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Study of Incidence of Congenital Anomalies In New Borns

* **
Dr. Kanan Shah , Dr. C.A.Pensi
*Associate Professor, Department of Anatomy, Smt.N.H.L.Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad.
**Professor & Head, Department of Anatomy, B.J.Medical College, Ahmedabad.

KEY WORDS : Congenital malformation, anomalies

Abstracts:
In this study, all the newborns delivered at obstetrics dept. of civil hospital were examined for congenital
malformations over a period of nine months. Purpose of study is to find out the overall incidence of clinically
detectable congenital anomalies in newborns in hospital deliveries. Four thousand four hundred and fifty six
newborn babies of consecutive deliveries were examined at birth for the presence of congenital malformations.
The overall incidence of malformations was 2.38%. Neural tube defects were commonly found. The incidence of
congenital malformations was higher in still born, low birth weight, male and preterm babies. Also we know
immediate outcome in live born malformed babies for study of prognosis of various malformations.

INTRODUCTION
In a developing country like India due to high incidence of 2) The incidence of different congenital anomalies.
infectious diseases, nutritional disorders and social
stress, the developmental defects are often 3) Immediate outcome in live born malformed babies.
overshadowed, but the present scenario is changing MATERIAL AND METHODS
rapidly. A recent study shows that congenital anomalies
It's an observational analytical cross sectional type of
contribute to 9% of perinatal deaths as compared to 8% a
study.
decade ago. About 2% newborn infants have major
anomalies. The incidence is as high as 5% if one includes Four thousand four hundred and fifty six newborn babies
anomalies detected later in childhood such as of consecutive new born babies delivered at the
abnormalities of heart, kidney, lungs and spine. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Civil hospital,
Anomalies are more common among spontaneous Ahmedabad were examined at birth for the presence of
abortuses. Many anomalies are severe and cause congenital malformations. They were examined soon
abortion. after birth for major and/or minor congenital
malformations. Baby's gestational age, birth weight, sex
Congenital anomalies represent defective
and symptoms in postnatal period were noted. The
morphogenesis during early fetal life. A broader definition
detailed general and systemic examinations of the babies
includes metabolic or microscopic defects at a cellular
were carried out. As per the proforma made, complete
level.
medical, family, antenatal and personal history has taken
Major anomalies have serious medical, surgical and .Thorough physical examinations of newborn babies
cosmetic consequences. were done. High risk newborns were examined in detail
In this study we have calculated overall incidence of within 12 hrs.of birth.
congenital anomalies both in live born and stillborn Immediate outcome of all malformed babies were
babies. recorded during the period of the mother's hospital stay.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OBSERVATIONS
To study prospectively A total of 4456 consecutive births were studied for
1) The overall incidence of clinically detectable congenital malformation. There were 106 malformed
congenital anomalies in newborns in hospital babies found. The overall incidence of congenital
deliveries. malformations was found to be 2.38% as shown in table I.

Correspondence Address : Dr. Kanan Shah


13, Mewawalanagar society, Nr.Kiranpark,
New Vadaj, Ahmedabad- 380013

GMJ 97 GUJARAT MEDICAL JOURNAL / DECEMBER - 2013 Vol. 68 No. 2


TABLE I INCIDENCE OF ANOMALIES

Total No. of deliveries 4414


Total No. of twin deliveries 40
Total No. of triplet deliveries 1
Total No. of babies born 4456
Total No. of malformed babies 106
Incidence of anomalies 2.38%
Incidence of twin deliveries was 0.9%.

Congenital malformations of the central nervous system were the highest followed by musculoskeletal system,
gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular system, Genitourinary system, respiratory system, chromosomal and ear as
shown in Table II.

TABLEII SHOWING INCIDENCE OF SYSTEMWISE ANOMALIES

Table III SEXUAL VARIATION IN INCIDENCE OF ANOMALIES

Incidence of malformations in general was found to be apparently more in male (2.43%) than in female (2.20%)

DISCUSSION
al(1985)4 1.5%,Graham(1988) 2%,Mishra PC & Baveja
In present study, attempts have been made to find out the
R(1989)71.46%,Mohanty et al(1989)8 1.61%,Verma IC et
total and individual incidence of anomalies in hospital
al(1991)11 3.6% and Guha AK(1995)62%.
deliveries. The overall incidence of congenital
malformations was 2.38% in present study. Compares The relative difference in the occurrence of various
well with the observations of Marden et al(1964)1 2-4%, malformations might be due to geographic and racial
Goravalingappa &Nashi(1979) 5 3.13%,Ghose et differences. The true incidence of congenital anomalies

98 GUJARAT MEDICAL JOURNAL / DECEMBER - 2013 Vol. 68 No. 2


depend upon several factors and therefore two studies Incidence of congenital malformed babies appears more
are never strictly comparable. now days as compared to past because of advanced
In present study Congenital malformations of the central diagnostic facilities and availability of neonatal intensive
nervous system were the highest(10.42/1000) followed care unit which leads to increase chances of survival of
by malformations of the musculoskeletal malformed babies.
system(2.95/1000), malformations of the gastrointestinal REFERENCES
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