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data sheets for ecosan projects

ecosan program - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH



023 COMPONENTS separate collection of urine,
feces and washwater separate
(3-hole-system) collection
ACTS Eco-friendly Public
Toilet Centre

Bangalore, India anaerobic

discharge to
sewer line

soil liquid
amendment fertilizer

1 General Data
Type of Project:
Upgrading of an ecosan public toilet
centre in a slum (transition) area
Project Period:
start of planning: 06/1999
start of construction: 03/2000
start of upgrading: 07/2005
expiry of demonstration phase: 01/2006
Project Scale:
one public toilet centre,
ca. 500 - 600 users per day
Rajendra Nagar Slum, Bangalore,
Karnataka State, India
fig. 1: ACTS eco-friendly public toilet centre in Rajendra Nagar, Bangalore, India. (source:
Planning Institution: seecon)
seecon gmbh
• Generating income for the develop- the hygienically safe treatment off faecal
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische ment of the slum by charging for the use matter and recovery of biogas;
Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH, ecosan of the toilet, selling of compost and ba-
program nanas produced; • Use of biogas as a substitute to LPG
(liquid pressurised gas) in cooking;
Suma Khadi Gramodyoga Sangha • Changing attitudes of people and en-
couraging them to consider human • Providing capacity for the extension of
Executing Institution: urine and faeces a valuable resource. the sanitation project for future public
ACTS toilet centres.
Supporting Agency:
Objectives of upgrading the eco-friendly
Swiss Agency for Development and Co- sanitation project: 3 Location and general
operation (SDC)
• As the originally designed logistics conditions
concept was often discussed to consti-
By 2001, the majority of households in
tute not only a cultural, but also a hygi-
Rajendra Nagar, a huge slum with in-
2 Objective of the project enic problem, the upgrading should
habitants of different caste, religion and
bring about considerable improvement
Objectives of establishing an eco- race, did not have their own toilets.
in such conditions;
friendly public toilet centre in Rajendra Residents had access to only one func-
Nagar: tioning communal toilet. Lack of sanitary
• Replacing the previously used com-
facilities has not only brought inconven-
• Improving the living conditions in the posting trenches by a biogas plant for
ience but also unhygienic conditions
slum, minimizing the risk of disease
spreading during monsoon flood peri-
ods and increasing women’s security;

• Recycling of nutrients and organics

due to the collection, treatment and
reuse of urine and faeces for the pro-
duction of fertilizer and compost;

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data sheets for ecosan projects
ecosan program - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

and social problems to the society, par- and hygienically safe collection, trans-
ticularly to women and children, as they portation and processing scheme was
had been forced to defecate in the open developed and implemented with sup-
field before dawn or after dusk. The toi- port of the GTZ and seecon gmbh in
let centre aims to bring about consider- 2005.
able improvement in such conditions.
With the improved pump and haul sys-
tem, holding tanks replaced the barrels
for the separate collection of urine and
4 Technologies applied faecal matter. Transportation was done
The eco-friendly public toilet centre, with the existing truck, which was
which comprised 8 cabins (4 for females equipped with a vacuum suction unit for
and 4 for males), was designed in such the evacuation of faecal material and a
fig. 6: Sludge drying beds. (source: seecon
a way that the squatting slabs were self-priming pumping system for empty-
raised about 1.5 metres above the ing the urine tanks.
ground level and provided with 3 holes
for the separate collection of faeces, 5 Type of reuse
urine and water used for primary hand-
washing. Faecal matter was treated in a biogas
plant and subsequent secondary treat-
ment of the digested slurry was done in
sludge drying beds. The dried slurry
was applied as soil amendment at the
ACTS Rayasandra Campus.

fig. 2: Squatting slap provided with 3 holes.

(source: seecon gmbh)

Collection of urine and faeces (including

anal cleansing water) was first done in
barrels that were stored in compart-
fig. 7: Use of biogas as substitute to LPG in
ments below the squatting slabs. Once cooking. (source: seecon gmbh)
a day, the barrels were picked up and
conveyed to the ACTS Rayasandra fig. 3 and 4: Evacuation of faecal matter with Source-separated urine was stored in
Campus. Faecal matter was co- the newly installed vacuum system (top). large-capacity plastic tanks before being
composted with waste paper and bio- Emptying of urine collection tanks (bottom). applied as nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer
(source: seecon gmbh)
degradable waste; urine was applied as to a banana plantation.
a nitrogen-rich liquid fertilizer to banana The composting trenches at the ACTS
plantations after storage. Rayasandra Campus were dismantled
Water used for primary handwashing and Suma Khadi Gramodyoga Sangha,
a local NGO, did the design and con-
was drained to an infiltration bed in front
struction of a new biogas plant so that
of the toilet block and any surplus of wa-
the faecal matter could be treated hy-
ter that didn’t trickle away was collected
in a subsurface collection tank that was gienically and safe, and so that valuable
energy in the form of biogas could be
emptied when full.
Any surplus of washwater that was not
taken up by the planted infiltration bed
in front of the public toilet centre was
drained to a nearby municipal sewer.
fig.8: Banana plantation. (source: seecon
Upgrading of the system with a new gmbh)
haul and pump system for the faeces
and a new biogas-plant.
6 Further project compo-
Although the ACTS eco-friendly demon-
stration toilet centre was successfully in nents
operation for several years, the origi- Experiences gained during the demon-
nally designed logistics and processing stration phase (years 2001 to 2006) will
concept was often discussed to consti- now be used for up-scaling of the ACTS
fig. 5: Biogas plant at ACTS Rayasandra
tute not only a cultural, but also a hygi- sanitation project and future projects in
Campus (source: seecon gmbh)
enic problem. Hence, a socially and cul- Bangalore and its surroundings.
turally more acceptable, sustainable

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data sheets for ecosan projects
ecosan program - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

7 Project history
Grand opening and inauguration of the
ACTS eco-friendly public toilet centre in
Rajendra Nagar Slum was in August
The up-grading started in July 2004 and
the implementation of the new, mecha-
nized collection and transportation
scheme was completed on November
24 , 2005.
The demonstration phase of the ACTS
sanitation project expired in beginning
of 2006 and the eco-friendly public toilet
centre in Rajendra Nagar was therefore
closed down on January 8 , 2006.
At present, a survey on new sites for es-
tablishing future eco-friendly public toilet
centres is conducted.
Table 1: Findings of a cost-revenues analysis on the upscaling of the eco-friendly sanita-
tion project
8 Costs
• Planning an ecosan-system is not a
In connection with the phasing-out of green-desk-job but needs stake-
the demonstration project in Rajendra 10 Design information and holder involvement.
Nagar and the intended upscaling of the technical specifications • Communication plays an important
eco-friendly sanitation project, a cost- role to prevent misunderstandings
The source-separate collection of urine
revenue analysis was conducted. This and political or institutional prob-
and faeces was developed, considering
was based upon experiences gained lems. Involvement of “critical
wet anal cleansing habits in India.
during the last five years of successfully voices” helps to develop the pro-
running an eco-friendly public toilet cen- The toilet centre with 4 toilet compart- jects efficiently. Public or individual
tre in a slum area; assumptions in re- ments for women and 4 for men was concerns have to be considered as
gard to capital costs; operation & main- designed to serve up to 1,000 users per deciding inputs for project planning,
tenance requirements; travel costs; the day. improvement, adjustment, etc.
fertilizer equivalent of human excreta; • The project development has to
the nutritional requirements of banana The floating-drum type biodigester with consider and synthesise relevant
plants; and the income generation by water jacket, which was installed at the political, institutional and technical
collection of user fees and selling of ba- ACTS Rayasandra Campus, has a re- issues into an integrated system
nanas. actor capacity of ca. 40 m (inner di- and communication design.
ameter: 3,80 m; height: 3,70 m).
The findings of this analysis, which are • Even generating income and work-
summarized in table 1, indicate that 11 Practical experience and places the project depends on ex-
ternal financial support. This prob-
running a large scale eco-friendly sani- lessons learned, com- lem could be solved developing
tation project that is relying on a pump ments
and haul service system for the collec- new contracting systems involving
tion and transport of source-separated • The slogan “ecosan - an approach and obligating the local authorities
flow streams, can be economically vi- to human dignity, community health (private-public-partnership ap-
able under certain conditions (e.g. opti- and food security” is clearly imple- proach).
mizing frequency of service runs, collec- mented in this project: The project • Failures are unavoidable and have
tion of user fees, reuse of biogas as a shows a positive impact on the dig- to considered essential elements of
substitute to LPG, reuse of recyclates in nity and health of the toilet users the learning process.
agricultural production and selling of and the urine and faeces are suc- • Long-term experiences and interna-
produce, etc.). cessfully used to produce high tionally embedded research are
quality food (bananas) and biogas. very important: After 4 years of pro-
• “Closing the loop” in terms of nutri- ject operation, communication, the
ents-cycles between urban areas project reached a national and in-
9 Operation and mainte- ternational recognition.
(consumer areas) and rural areas
(production areas) is feasible and
Project supervision was done by the lo- opens new economical options. 12 Available documents and
cal NGO ACTS. • A strong local organizational em-
bedding and a good long-term
Operation and maintenance of the toilet management of the ecosan-
centre, the transport of faecal matter Heeb, J. (2003): Conference proceed-
technology are key prerequisites for ings “ecosan – closing the loop” April 7-
and urine to the processing and reuse a successful and sustainable pro- 11th, 2003 in Lübeck, Germany. avail-
site at the ACTS Rayasandra Campus ject operation. A strong local pro- able at
and operation and maintenance of the ject partner and manager is crucial
biogas system were done by a trained http://www2.gtz.de/ecosan/english/symp
for the project. osium2-proceedings-eng.htm (ecosan-
group of 6-8 local employees.
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data sheets for ecosan projects
ecosan program - Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

Wafler, M. et al. (2005): Conference

pre-printings “9 International Confer-
ence 25-26 November, 2005; Mumbai,
Wafler, M. et al. (2006): Conference
pre-printings “The International Ecocity
Conference 6 (ecocity6)” 6-9 August,
2006; Bangalore, India

13 Institutions, organisations
and contact persons:
Project owner:
P.O. Box 9529, Bangalore - 560095,
phone: +91-(0)80-25531154
phone: +91-(0)80-25531024
fax: +91-(0)80-25533387
email: gnanakan@vsnl.com
web: http://www.acts.co.in/

Technical consultancy:
seecon gmbh
Bahnhofstrasse 2, 6110 Wolhusen,
phone: +41-(0)79-3666850
email: johannes.heeb@seecon.ch
email: martin.wafler@seecon.ch
web: http://www.seecon.ch

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische

Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
ecosan program
P.O. Box 5180
65760 Eschborn, Germany
phone: +49-(0)6196-794420
fax: +49-(0)6196-797458
email: ecosan@gtz.de
web: http://www.gtz.de/ecosan

Technical planning/implementation:
Suma Khadi Gramodyoga Sangha  2007, GTZ
532, 2nd Main Road, Gandhi Nagar,
Kolar-563101, Karnataka State, India data sheets for ecosan projects
phone: +91-(0)815-2225370 authors: Ken Gnanakan, S.S. Wilson,
email: biogas@vsnl.com Martin Wafler, Johannes Heeb

Supporting agency: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische

Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Swiss Agency for Development and Co- ecosan program
operation (SDC) - Head office Dag-Hammarskjöld-Weg 1-5
Freiburgstrasse 130, 3003 Berne, Swit- 65760 Eschborn, Germany
zerland T +49 6196 79-4220
phone: +41-(0)31-3223475 F +49 6196 79-7458
phone: +41-(0)31-3241348 E ecosan@gtz.de
email: info@deza.admin.ch I www.gtz.de/ecosan
web: http://www.sdc.admin.ch

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