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SILVACO TCAD Workshop

Avinash Bhat
Product Manager
Cognitive design technology pvt ltd
Agenda of workshop

Day 1
Session 1- Introduction to TCAD

Session 2- Getting Started with interactive tools

Session 3-Simulation of NMOS Device Structure

Session4-Creating NMOS using Devedit


Simulating Nmos Device Structure
In this session, we shall perform
the device simulation of an
NMOS structure

1) To create a MOSFET
structure in Atlas Device
simulation

2) Generation of simple Id
versus Vgs

3) Extraction of device
parameters such as Vt, Beta
and Theta.

4) Generation of Id versus Vds


curves with different Vgs
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
In this session, we will learn
the basic operation which is
required for creating typical
MOSFET structure.
To create a structure these
are the important things
which we must consider.

1) Developing a good
simulation grid.
2) Defining our regions and
electrodes.
3) Defining proper material
and models.
4) Using appropriate
calculation method.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
On the Deckbuild main
window type go atlas

Click on Commands--
>Structure-->Mesh

We need a new Mesh, select Construct new mesh


And define the X and Y location for the MOSFET with spacing
and then click on write
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

The following lines


are displayed on the
Deckbuild window

Once we have
defined our
mesh, the next
step is to define
the region.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
Click on Commands-->Structure-->Region

Click on write button, the following line of code appear on


Deckbuild
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

After defining the regions, the next step is to define the electrodes.
Click on Commands-->Structure-->Electrode
Define the source, gate, drain and substrate for the Mosfet.
Once we enter all the details click on write button the following line
appears on the Deckbuild window
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

We can plot our structure by using the following command


save outf= Mosfet_ex.str
tonyplot Mosfet_ex.str
To run the simulation click on the following icon which is present in the
Deckbuild.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Once the simulation is complete we will get the following device


structure
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
To check our meshing and electrode structure, click on plot and click on
display

The following window


appears. Select the
highlighted box which
help you to check your
meshing and electrode
on your device structure.

Click on apply and click on


Ok
The following structure
will be plotted on your
tonyplot
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

The next step will be to define our doping profile for the Silicon and
polysilicon material.
And also we will also use the Gaussian analytical function to generate the
doping profile.
Click on Commands-->Structure-->Doping-->Analytical profile
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

This uniform doping profile is Next step will be to define our


for the silicon region. Next we Gaussian Junction doping profile
must do the doping profile for
the polysilicon region.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Click on the write button, the following line will be on the Deckbuild
window.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Now to check our doping


profile of the structure,
run the simulation again

Click on plot-->display
Select the junctions and
the contours from the
tonyplot display and click
ok
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Now we have completed our MOSFET structure. The next part will be
1) Defining our material model specification- material, models, contact
and interface.
2) Define Numerical Method
3) Solution specification
4) Analysis of result

In MOSFET simulations, the workfucntion of the gate is very important


parameter. This is set by defining the Contact statement
Contact Name=Gate N.poly
This contact statement can be defined when we define our electrodes.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

If you want to define the


specific workfucntion click
on specify and define the
workfunction difference
of the desired value which
you want to use during
the simulation. In this
example we will specify as
N-poly.
The workfunction can be
defined manual by typing
the same in the Deckbuild
window.
You can also define the
work function through
Commands-->Models--
>Contact
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Click on write button


Once we define the workfucntion, we need to define the material.
Materials are split into three classes: Semiconductor, insulators and
conductors. For semiconductors properties such as electron affinity,
bandgap, density states must be specified. Below is the default parameters
for Silicon and Poly-silicon material.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
Material properties Silicon Polysilicon

Energy Gap at 300k 1.08 1.08

Alpha 4.73 x 10^-4 4.73 x 10^-4

Beta 636 636

Band density(NC 300) 2.8 x 10^19 2.8 x 10^19

Band density(NV 300) 1.04 x 10^19 1.04 x 10^19

Electron affinity 4.17 4.17

Dielectric constant 11.8 11.8

Low field Mobility(MUN) 1000 1000


Low field Mobility(MUP) 500 500

SRH lifetime 1.0 X 10^-7 1.0 X 10^-7


Simulating Nmos Device Structure
Syntax for defining material
Material Material=<Name>

In this example we are using silicon and polysilicon material to define those
the syntax is given below.
Material Material=Silicon
Material Material=polysilicon

By default the syntax will consider the default parameter which is shown in
the above table. We can also can the material properties by defining our own
set of values.

For example if we need to set the bandgap and low field electron mobility for
silicon region, then the following statement can be used which sets the
conduction band density of states at 300K for the material silicon.
Material Material= Silicon Eg300=1.1245 affinity=4.05 permitti=11.9
nc300=2.8e19
Material Material= Poly Eg300=1.245 affinity=4.05 permitti=11.9
Material Material=air permitti=1
The above syntax will set our material properties for the MOSFET device.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

The next step is to define the physical models to simulate the MOS devices.
Models are accessed from the MODELS statement.
MODELS MOS will turn on the default set of physical models that are useful for
MOS simulation. MODELS MOS statement will enable SRH, Fermi and Lombardi
mobility model for transverse field dependence.

SRH is the Shockley Read Hall recombination model while the CVT model
is the inversion layer model from Lombardi.

CVT model sets a general purpose mobility model including


concentration, temperature, parallel field and transverse field
dependence.

We can also define the MODELS through, commands models models


Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Click on write
button the
following
models and
the CVT
mobility
parameters
will be
defined.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Next, we shall select the type of numerical methods to be used for the
simulation.
Several different methods can be used for solving the semiconductor device
problems.
For the MOS structure, the de-coupled (GUMMEL), and fully coupled
(NEWTON) methods are used.
In simple terms, the Gummel method will solve for each unknown in turn
keeping the other variables constant, repeating the process until a stable
solution is achieved.
On the other hand, the Newton method, solve the total system of
unknowns together.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
Newton Iteration
Newton method solves a linearized version of the entire non-linear algebraic system.
The size of the problem is relatively large and each iteration takes long time.
Convergence are quicker in case of Newton iteration. Newton's method is default for
drift diffusion calculations. Newton methods are used for lumped elements, transient
calculations, curve tracing and for quantum tunnelling.

Gummel Iteration
Gummel method solves a sequence of relatively small linear Subproblems.
Subproblems are obtained by linearizing one equation of set with respect to its
primary solution variable while holding other variables at their most recently
computed value.
Gummel iteration typically converges relatively slower, but Gummel method will often
tolerate poor initial guess. Gummel algorithm cannot be used with lumped elements or
current boundary conditions.

Block Iteration
Block iteration are useful when lattice heating or energy balance equations are
included.
For our simulation since it involves drift diffusion calculation, we select the Newton
iteration method.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
Click on Commands-->solutions-->Method

Define the parameter


accordingly as defined in
the above picture, which
are default parameters and
click on write button.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Initial Guess
1. The Log statement to save the log files which contains all the terminal
characteristics calculated by ATLAS;
2. The Solve statement for solving different bias conditions; and
3. The Load statement for loading the solution files.

In this tutorial, the first objective is to obtain a simple Id versus Vgs curve
for the NMOS structure.

In our example we will start with initial guess for the drain.
Click on Commands-->Solutions-->Solve

The solve dialog box appears, left click and click on add new row

Now we will solve for the drain voltage, select the type as constant and
give the initial value as 0.1V and next we will solve for gate voltage,
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

The following statement appears on the Deckbuild window.


Simulating Nmos Device Structure

To extract the threshold voltage.


Click on Commands-->Device extract

The following code will apply on the Deckbuild window

To plot the Gate voltage V/s Drain current


Type the following command
tonyplot logfile0.log
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

The threshold
voltage is also
extracted
Simulating Nmos Device Structure

Next we will plot the Drain voltage V/s Drain Current


Follow the same step till the method statement.
Solve for various gate voltage,

Click on write, the following line will appear on the Deckbuild window.
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
We need to edit the above
command line.
Solve init
solve vgate=10 outf=solve_mos1
solve vgate=12 outf=solve_mos2
solve vgate=15 outf=solve_mos3
solve vgate=17 outf=solve_mos4

load infile=solve_mos4 load infile=solve_mos1


log outf=mos_emb_4.log log outf=mos_emb_1.log
solve name=drain vdrain=0 solve name=drain vdrain=0 vfinal=17 vstep=0.2
vfinal=17 vstep=0.2
We can plot all the Drain current vs load infile=solve_mos2
Drain Voltage with following log outf=mos_emb_2.log
command solve name=drain vdrain=0 vfinal=17 vstep=0.2
tonyplot -overlay mos_emb_1.log
mos_emb_2.log mos_emb_3.log load infile=solve_mos3
mos_emb_log4 log outf=mos_emb_3.log
solve name=drain vdrain=0 vfinal=17 vstep=0.2
Simulating Nmos Device Structure
Using Devedit to create a structure

Devedit starts with Work


Area that uses default
setting. To change the size of
this work area, use the Menu
(right) mouse button over
Regions and select Resize
Work Area...

You can change


the Depth (y) and Length (x)
minimum and maximum to
desired values. For this
tutorial, set y.min to -0.5,
y.max to 1.0 , x.min to zero,
and x.max to 1
Using DevEdit
Defining regions
Creating a device begins with adding regions. Under the
Regions pull-down
menu, choose Add region....
Define the add point as (0,0),(1,0),(1,1),(0,1) click apply
Using Devedit
The complete silicon region appears on the Devedit platform,
similarly we will perform the same for the oxide and polysilicon
layer
Using Devedit
Click on Add region and define the add points for oxide and
polysilicon.
Using Devedit
Once we have defined all the regions, we will define the
electrodes for the device.
Click on Add region

Select the electrode and define the electrode name as


Source.
Select material as Aluminium
Using Devedit
Follow the same procedure for defining the Drain.
In this example we will make the polysilicon material as the
gate.
Select polysilicon and right click on region and select modify
region

Click on apply, once this is done we need to define the


doping profile for silicon and polysilicon
Using Devedit
Select the silicon region, and click on modify region

Select the Set base impurities


and select net doping (directly)
Using Devedit
Next we will define the Gaussian doping profile for the MOSFET.
Select the silicon region and right click impurity and select add
impurity
Using Devedit
Now to check our Gaussian Junction profile
Using Devedit
The last step will be building our mesh, right click on Mesh
and select mesh build

We will refine
our mesh by
selecting Refine
box Refine
both
Using Devedit
MOS Device structure after refine mesh
Using Devedit
The refined device structure can be plotted through tonyplot.
Right click on file and select tonyplot
Using Devedit
Click on file and click on Save as and provide a file name
Mosfet.str