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1 ( ..

)
Cl H2O2, t HO H2SO4 O
A NaNO2 NH2 N D
C
HCl Zn, HCl N
B H
HCl HCOONH4 NH2OH NH2
O
1) NaBH4 O H2O2 F
E
2) H2SO4 ., t CF3COOH O
1) O3 Na
1) Br2, CH3COOH
2) NaBH4 2) HNO3 SeO2 (C2H5)2O
OH
O O O
OH LiAlH4 Pb(CH3COO)4 J
G Al(OC3H7)3
H OH O I OH
(10 1 , 10 )

2 ( ..)
1. X Y ,
. ,
,
. D
, : m(D)A : m(D)B : m(D)C = 8.75 : 26.25 : 43.75 = 1 : 3 : 5.
X Y , ,
,
10 (= 52). ,
V VII :
, AgNO3 Ba(OH)2;
, X Y VII .
- (QO3;
Q = Cl, Br, I) - (R; R = F, Cl, Br, I) . Ba2+ F
IO 3 , m(D)A : m(D)B : m(D)C = 1 : 3 : 5
, : YF, YF3, YF5.
Y, A Ba(OH)2 AgNO3:
6Ba(OH)2 + 6YF 3BaF2 + 2BaY2 + Ba(YO3)2 + 6H2O
2AgNO3 + BaY2 2AgY+ Ba(NO3)2
4 4 8.75
n(AgY)A = 3 n(BaF2)A = 3 175 0.0667 .

m(AgY) 9.567
AgY : M(AgY) = n(AgY) A = 0.0667 143.5 /.
A

, Y M(Y) = M(AgY) M(Ag) = 143.5 108 = 35.5 /.


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Y = Cl, X = F, A = ClF, B = ClF3, C = ClF5, D = BaF2, E = AgCl ( 0.5 ,
3.5 )
2. ( 0.5 , 2 ):
6Ba(OH)2 + 6ClF 3BaF2 + 2BaCl2 + Ba(ClO3)2 + 6H2O
12Ba(OH)2 + 6ClF3 9BaF2 + BaCl2 + 2Ba(ClO3)2 + 12H2O
6Ba(OH)2 + 2ClF5 5BaF2 + Ba(ClO3)2 + 6H2O
2AgNO3 + BaCl2 2AgCl+ Ba(NO3)2
3. ( 0.5 , 2 ):
ClF3 + UF4 UF6 + ClF 2Co3O4 + 6ClF3 6CoF3 + 3Cl2 + 4O2
NF + ClF3 NO+[ClF4] ClF3+SbF5 [ClF2]+[SbF6]
4. ( )
( ) ( 0.75 , 1.5 ):
3ClF = ClF3 + Cl2 ClF3 = ClF + F2
5. , HNO3:
4HNO3 = 4NO2 + 2H2O + O2
NO2 HNO3; HI
(1 ):
4HI + O2 2H2O + 2I2

3 ( ..)
1. X , , .
X ,
,
, .
, , ,
; ,
, .
, ,
X ,
, .
, X = P4, A = NaH2PO2, B = PH3, = Ca3(PO4)2, D = Ca3P2,
E = P4O10, F = Na2HPO3, G = (NH4)2PO3F ( 0.5 , 4 ).

-2-
2. :
P4 + 3NaOH + 3H2O 3NaH2PO2 + PH3 P4 + 6Ca 2Ca3P2
2NaH2PO2 + 4CaOCl2 Ca3(PO4)2 + CaCl2 + 2NaCl + 4HCl
2Ca3(PO4)2 + 10C + 6SiO2 6CaSiO3 + 10CO + P4
3Ca3(PO4)2 + 16Al 3Ca3P2 + 8Al2O3 Ca3P2 + 6HCl 3CaCl2 + 2PH3
2Ca3(PO4)2 + 6SiO2 6CaSiO3 + P4O10
3NaH2PO2 Na2HPO3 + NaH2PO3 + PH3
P4O10 + 8NH4F + 2H2O 4(NH4)2PO3F + 4HF
, NaH2PO2
AgNO3, (
). NaH2PO2 H3PO3,
H3PO4 ( 0.3 ):
NaH2PO2 + 2AgNO3 + H2O NaNO3 + HNO3 + H3PO3 + 2Ag
(NaH2PO2 + 4AgNO3 +2H2O NaNO3 + 3HNO3 + H3PO4 + 4Ag -)
Na2HPO3 + 2AgNO3 + H2O 2NaNO3 + HNO3 + H3PO4 + 2Ag
PCl5,
PCl3 ( 0.3 , 3.9 2):
2P + 3Cl2 2PCl3 2P + 5Cl2 2PCl5
3. X, E, F, C G:
O
E F H C O- G
X P P - - - F
O O O O O O O O
P O P P P
P O P P O
P O O- O- O-
OP O
O
X ,
, ( 0.3 ).
3
4 .

,
,
. , 3F2, ,
PF ,
3
4 . ,

3F2 109.5 ( 0.3 ,


2.1 ).

-3-
4 ( .., ..)
+ Ph
1. ) Ph Ph Ph (1 )
d [M]
b) , rp = - = k p [R ][M ] (1 )
dt
d [R ]
c) rt = - = k t [R ]2 (..
dt
) (1 )
rin = rt = k t [R ]2 [R ] = (rin k t )
1/ 2
d) (1 )

rp = k p [M](rin k t )
1/ 2
e) (1 )

2. p- C-C (630 346 = 284 /):


CH2=CHBr CH2-CHBr (1 )
3. a) -lg(I / I0) = elc = 10-4 0.5 16000 = 0.800, I = 1.6 /,
Ia = 8.4 / (1 ).
b) 645
E = 3.00108 / 6.6310-34 2 / / 6.4510-7 = 3.110-19
Ia = 8400 / / 3.110-19 / 6.021023 -1 = 0.045 / ().
rin = 20.60.045 = 0.054 / (2 ).

c) rp = k p [M ](rin k t )
1/ 2
= (rin )
1/ 2
(k p
2
kt )
1/ 2
[M ] = 0.232 0.1 2.00 = 0.046 / (1 )

5 ( ..)
+
8 + 4 + 2SO 4 (1 ;
, : 2A + S2O2 2
1.
0.5 ).
2. a) ( )
.
, 2.3104 (1 ).
b) , , . (,
): = 2B = 7.0105.
.
: K = [H+]2 / = 9.52109 (2 ).
3. K
= + 2 + , A C

-4-
( , ): A C = 7105 ( . 2b) 3105 (
. 2a) = 4105 = g. ,
, : K2 + (Kg + [H+]2) + (g )[H+]2/2 = 0,
5.5: = 1.9104. = K(g + C) / [H+]2 = 4.1105,
B / C = 0.22 (3 , 0.5 ).
4. , B
+
8 + 2 + 2SO4 (1 ). 5
: (B) + S2O2 2

5.0 ( + B) = 1.35106 , ,
(2 ; 1 "").

6 ( .., ..,
.., ..)
1. ( 1
, 2 ):
+ 2

2. (2 1 , 2 )

* * *
*
A A1
C8H17 C8H17
C8H17 C8H17

C8H17 C8H17
B B1
C8H17 C8H17

3-4. C - - C1 C2. C1
; C2
, , . ,
,
. - C2,
- C1 C2. ,
C1 : C2 = 1:3. S
. - S . ( C1 C2
0.5 , 1 , D S 1 . 4 ).

-5-
D S
C2 C1
DDQ
+
KM

5. D C1, C2
- (1 ).
6. S1 , S1
, S2 , (1 ).
S1 S2

7 ( ..)
1. ( 0.5 , 2 )
* * O
tBuOOH OH SO3 O S
O OH
OH A B
* *
* *
Cl OH
* * NaOH * N
O O Cl N * N OH OH
Cl N H
N
C N N
E
2. (1 )
* *
OH Cl
* N OH * N OH

N + NaCl N + NaOH

O
S OH
3. : (M = 104 /) O (M = 184 /).
x. 1000
116000 /, 184 + 104(1 ) = 116, = 0.15 (1.5 )
4. (2 )
* * *
Cl O Cl N N
AlCl3 Cl
* * *

-6-
5. , , , . (1 ):
* *
O N O
HN
S S
* O OH * O O

6. 2, 4, 6 (0.5 ).

OH

7. 2 6, 4 .
M = 162 /. F
648 / 162 = 4 ( ). F ,
. (2 ).

OH
*
OH
* OH HO
OH

8 ( ..)
1. Cu. : Cu2+ + 2e = Cu.
Zn. Zn2+ + 2e = Zn ( ) (1 ).
0.059 0.05
2. E = 0.337 (0.763) + 2 lg 0.01 = 1.121 () (1 ).

3. .
0.059
E1 = E0 + 2 lg c1, [Cu2+]0 c1.

0.059 cV +cV
E2 = E0 + 2 lg 1V1 + Vx x. x > c1, E2 > E1.
1 x

0.059 cV +cV
, E = n lg c1V1 + cxVx. :
1 1 1 x

c xVx
c1 = nDE nDE
.
10 0.059
V1 + 10 0.059
Vx - V1

c1(Cu2+) = 9.94103M, c1(Zn2+) = 0.0481M (3.5 )

-7-
4.
0.059 [Cu2+] 0.00994
E= E0Cu2+/Cu E0Zn2+/Zn + 2 lg [Zn2+] = 1.1 + 0.0295 lg 0.0481 = 1.080 ()

E = 1.0798 + 0.0077 0.0012 = 1.086 () (1 ).


5. c1(Cu2+) = 9.94103M,
c1(Cu2+) = 9.94103 50.0 / 75.0 = 6.627103.
:
n(E2 E1) n(E2 E1)
c2 = c1 10 0.059 = 9.94103 10 0.059 = 1.7301010
0.24 25 / (25 + 50) = 0.08().
6.627103 1.7301010 = 6.627103().
, , 0.08 4 6.627103 = 5.349102.
(3.5 ):
[Cu(NH3 ) 24+ ] 6.627 10 -3
K = 2+
= -10 -2 4
= 4.68 1012
[Cu ][NH3 ] 1.73 10 (5.349 10 )
4

-8-

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