together with the declaration of conformity (SR EN
45014), provided the precast element manufactures holds quality system certificates.
The manufacturer is obliged to take part in manipulation of the elements and their
placement into the transportation means.
17.3. Periodical verifications are performed on one of the lots of elements, subjected to
lot verifications in the respective period, with the frequency specified below (unless
otherwise stipulated in the technical documentation) and they consist of:
- verification of the precast element execution methods (including injection works),
reaching the precompression strain, contrasageata (?) under the influence of
precompression, precision of the composed elements and other verifications
monthly established by the technical documentation
- annual verification of conditions concerning behavior during the limit exploitation
and breaking state
17.3.1. Control of achievement and maintenance of the strain in the pretensioned
reinforcement within the imposed limits is carried out by qualified and authorized
personnel. For each blockage, movement (slipping) of the reinforcement must be
measured at least once every 2 weeks.
Verification of the strain in the pretensioned reinforcement is periodically performed
survey, on minimum 10% of the total of pretensioned reinforcements. It is recommended
that measurements be performed in the same time interval for all reinforcements.
All other periodical verifications necessary for the tensioning operation are indicated in
chapter 11.

77
17.3.2. Before starting the injection operation, the following measures must be observed:
- tests on the injection mortar
- verification of channels on their entire length, in order to find possible
obstructions (ice for example)
- identification and preparation of ventilation pipes
- weighing materials for completion in case or drainage
- in case of doubt, injection trial on representative channels
The injection program must at least specify the following:
- tests on fresh mortar
- characteristics of equipment and of the injection mortar
- injection pressure
- air blow method and washing
- measures for keeping the channels clean
- succession of injection operations
- instructions to follow in case of accidents (incidents) or of unfavorable climatic
conditions.
- Situations when injection must repeated.

17.3.3. Control of bearing capacity of the precast elements, through tests on the limit
exploitation and breaking point, is performed if indicated in product standards, technical
specifications and/or execution designs for each element. Frequency of these tests is
established in the above-mentioned regulations.
17.4. Verification at reception of precast elements on the construction site
Visual contact is necessary before discharging the precast elements.
In order to accept the elements, verification will be performed for reception of all precast
elements immediately after transport; control must comply with appendix no 17.1.
In case of disconformities, the following aspects must be verified, in the order below:
- implications of malfunction over mounting and subsequent behavior of the
element within the structure
- measures necessary for acceptance of element
- necessity to dismiss and replace elements that cannot be repaired
If implications of malfunctions on structure execution and on its use are negligible, then
the element can be accepted.
If important implications can be eliminated by repairing the element, then the element
will be accepted for mounting only with approval from designer and after the respective
repair works have been carried out.
A correct mounting plan will be elaborated for the precast elements, with stages of
execution.
Before mounting, construction site conditions will be verified via an initial inspection of
the main recommended provisions, including those listed in appendix 17.1. Mounting
will not start until all above-mentioned provisions are considered observed.
If the works do not meet requirements, corrective actions must be performed in
compliance with the procedure accepted for disconformities and state in the project
specifications.

78
Appendix 4.1.
Cement type and composition in mass percent
Cement Name Notati Clinke Granulat Ultra- Pozzolane Volant ash Calcinat Minor
type on r% ed slag fine ed constit
Ash
% silica uents
T%
SUF (filler)
Natural Industrial Silico- Silico
% &
P% Q% aliumi -
nous calciu
V% m
W&
I Portland I 95-100 - - - - - - - 0-5
cement
II Portland II/A-S 80-94 6-20 - - - - - - 0-5
cement II/B-S 65-79 21-35 - - - - - - 0-5
with
slag/idem
II Portland II/A-D 90-94 - 6-10 - - - - - 0-5
cement
with SUF
II Portland II/A-P 80-94 - - 6-20 - - - - 0-5
cement II/B-P 65-79 - - 21-35 - - - - 0-5
with
pozzolane/
idem
II Portland II/A-Q 80-94 - - - 6-20 - - - 0-5
cement II/B-Q 65-79 - - - 21-35 - - - 0-5
with
pozzolane/
idem
II Portland II/A-V 80-94 - - - - 6-20 - - 0-5
cement II/B-V 65-79 - - - - 21-35 - - 0-5
with
pozzolane/
idem
(Volant
ash)
II Portland II/A- 80-94 - - - - - 6-20 - 0-5
cement W 65-79 - - - - - 21-35 - 0-5
with II/B-
pozzolane/ W
idem
(Volant
ash)
II Cement II/A-T 80-94 - - - - - - 6-20 0-5
with II/B-T 65-79 - - - - - - 21-35 0-5

79
calcinated
shales
II Mixed II/A- 80-94 - 6-20 x ) 0-5
Portland M 65-79 - 21-35 x ) 0-5
cement II/B-M
III Blast III/A 35-64 36-65 - - - - - - 0-5
furnace III/B 20-34 66-80 - - - - - - 0-5
cement III/C 5-19 81-95 - - - - - - 0-5
IV Pozzolanic IV/A 65-90 - 10-35 y ) - 0-5
cement/Idem IV/B 40-64 - - 0-5
36-55 y )
V Composed V/A 40-64 18-30 - 18-30 z ) - - 0-5
cement/ V/B 20-39 31-50 - 30-55 z ) - - 0-5
Idem

80
Appendix 5.1.
EXCERPTS FROM TECHNCIAL SPECIFICATION 009/96
REQUIREMENTS AND PERFORMANCE CRITERIA FOR STEEL PRODUCTS
USED AS REINFORCEMENTS IN CONCRETE STRUCTURES

New Old Characteristic size (technical regulation where it is defined)


notation notation
f m, k R m, k Breaking strength STAS 200-87
f y ,k R y ,k Drainage limit- STAS 200-87
A rk A rk Breaking elongation STAS 200-87
fr fr Profile factor (Defined in ST 009/86: the surface of the
projections of all profiles on a plane perpendicular on the
longitudinal product axis, divided by the nominal surface,
calculated on a length equal to profile steps

DEFINITIONS:

1. Imprinted product: Cold drawn product (wire, bars) with form imprints and sizes
established for improvement of adherence with concrete.
2. Profiled product: Product with relief profiles for improvement of adherence with
concrete.
3. Wire- steel product with a circular or oval section, usually cold-drawn, delivered in
coils.
4. Type of product: a category of reinforcement characterized by drainage limit and
breaking elongation, guaranteed, as well as by the shape of the surface (existence of
profiles or lack thereof)
5. Characteristic value: value with a probability prescribed to integrate within an
established domain of the results of a hypothetical unlimited number of trials.
Observation:
a) In the context of this regulation the characteristic value is the inferior limit of the
statistical interval of dispersion, for which there is a 90% probability
(1-= 90) that 95% (p=0.95) of the values are superior or equal to this value.
b) Characteristic values will be noted with the inferior indicator k beside the symbol of
the respective value.
6. Effective values: value resulted from a measurement or a determination.
Observation: Effective values will be noted with interior indicator ef attached to the
symbol of the respective value
7. Nominal value: conventional value established as a product characteristic
Observation: Nominal values will be noted with inferior indicator nom attached to the
symbol of the respective value.

REQUIREMENTS

81
I.4.2. Four resistance classes are established for reinforcements, depending on the flow
limits:
Class I low resistance 200 N/mm2<f m 300N/mm2
Class II average resistance 300N/mm2< f m 600 N/mm2
Class III high resistance 600N/mm2< f m <1400 N/mm2
Class IV very high resistance f m 1400 N/mm2

I.4.3. Three ductility classes are established, depending on breaking elongation A r and
on the resistance, as per table 1.
Table 1
Ductility classes Breaking elongation (*) % Ratio f m,k /f y , k
High ductility 20 1.251.45
Average ductility 720 1.081.25
Reduced ductility 3.57 1.081.25

(*) measured on a distance of 5d (including the restricted area) in the case of


hot-laminated bars, 10d for drawn wires for reinforced concrete, 100 mm for high
resistance wires.
I.4.4. Two adherence classes are established depending on the surface shape, as follows:
- smooth: no profiles, as well as those imprinted or profiled with f R lower that
values in table 2.
- High resistance, profiled surfaces, with f R at least equal to table 2 values.
Table 2.
Nominal 56 6.58.5 910.5 1140
diameter (mm)
fR 0.039 0.045 0.052 0.056

I.5. FIELDS OF USE

I..5.1. Products with resistance class II and high ductility class are used as resistance
reinforcements in reinforced concrete elements and as non-pretensioned reinforcements
in precompressed concrete elements.
I.5.2. Products with resistance class IV and reduced ductility class are used as
pretensioned reinforcements in precompressed concrete or other precompression works.
I.5.3. Products with resistance class II and average ductility class can be used as
resistance reinforcements in surface elements, but only in the form of welded netting.
I.5.4. Products with resistance class I are generally used clamps, hoped reinforcements
and constructive reinforcements irrespective of their ductility.

II. 3. PERFORMANCE CRITERIA


II.3.1. Mechanical characteristics

82
II.3.1.1. Performance criteria concerning resistance, ductility and adherence are indicated
in table 4.

Table 4
Required performance Performance criteria
Resistance class Deviation of effective values from the
characteristic value
- f y ,ef / f y , k 1.001.15
- f m,ef / f m, k 0.951.30
Ductility class Integration between established limits (item
I.4.3.)

II.3.1.2. Behavior during bending is expressed by the number of bends in certain angles,
supported without fissures or visible cracks.
Performance criteria are given in Table 5

Required Conditions Criteria


performance Hot-laid bars Drawn wires (number of
bends)
Bending Bending angle 180 180 1
Mandrel 3d for profiled bars
3d for profiled
diameter d for smooth bars
wires
d for smooth
wires
Nominal <12 1216 >16 416
diameter
Bending/ Mandrel 5d 6d 8d 5d 1
Straightening diameter
Bending angle 45 90
Straightening 23 20
angle
Alternant Bending angle - 90 4
bending Mandrel - 5d
diameter

II.3.1.5. Performance criteria concerning are implicitly comprised in those concerning the
general geometrical characteristics of the products.

Appendix 7.1.

83
THE CONTROL PROGRAM IN PRECAST ELEMENT PRODUCTION UNITS

7.1. High quality precast element production is ensured by using quality materials in the
composition of the concrete and by correct execution of each production stage, including
exigent control of the elements.

7.2. Frequency and measurements adopted for quality control of raw materials and
concretes are indicated in the table below.

No Material or Action, procedure or Objective of Frequency Findin Adopted


crt execution characteristics action or g measures
process verified verification
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
1. Cement a) Analysis of data Conformity with For each C It is verified as
included in quality order or contract supplied lot per b and c
documentation provisions NC The lot is refused
b) Stability as per AVOIDING For each C It is released for
STAS 196-3 ERRORS transport, at consumption or
least once verified as per d
every 100t
c)Adherence, as per Avoiding errors For each C It is released for
SREN 196-3 transport, at consumption or
least once verified as per d
every 100t NC The lot is refused
d) Mechanical Conformity or 1 sample/ 200 C Released for
resistances, as per cement class t or in case of consumption
SREN 196-1, at 2 (7) doubt NC Lot is refused
days
e) Mechanical To obtain data on 1 sample/max - -
resistances, as per cement class 500 t or in
SREN 196-1, at 28 case of doubt
days
f) Gathering counter- Subsequent For each - -
samples that are kept verifications or supplied lot,
45 days in sealed litigations together with
metallic boxes a neutral
delegate
g) Conservation state Avoiding supplies One - -
(if guarantee term of altered cements determination
expired or if clusters for each lot
occur)
2 Mineral a) Examination of Conformity with For each lot C Lot admitted
aggregates data registered in current norms, NC Lot refused
quality documents with order or
contract

84
b) Impurity content: Quality -for max 500 C Verified as per
- levigable parts confirmation for m3 item c
- humus supplied -when NC
- foreign bodies aggregate changing the Lot refused
source
-in case of
doubt
c) Sort granularity Quality -for max 500 C It is released for
confirmation for m3 consumption
supplied or each lot NC Proportions
aggregate -in case of between sorts are
doubt corrected
d) Dry state bulk Quality For each lot C Released for
density for light confirmation for consumption
aggregates supplied NC Lot refused
aggregate
e) Humidity Daily humidity Daily and as C Released for
value change many times as consumption
necessary NC Lot refused
3 Mineral a) Examination of Manufacturer For each lot C Verified as per b,
admixtures: conformity document guarantees quality c, d
data NC
Volant ash
Lot refused
STAS b) Finesse as per Provide For each lot C Consumption
8819-1988 SREN 196/6 standardized NC Lot refused
characteristics
d) Stability Avoidance of For each lot C Released for
inappropriate consumption
materials NC Lot refused
4. Ultra-fine a) Examination of Finding of For each lot C Released for
silica SUF data registered in product quality consumption
quality documents guarantee NC Lot refused
5 Additives a) Examination of Finding of For each lot C It is released for
data registered in product quality consumption
quality documents guarantee NC Lot refused
b) Verification of Confirmation of For each lot C Procedures as per
compatibility with characteristics item c
cement and declared by NC Lot refused
manageability tests producer
on concrete and
cements

85
c) solution density as Correction of For each C It is released for
per current dosage where supplied lot consumption
regulations necessary (or for NC Dosage is
solution corrected
prepared in
the unit)
6. Preparation Ensuring observance Water use in Annual C Released for
water of conditions of compliance with sample if consumption
STAS 790-84 concrete water comes NC Other source will
preparation from non- be searched
requirements drinking
sources
7. Reinforcement a) Examination of Manufacturer For each C Verified as per b,
steels quality document guarantees quality supplied lot c, d
data NC
Lot refused
b) Verification of Preliminary On 2% of C Verified as per c
aspect (STAS 438/1- acceptance number of and
89; 6482/1, 2, 3, 4) coils or bar D
bundles, NC
minimum two Lot refused
coils or
bundles
c) Verification of Confirmation of Idem 2 C Released for
sizes and profile standardized measurements consumption
(STAS 438/1-88; characteristics of sizes and NC Lot refused
6482/1, 2, 3, 4) profile
d) Bending tests as Confirmation of 2 test pieces C Released for
per current standardized from the consumption
regulations characteristics sampled bars NC Lot refused
or coils
e) Verification of Confirmation of Minimum 5 C Released for
mechanical standardized samples per consumption
characteristics characteristics lot NC Lot refused
(resistance, drainage
limit, breaking
elongation etc- STAS
438/1, 2, 3, 4; STAS
6482/1, 2, 3, 4; STAS
6605/78)
8 Welded a) Examination of Manufacturer For each lot C Verified as per b,
nettings quality guarantees quality c, d
documentation data NC
Lot refused

86
b) Aspect in Acceptance of use For 3% of the C Verified as per
compliance with lot and item c
STAS 438/3-89 minimum 3 Lot refused
nets randomly
chosen
c) Size verification Confirmation of For 3% of the C Released for
(STAS 438/3-89 standardized lot and consumption
characteristics minimum 3 NC Lot refused
nets randomly
chosen
d) Verification of Confirmation of For 3% of the C Released for
mechanical standardized lot and consumption
characteristics and of characteristics minimum 3 NC Lot refused
knot welding nets randomly
chosen
9. Fresh concrete a) Consistency Correction of At beginning C Recipe
(STAS 1759/88) preparation water of preparation maintained
quantity of each NC
concrete and Recipe corrected
cement class
b) Sand content 0-3 Recipe As many C Recipe
of concrete (STAS verification times as maintained
1759-88) considered NC
necessary Recipe corrected
c) Temperature Integration into As many C Preparation
10-30C interval times as NC continues
considered Necessary
necessary measures are
adopted
10 Hardened a) Determining
concrete resistances in
stages (removal of
shuttering, transfer,
delivery)- STAS 1 sample per C Recipe
1275/88 Confirmation that shift and at application
concrete design/ table 7.1 least 1 NC continued
C16/60 requirements are sample/ 50m Concrete remains
C45/55 met 3 in formworks
Confirmation that C longer
concrete design/ table 7.1 At least 1
C50/60 requirements are sample of NC Recipe
C100/115 met concrete class application
and for max continued
25m 3 concret Concrete remains
e in formworks
longer

87
c) Determining Verification of
resistance on concrete class as
28 days for indicated in the C Concrete class
determination documentation confirmed
of concrete -1 sample/ NC Results are
class max 50m 3 verified via
concrete concrete of nondestructive
C16/60 the same class tests and designer
C45/55 and beneficiary
are notified about
possible
inconsistencies

C
-1 sample/ Concrete class
concrete max 25 m 3 NC confirmed
C50/60 concrete of Designer and
C100/115 the same class beneficiary are
notified about
possible
inconsistencies

11. Determination Verification- design - 1 sample per C Design


of conditions must be max. 200 m 3 requirements
impermeability met concrete NC confirmed
degree (STAS Designer is
3519/76) notified
12. Determinati Verification- design - 1 sample per C Design
on of gelidity conditions must be max. 500 m 3 requirements
met concrete NC confirmed
degree
Designer is
(STAS notified
3519/76)

Note: The impermeability and gelidity degrees are considered observed in the following
cases:
max. 5% of prescribed tests present at least the inferior impermeability degree for
10
concrete classes C16/20 C45/55 (ex instead of P 8 , P 10 4 is obtained)

max. 95% of tests meet requirements for gelidity degree in case of concrete
classes C16/20 C45/55; in the case of concrete classes C50/60C100/115,
requirement impermeability and gelidity degree must comply with the designs.

Appendix 7.2.

88
Concrete consistency for various precast elements

No Type of elements Transport means Consistency


crt Notation Value Method
(Class)
1 Concrete elements Bunker, grab, S1 10-40 mm Settlement
(small and large truck, belt carrier
masonry blocks, sewage
pipes, pavements etc)
2 Various plane elements Bunker, grab, S2 50-90 mm Settlement
cast in a horizontal self-stirrer, truck,
position (exc. for panel belt carrier
types, plates etc) made
of reinforced concrete
3 Various plane elements Bunker, grabs, S3 100-150 Settlement
cast in a vertical position self-stirrers mm
(exc. from panel types,
plates), spatial elements,
for guard cabins,
garages, substations,
pumping stations
4 Piles and stretches made Bunker, grabs, S2 50-90 mm Settlement
of reinforced and self-stirrers
precompressed concrete
5 Reinforced and Bunker, grabs, S2 50-90mm Settlement
precompressed concrete self-stirrers S3 100-150
beams mm
6 Foundations and Bunker, grabs, S2 50-90 mm Settlement
reinforced concrete piles self-stirrers
7 Concretes prepared with Bunker, grabs, S3 100-150 Settlement
plasticizer/ superplastici- self-stirrers mm
zer additives for
elements of reinforced
and precompressed
concrete
8 Concretes prepared with Bunker, grabs, S3 100-150 Settlement
superplasticizer self-stirrers mm
additives, for reinforced S4 160-200
precast elements mm

Appendix 7.3.

89
Criteria of conformity for resistance to compression
7.3.1. CRITERION 1
This criterion is applied if conformity is verified taking into account 6 or more samples,
noted as X 1 , X 2 X n

Resistance must meet the following conditions:


X n f ck S n
X min f ck K , where
X n = the average value of the obtained resistances
X min = the minimum value of the obtained resistances
S n = the standard deviation

Sn = (X i X n )2
n 1

f ck = the characteristic compression resistance for concrete, after 28 days (concrete


class), determined on cylinders or cubes;
and K are constants, which depend on the number of samples and on the required
degree of insurance.(Table 7.3.1)
n= the number of control samples

Table. 7.3.1.
n K
6 1.87 3
7 1.77 3
8 1.72 3
9 1.67 3
10 1.62 4
11 1.58 4
12 1.55 4
13 1.52 4
14 1.50 4
15 1.48 4

7.3.2. CRITERION 2

90
This criterion is applied if conformity is appreciated considering the results of three
samples: X 1 , X 2 , X 3 .
In this case the resistance to compression must meet the following conditions:

X3 = f ck + 5
X min = f ck - 1; X 3 is considered the average value of the obtained results.
NOTE: In case more than 3 results are available, then concrete class is considered
reached if the average resistance obtained on any series of samples meets the condition:

for concrete classes C> C16/20


X i f ck 5
X i - the average resistance obtained on any series of samples
Less than 3 samples are taken only in justified cases, for concrete volumes smaller than
20 m 3 of prepared and placed concrete, and only with written approval from investor.

Appendix 7.4. Granularity areas


Settlement Granularity areas recommended for cement dosage (cement + SUF)
class 240-340 341-480 481-600
S1 I II III
S2 I I(II) III
S3 - II III

Appendix 7.5. Granularity limits for aggregates 0-7 (8) mm


Area Limits % passing in mass through sieves or screens with meshes
mm
0.2 1 3 7(8)
I Max 12 45 70 100
Min 5 30 55 95
II Max 10 40 60 100
Min 3 25 45 95

Appendix 7.6. Granularity limits for aggregates 0-16 mm


Area Limits % passing in mass through sieves or screens with meshes (mm)
0.2 1 3 7 16
I Max 10 44 62 80 100
Min 3 34 52 70 95
II Max 8 34 52 68 100
Min 2 24 42 58 95
III Max 6 24 42 58 100
Min 1 14 32 48 95

Appendix 7.7. Granularity limits for aggregates 0-20 mm


Area Limits % passing in mass through sieves or screens with meshes (mm)
0.2 1 3 7 20

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I Max 8 32 44 60 100
Min 3 20 32 48 95
II Max 6 26 38 54 100
Min 2 14 26 42 95
III Max 5 20 32 48 100
Min 1 8 20 34 95

Appendix 9.1.
RESPONSIBILITIES AND QUALIFICATION OF CONCRETE MIXING PLANT
PERSONNEL
1. Chief- manager of concrete mixing plants
1.1. The concrete mixing plant (station) is run by an engineer or deputy engineer in case
production volume is larger than 35 m 3 / h, or by an experienced construction foreman/
technician, if production volume is equal to or smaller than 35 m 3 / h. The chief of the
station is appointed by order of the manager of the unit he belongs to.
Other qualification levels for the plant (station) chief are allowed only with approval
from ISCLPUAT.
1.2. The concrete mixing plant (station) chief has the following supervision
responsibilities:
- reception, storage and management of the aggregate component materials,
cement, additives, admixtures, water (when a non-drinking water source is used),
in order to ensure the prescribed concrete characteristics. Qualitative reception of
the component materials is performed together with the laboratory of the precast
element production unit, based on labor plans approved by the unit management.;
- application of necessary measures in for aggregate preparation: sorting, washing,
heating (during cold weather), or cooling (during hot weather) of some concrete
components.
- Ensuring maintenance of transport installations and proper storage of component
materials;
- Providing maintenance of concrete preparation installations;
- Providing maintenance and periodical metrological verification of concrete
component dosage installations;
- Operational verification, at least once a week, of dosage installations, via
appropriate procedures (calibrated weights etc);
- Observance of the required characteristics for each concrete class- aggregate type
and granularity, cement type and dosage, manageability, temperature etc;
- Providing appropriate concrete transport from the plant (station) to the production
lines;
- Controls and enforces adoption by the precast unit laboratory, of the concrete
preparation recipes depending on modifications in aggregate sort humidity or
granularity;
- Ensures that fresh concrete production pace and delivery order are preserved
- Controls tests on delivered fresh concrete, performed by the laboratory;
- Immediately adopts necessary measures, upon notification from the precast unit
laboratory, concerning occurrence of inappropriate results in tests performed on
concrete components or on fresh concrete;

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- Identifies production lines where delivered concrete parameters have proved
inappropriate (on hardened concrete) and communicates data to section managers
(workshops) etc.
1.3. For work during shifts 2 and 3, the mixing plant (station) manager will be replaced
by a deputy manager, with all responsibilities mentioned in 1.2. of current appendix, but
only during the shift he is scheduled in.

2. Concrete mixing plant operator(s) are under direct supervision of the plant manager
or deputy manager, and they have the following responsibilities:
- concrete component dosage, in compliance with recipes established by the unit
laboratory;
- proper concrete mixing;
- immediate notification to the plant manager (in order to take the necessary
measures) in case the laboratory fails to adapt concrete recipes to changes in
aggregate humidity and granularity, or in case malfunctions are discovered at
supply installations for raw materials, dosage, concrete preparation etc.
- maintenance of machines they are responsible for, correct manipulation, washing
of concrete preparation machines at the end of shifts or in case of interruption of
operations for more than 1 hour, at environment temperatures below 25C and
1/2h at temperatures above 25.5C; complete evacuation and washing of concrete
bunkers of the plant at the end of each shift, or after interruptions in supply longer
than 1/2h, or in case concrete class is modified.
The operator position is assigned to qualified workers or technicians certified by the
institutions that have certified the concrete mixing plant (station).
3. Depending on production unit and on the specific works of the concrete mixing
plant, the personnel is completed, if necessary, with:
- administrator for component materials (aggregates, cement, additives, admixtures)
- mechanics and electricians for maintenance and exploitation, storage workers etc.
The number attributions and obligations of personnel indicated in item 3 of current
appendix will be established and mentioned in the units regulations for organization and
operation.
4. The authorized laboratory of the precast element production unit is run by an
engineer or deputy enginee and also exercises the attributions of concrete mixing plant
laboratory, such as:
- establishing and displaying the shift schedule for the laboratory working for the
concrete mixing plant;
- correct tests at the established frequency, in order to verify quality of component
materials and of the fresh and hardened concrete, as well as operational
information of the unit management and of the concrete mixing plant manager,
and propositions for necessary measures, depending on the specific situation.
- Quick adaptation of prepared concrete composition depending on the real
characteristics of the supplied materials, on aggregate humidity etc.
- Test result analysis and processing, providing quick information to the precast
unit management, the concrete mixing plant manager and the AQ department,
concerning measures of maintenance or modification of prepared concrete
components etc.

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5. Internal audit, which refers to preserving conditions of certification and
implementation of the quality assurance system for the concrete mixing plant, will be
performed by independent personnel in compliance with provisions of the adopted
quality assurance system. Internal audit is performed quarterly as well as any time
necessary (rejects, changes in the quality system and in personnel with an influence on
fresh concrete quality).
6. Certification of the concrete mixing plant manager and personnel will be
performed internally, in the presence of the representative of the control organization on
whose territory the precast unit operates. Once granted, the certification is valid for 2
years.

Appendix 9.2.

Concrete homogeneity degree


9.2.1. The concrete homogeneity degree is determined depending on the values
(expressed in N/mm 2 ) of deviation S and the average resistance X n , in compliance with
provisions in table 9.2.1.

Table 9.2.1.

Homogeneity degree S
Value of ratio
Xn
I <0.670
II 0.6700.975
III >0.975

9.2.2. The standard deviation S n is determined for a number of minimum 16 results


registered in a period of maximum 3 months.

S= S n (X i X n )2
, where depends on the number of the analyzed results and
n 1
on the values indicated in table 9.2.2.

Table 9.2.2.
n 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 26 28 30
1.14 1.12 1.11 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.04 1.02 1.01 1.00

X i is an arbitrary result from the analyzed group


X n is the average value of the obtained results
n is the total number of results

9.2.3. In order to evaluate the homogeneity degree maximum 10% of the analyzed
results can be eliminated, if they are outside the interval
X n 2 x n ; values in N/ mm 2

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Note: The coefficients indicated in table 9.2.2. are applied only in order to establish
the concrete homogeneity degree; in order to establish concrete classes, coefficients in
table 7.3.1. will be applied.

Appendix 17.1.
Precast element control
The initial control
The main aspects to be verified during an initial inspection on the site, before installation
of the precast elements, are:
a) access ways for elements and equipment
b) general site organization
c) appropriate lifting equipment
d) appropriate safety equipment
e) possible temporary works, such as supports, scaffolding, temporary supports
f) documentation concerning allowed deviations during assemblage works

Verifications during reception


Control for acceptance of precast elements on the constructions site is performed based
on the following list of verifications:

Reception verifications of the precast elements


Object Property Method Frequency Action

Elements Marking Visual Each element Signature on


inspection the delivery
receipt and
written record
of the
imperfections
Elements Obvious Visual Each element Signature on
imperfections inspection the delivery
receipt and
written record
of the
imperfections
Elements Aspect of the Visual Each element Signature on
joint sides inspection the delivery
receipt and
written record
of the
imperfections
Pieces/ lifting Type, integrity, Visual Each element Signature on
devices compatibility inspection the delivery
embedded into receipt and
elements written record
of the

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imperfections
Elements Geometric In compliance In case of doubt Appropriate
tolerances with standards report
or contractual
clauses
Elements Opening and By direct If expressly Appropriate
length of measurement required report
fissures with the fissure
magnifier and
the measuring
cord.
Elements Shape and size By direct In case of doubt Appropriate
of joints measurement report
with the
measuring cord
Elements Other In compliance In compliance Appropriate
characteristics with standards with standards report
or contractual or contractual
clauses clauses

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