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General Mathematics Reviewer

Concepts:
Domain and Range
Exponential Functions
Inverse Functions
Logarithmic Functions

Domain and Range


*insert table here*
Exponential Functions
() = +
Wherein:
a, b, and c = Set of all REAL NUMBERS
b > 0.
- b > 1: The function is increasing
- 0 < b < 1: The function is decreasing
c: affects the range asymptote, which is always expressed in a linear equation.
Domain: Set of all real numbers
Range: Set of positive real numbers
: depends on the coefficient of the function
Given: () = Given: () = 5

Range: y > 0 Range: y > -5

Asymptote: Is the value of c. Expressed as y = c.


Turning Point: If c = 0, then (0, 1), however given () = + , then (0, d). The
depends on the sign of d.
3 Key Parts of the graph on an Exponential Function
1. Pivot Point
- The only point that intersects the y-axis when the graph is flipped.
- The turning point

2. Horizontal Asymptote

3. Growth or Decay
Transformation of Graphs
1. Horizontal translation
Given: () = +
If c of translated function > c of parent function
o The graph shifts to the left
o To get the translation, subtract the c of the translated
function from the c of the parent function.

If c of translated function < c of parent function


o The graph shifts to the left
o To get the translations, add the c of the translated function
to the c of the parent function.

Examples:
Parent Function Translated Function Translation
() = 2+3 () = 2+5 2 Units to the left

() = 2+3 () = 25 8 Units to the


right

Solution:
Parent Function Translated Function Solution
=3 = 5 53=2

=3 = 5 -5 3 = - 8

***Note: You can also tell the direction of the shift of the graph using the
signs of the translations however its quite confusing. For Horizontal
Translation, if the translation is positive, the movement is to the left. If it is
negative, it is to the right.

2. Vertical Translation
Given: () = +
If d of translated function > d of parent function
o The graph moves upwards.
o To get the translation, subtract the d of the parent function
from the d of the translated function.

If d of translated function < d of parent function


o The graph moves downward
o To get the translation, subtract the d of the parent function
from the d of the translated function.
Example:
Parent Function Translated Function Translation
() = 2 + 3 () = 2 + 5 2 Units
upwards
() = 2 + 3 () = 2 5 8 Units
downwards

Solution:
Parent Function Translated Function Solution
=3 =5 5- 3 = 2

=3 = 5 -5 3 = -8

***Note: You can also tell the direction of the shift of the graph using the
signs of the translation. For vertical translation, if the translation is
positive, the movement is upwards. If it is negative, it is downwards.

The following translation of graphs werent discussed in class but they


were it might be useful to know them.

3. Vertical Stretching or Shrinking


Given: () =
If a of translated function > a of parent function
o The graph is stretched
o Computation of translation was not discussed.

If a of translated function < a of parent function


o The graph is shrunk
o Computation of translation was not discussed.

4. Reflecting
Given: () =
o The graph is reflected along the y-axis
o Computation of translation was not discussed.

Given: () =
o The graph is reflected along the x-axis
o Computation of translation was not discussed.
***Note: To be reflected is to be flipped.

Solving Exponential Equations and Inequalities


Points to remember:
Always make the bases the same before solving.
To make a number its reciprocal, raise it to the negative exponent.
1 1
Ex: 2 = (2)
1 1 (3)
23 = (2)
A number that it being rooted (2) is the same as the number being
raised to a fraction
1
Ex: 2 = 2 2
3 1
2 = 2 3
Inequalities are placement sensitive, which means an expression on the
right side of the inequality must always stay on the right side and the
same goes with the left side. If you want to switch their places,
remember to also switch the sign so that the inequality remains true. If
you dont want to make your life hard, just dont move them.
When dividing or multiplying a number in both sides of an inequality
with a negative number, the sign is flipped.

Inverse Functions
All functions have inverses, but not all inverses are functions.
The domain of a function is the range of its inverse.
The range of a function is the domain of its inverse.
Horizontal Line test: Used to determine if the graph is a one-to-one function.
Vertical Line test: used to determine if the graph is a function.

To find the inverse of a function.
1. Switch the variables, x and y.
2. Look for y.
Note: Do not forget to note 1 () or 1 when writing down your final answer.
To check if the Inverse solved for is correct, use composition.
Use the value of the inverse and substitute it to x in the given function.

( (()) = ( ( ())
**Take note that the answer must not necessarily be x. As long as the condition is
true then the inverse is correct.
To check if a function is an inverse of itself, perform composition using the given value.
Substitute the function to the x in the function. The given is a function of itself if it results
to an x.

Logarithmic Functions
Wherein:
= >>> =

In exponential form: In logarithm form:

b: Is the base b: The base


y: Is the exponent y: The result
X: The result X: The logarithm

x = cannot be a negative number when used in a LOGARITHM as the function will


become UNDEFINED.
b is any number greater than zero but not equal to one.

Common logarithm (log) has a base of 10 if not mentioned otherwise


Natural Logarithm (ln) has a base of e if not mentioned otherwise.
- ln e = 1
- ln is the same as ln
Logarithmic Functions are the inverses of exponential functions
Domain: Set of positive real numbers
Range: Set of all real numbers
Asymptote: Given by x = c. To solve the value, convert the logarithm to exponential form
then get the value of c.
Turning Point: Expressed as (x , y); where given the function: 2 ( + ), y = 0 and x
= (1+d).

Laws of Logarithm
o Product Law
o When the bases are the same and being multiplied, you add the exponents.
o Likewise, when the bases are the same and being added, you multiply the logarithm.
o To expand, factor.
o Example:
Given: Log 15
- First Step: Factor
Log (5)(3)
- Second Step: apple property
Log 5 + Log 3

Given: Log 3 + Log 2 + Log 5


Log (3)(2)(5)
Log 30
o Power law
o An exponent of the logarithm may be placed as a coefficient
o Example: Log 102 can be written as 2Log 10

o Quotient Law
o When the bases are the same and being divided, you subtract the exponents or the
logarithm,.
o Likewise, when the bases are the same and being subtracted, you divide the
logarithm.
o Examples:
2
Given: Log 3
Log 2 Log 3

Solving Logarithmic Equalities and Inequalities

Cancel logarithms when logarithms are on both sides of the equations and the bases are
the same.
Apply laws of logarithm only when the bases are the same.
When exponential problems with different bases are the same and you cannot change it to
make the bases the same, place log on both sides of the equations.
Ex. Given: 24+3 = 32+1
Solution: 24+3 = 32+1
Apply power rule
4x+3(log 2) = 2x+1(log 3)
Plug the values of the respective logarithms and solve for x.
Answer:
If the expression is long and the bases differ, one may either input it in their calculator or
evaluate the logarithms individually by converting each one, one by one into exponential
functions.

NOTE: When solving problems, the first step is to not panic. Most of the time
the process is long but that doesnt mean its incorrect. Have confidence in what
youre doing, even if you arent sure. The fact that youre doing something means
your brain has an understanding of the topic to a certain extent. Again, DO NOT
PANIC.