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The Heart and Circulation

1. Heart Tissuue

A. Pericardium Fibrous protective sac enclosing heart.

B. Epicardium inner layer of pericardium.

C. Myocardium heart muscle, the major portion of the heart.

D. Endocardium smooth lining of the inner surface and cavities of the heart.

2. Heart Chambers

A. 4 Chambers total arranged in pairs, working as two pumps in sequence.

1) Right Atrium (RA) receives blood from superior and inferior vena cavae during stytole (contraction)
blood is sent to the right ventricle.

2) Right Ventricle (RV) pumps blood via the pulmonary artery to the lungs for oxygenation; the low-
pressure pulmonary pump.

3) Left Atrium (LA) receives oxygenated blood from the lungs (from the four pulmonary veins); during
systole contraction, blood is sent to the left ventricle.

4) Left Ventricle (LV) pumps blood via the aorta throughout the entire systemic circulation; walls of the
left are thicker and stronger than the right ventricle and form most of the left side and apex of the heart;
the high-pressure systemic pump.

B. Blood Flow

1) Systemic circulation to RA to RV then to lungs for oxygenation.

2) LA receives oxygenated blood from the lungs, sends blood to LV

3) LV pumps blood to the body via the aorta.

3. Valves: ensures one-way directional flow of blood through the heart; into, out-of, and within the
heart.

A) Atrioventricular valves: prevent backflow of blood into the Atria during ventricular systole
contraction; valves close when ventricular walls contract.

1) Tricuspid Valve - Right heart valve

2) Bicuspid or Mitral Valve - Left heart valve

B) Semilunar Vlaves: prevent backflow of blood from Aorta and pulmonary arteries into the ventricles
during diastole (relaxation of contraction).

1) Pulmonary valve: prevents right backflow.


2) Aortic valve: prevents left backflow.

4. Cardiac Cycle: The heart pumps. Systole: ventricular contraction, diastole: ventricular relaxation and
filling of blood. Atrial contraction occurs during last 3rd of relaxation and completes filling. Coronary
contraction: Right coronary artery (RCA) supplies right atrium, most of right ventricle, and the inferior
wall of the left ventricle, atrioventricular (AV) node, and bundle of His; 60% of time supplies supplies the
sinoatrial (SA) node. Left coronary artery (LCA) supplies most of the left ventricle; has two main
divisions left anterior descending (LAD) and circumflex. Veins: parallel arterial system. Conduction:
specialized tissue allows rapid transmission of electrical impulses I the myocardium; includes nodal
tissue and Purkinje fibers.