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(); The European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social
Sciences (ERIH PLUS); Database for statistikk om hgre utdanning (DBH);
Index Copernicus Journals Master List (IC JML); InfoBase Index (IBI).
: (www.pskgu.ru).
: https://sites.google.com/site/metamorphoseshistory/home.
Creative Commons
4.0 (CC BY-NC 4.0).
The Ministry of Education and Science of
the Russian Federation
Pskov State University
Pskov Regional Branch of the Russian Society of
Intellectual History
Pskov Regional Branch of the
Oriental Archaeological Society

METAMORPHOSES
of H I S T O R Y
Scientifc Almanac
Issue 9

Pskov
Pskov State University
2017
EDITORIAL COUNCIL:
Yury A. Demyanenko, Rector of Pskov State University (chairman) (Pskov, Russia);
Anatoly V. Istomin, Vice-Rector of Pskov State University (vice chairman) (Pskov,
Russia);
Valery N. Garbuzov, Director of Institute for US and Canadian Studies of the Russian
Academy of Sciences (vice chairman) (Moscow, Russia);
Oleg L. Gabelko, Professor of Russian State University for the Humanities
(Moscow, Russia);
Sergey G. Kaschenko, Professor of Saint-Petersburg State University (Saint
Petersburg, Russia);
Shuhrat B. Mukhamedov, Vice-Director of Institute of History of Academy of
Sciences of Uzbekistan (Tashkent, Uzbekistan);
Natalia P. Nikitina, Dean of Historical Faculty of Pskov State University (Pskov,
Russia);
Valery P. Nikonorov, Senior Researcher of Institute for History of Material Culture
of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Saint Petersburg, Russia);
Marek J. Olbrycht, Professor of University of Rzeszow (Rzeszow, Poland);
Igor V. Pyankov, Professor of Yaroslav-the-Wise Novgorod State University
(Veliky Novgorod, Russia).
EDITORIAL BOARD:
Vladimir A. Dmitriev, Associate Professor of Pskov State University (editor-in-chief)
(Pskov, Russia);
Dmitry V. Mikheev, Associate Professor of Pskov State University (managing editor)
(Pskov, Russia);
Igor O. Ermachenko, Associate Professor of Herzen State Pedagogical University of
Russia (Saint Petersburg, Russia);
Viktor K. Gubarev, Associate Professor of Donetsk National Technical University
(Donetsk, Ukraine);
Maxim Yu. Kolpakov, Head of the Department of World History and Area Studies
of Pskov State University (Pskov, Russia);
Vera A. Raikova, Associate Professor of Herzen State Pedagogical University of
Russia (Saint Petersburg, Russia).
The almanac was founded in 1997.
The idea of the almanac: Valery N . Garbuzov, Andrey V. Yurasov.

The almanac is indexed in databases:


The European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social
Sciences (ERIH PLUS); Database for statistikk om hgre utdanning (DBH);
Russian Index of Science Citation (RISC); Index Copernicus Journal Master
List (IC JML); InfoBase Index (IBI).

Publisher: Pskov State University (www.pskgu.ru).


Almanacs website:
https://sites.google.com/site/metamorphoseshistoryen/home.
Papers are published under Creative Commons License
Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0).


Shavarebi E. A Note on The Saint Petersburg School
and Its Contribution to Sasanian Numismatics:
Past and Present 9
. . usura:
29
Hirvonen V. M. The Mystic Jean Gerson on the Dangers
on the Way to the Holiness: Can Too Strong Asceticism
Lead to Mental Disorder? 42
.
: 50


. .

() 76
. . -

XXI . . 93


Maksymiuk K. I. Destruction of the dur Gunasp Temple
in durbdagn as a Revenge for Abduction of the
Holy Cross from Jerusalem in the Context of the Letters
of Heraclius 109
. . :
126

. .
XIII . . 137
. .
-
149

5

.
163
. .

175


. .
1812 . . 192
. .

19141917 . . 223
. .
(19441949) 234

258

259

6
CONTENTS

INTELLECTUAL HISTORY
Shavarebi E. A Note on The Saint Petersburg School
and Its Contribution to Sasanian Numismatics:
Past and Present 9
Oleg Dushin. Scholastics about Usura: Discourse
of Conscience and Ethos of Medieval Towns 29
Hirvonen V. M. The Mystic Jean Gerson on the Dangers
on the Way to the Holiness: Can Too Strong Asceticism
Lead to Mental Disorder? 42
Nikolai Vukov. Memory and Monumental Representation
of the Great War: Balkan Projections 50

INTERNATIONAL SECURITY
Katarzyna Maksymiuk. Destruction of the
dur Gunasp Temple in durbdagn as a Revenge
for Abduction of the Holy Cross from Jerusalem in the
Context of the Letters of Heraclius 76
Tatiana Khrishkevich. The Organizational and Legal
Mechanisms for Ensuring Anti-terrorism Security in
the FRG at the Beginning of the 21st Century 93

ANCIENT HISTORY
Maksymiuk K. I. Destruction of the dur Gunasp Temple
in durbdagn as a Revenge for Abduction of the
Holy Cross from Jerusalem in the Context of the Letters
of Heraclius 109
Vladimir Dmitriev. The Eye of the King:
the Military Counterintelligence in Sasanian Iran 126

MEDIEVAL and EARLY MODERN HISTORY


Valery Mitin. Features of Political Struggle in the
Mongol Empire in the 13th Century 137
Dmitry Mikheev. The Development of Spanish Defensive
System in the New World on the Eve of the
Anglo-Spanish War 149

7
MODERN and CONTEMPORARY HISTORY
Choi Deokkyu. Emperor Kojong and the Plan to Establish
a Korean Government-in-exile in Primorye 163
Tatiana Khrishkevich. Alternative for Germany between
the Federal Elections: the Phenomenon of Minor
Partys Popularity 175

RUSSIA IN THE WORLD HISTORY


Konstantin Zhuchkov. The French Military Thought
in Russia on the Eve of the Patriotic War of 1812 192
Vasily Frolov. The Image of Germany on the Pages
of the Russian pre-Revolution Periodical
Chronicle of War of 1914191 223
Anatoly Filimonov. Repatriates in Pskov Region in the
Early Postwar Years (19441949) 234

LIST of ABBREVIATIONS 258

GUIDELINES for AUTHORS 259

8
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Rankov N. B. Exploratio: Military & Political Intelligence in the Roman
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1995) . (Sheldon R. M. Intelligence Activities in Ancient Rome:
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Syvanne I. The Eyes and Ears: The Sasanian and Roman Spies
ca. AD 222450 / / Historia i wiat. 2016. 5. S. 107131.
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5
The Letter of Tansar / Transl. by M. Boyce. R., 1968. P. 49-50.
6
Ibid. P. 50.
7
Asha R. The Dates in the Pahlavg and Prsg Inscriptions of Dur
(Europos). [Electronic resource]: URL: http://www.rahamasha.net/up-
loads/2/3/2/8/2328777/the_dates_in_the_pahlavg_and_prsg.pdf (date
of access: 25.12.2016).
128
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Tafazzli A. n-nma / / Encyclopaedia Iranica. [Electronic re
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access: 03.12.2015).
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. 2 . . 1 / .
A. . , . . , . . . ., 2001.
. . Arcani / /
. 2012. 4 (283). . 156161.
. . Securitas tutum / /
.
. ., 2013. . 107115.
. .
/ / .
. ., 2012. . 232239.
. .
. , 2011.
. . :
/ /
. . . .
. 2016. 1. . 922.
. . :
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. . . . 2016. 3. . 1528.
. . . ., 1909.
. ., 1972.
. VI / . .
B. . . ., 2007.
/ . . . . ., 1988.
. .
. , 2015.
.
. , 2008.
Asha R. The Dates in the Pahlavg and Prsg Inscriptions of Dur
Europs). [Electronic resource]: URL: http://www.rahamasha.
net/uploads/2/3/2/8/2328777/the_dates_in_the_pahlavg_
and_prsg.pdf (date of access: 25.12.2016).
Austin N. J. E., Rankov N. B. Exploratio: Military & Political Intel
ligence in the Roman World from the Second Punic War to the
Battle of Adrianople. L.; N.Y., 1995.

133
Encyclopedia of Intelligence and Counterintelligence / Ed. by
R. P. Carlisle. L.; N.Y., 2015.
The Letter of Tansar / Transl. by M. Boyce. R., 1968.
Sheldon R. M. Intelligence Activities in Ancient Rome: Trust in the
Gods, but Verify. L.; N.Y., 2005.
Syvanne I. The Eyes and Ears: The Sasanian and Roman Spies ca.
AD 222450 / / Historia i wiat. 2016. 5. S. 107131.
Tafazzoli A. n-nma / / Encyclopaedia Iranica. [Electronic re
source]: URL: http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/ain-na-
ma (date of access: 03.12.2015).
Tafazzoli A. Sasanian Society. I. Warriors. II. Scribes. III. Dehqns.
N.Y., 2000.

,
, , (
, , ); . : dva_psk@mail.ru.

The Eye of the King:


the Military Counterintelligence in Sasanian Iran
The article discusses the activities of Sasanian military
counterintelligence, which was an important element of the state security
system of Sasanian Iran. The literary sources allow us to assert the
existence of both external and internal counterintelligence in Sasanian
Iran. The earliest data about the persons, who were involved into internal
counterintelligence activities, refer to the rule of the second Sasanid
king Shapur I (240272). Obviously, the Sasanian secret service agents
were special offcials known from the inscriptions of the middle of the
3rd century AD discovered in Dura-Europos synagogue, as scribes of
the army or army secretaries. They are mentioned in The Letter of
Tansar (6th century AD) as eyes and informers of the King. Their
presence in the Persian army can be traced down to the last decades of
Sasanian history when Bahram Chobin rebelled against the Sasanid king
Hormizd IV in 589 (or 590).
The activities of the external counterintelligence are known primarily
from the information related to the Roman-Persian wars. According to
Roman and Byzantine historians, its main task was to misinform the enemy
(i.e. the Romans) in order to cover the true intentions of the Persians and
to introduce disorganization into the actions of the Roman army. A special
system of training secret service agents as well as counterintelligence
management did not exist in Sassanian Iran, so counterintelligence
activities of the Persians were largely ad hoc. Despite this, in many cases,
the Persian counterintelligence acted quite effectively and thereby made
a signifcant contribution both to the security maintenance of the Persian
state and military success of Sasanian armies.

134
Key words: Sasanian Iran, military counterintelligence, internal
counterintelligence, external counterintelligence, state security, Roman-
Persian wars.

Vladimir Dmitriev, Associate Professor of the Department of World


History and Area Studies, Candidate of Historical Sciences, Docent (Pskov State
University, Pskov, Russia); e-mail: dva_psk@mail.ru

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