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Assignment # 3

Circulatory
System
Jefford B. Tangcay
Teacher: Erica Regina Merto
Gr:7 Sc: E
1. What are the specific function & main organ of circulatory system?
The circulatory system is a body-wide network of blood, blood vessels, and lymph. Powered by
the heart, it is the bodys distribution system to organs with oxygen, hormones and essential
nutrients that helps it function properly.
Combined with the cardiovascular system, the circulatory system helps to fight off disease, helps
the body maintain a normal body temperature, and provides the right chemical balance to
provide the bodys homeostasis, or state of balance among all its systems.

The circulatory system consists of four major components:


The Heart: About the size of two adult hands held together, the heart rests near the center
of the chest. Thanks to consistent pumping, the heart keeps the circulatory system
working at all times.
Arteries: Arteries carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart and where it needs to go.

Veins: Veins carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs where they receive oxygen.

Blood: Blood is the transport media of nearly everything within the body. It transports
hormones, nutrients, oxygen, antibodies, and other important things needed to keep the
body healthy.
Oxygen enters the bloodstream through tiny membranes in the lungs that absorb oxygen as it is
inhaled. As the body uses the oxygen and processes nutrients, it creates carbon dioxide, which
your lungs expel as you exhale. A similar process occurs with the digestive system to transport
nutrients, as well as hormones in the endocrine system. These hormones are taken from where
they are produced to the organs they affect.
The circulatory system works thanks to constant pressure from the heart and valves throughout
the body. This pressure ensures that veins carry blood to the heart and arteries transport it away
from the heart. (Hint: to remember which one does which, remember that that artery and
away both begin with the letter A.)

There are three different types of circulation that occur regularly in the body:
Pulmonary circulation: This part of the cycle carries oxygen-depleted blood away from
the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart.
Systemic circulation: This is the part that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart
and to other parts of the body.
Coronary circulation: This type of circulation provides the heart with oxygenated blood
so it can function properly.
2. Heart - The heart is a
muscular organ about
the size of a fist, located
just behind and slightly
left of the breastbone.
The heart pumps blood
through the network of
arteries and veins called
the cardiovascular
system.

3. What are the common disease of the heart?

Coronary artery disease: Over the years, cholesterol plaques can narrow the arteries supplying blood

to the heart. The narrowed arteries are at higher risk for complete blockage from a sudden blood clot

(this blockage is called a heart attack).

Stable angina pectoris: Narrowed coronary arteries cause predictable chest pain or discomfort with

exertion. The blockages prevent the heart from receiving the extra oxygen needed for strenuous

activity. Symptoms typically get better with rest.

Unstable angina pectoris: Chest pain or discomfort that is new, worsening, or occurs at rest. This is an

emergency situation as it can precede a heart attack, serious abnormal heart rhythm, or cardiac arrest.

Myocardial infarction (heart attack): A coronary artery is suddenly blocked. Starved of oxygen, part of

the heart muscle dies.


Arrhythmia (dysrhythmia): An abnormal heart rhythm due to changes in the conduction of electrical

impulses through the heart. Some arrhythmias are benign, but others are life-threatening.

Congestive heart failure: The heart is either too weak or too stiff to effectively pump blood through

the body. Shortness of breath and leg swelling are common symptoms.

Cardiomyopathy: A disease of heart muscle in which the heart is abnormally enlarged, thickened,

and/or stiffened. As a result, the heart's ability to pump blood is weakened.

Myocarditis: Inflammation of the heart muscle, most often due to a viral infection.

Pericarditis: Inflammation of the lining of the heart (pericardium). Viral infections, kidney failure, and

autoimmune conditions are common causes.

Pericardial effusion: Fluid between the lining of the heart (pericardium) and the heart itself. Often, this

is due to pericarditis.

Atrial fibrillation: Abnormal electrical impulses in the atria cause an irregular heartbeat. Atrial

fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias.

Pulmonary embolism: Typically a blood clot travels through the heart to the lungs.

Heart valve disease: There are four heart valves, and each can develop problems. If severe, valve

disease can cause congestive heart failure.

Heart murmur: An abnormal sound heard when listening to the heart with a stethoscope. Some heart

murmurs are benign; others suggest heart disease.

Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining or heart valves of the heart. Usually, endocarditis is due

to a serious infection of the heart valves.

Mitral valve prolapse: The mitral valve is forced backward slightly after blood has passed through the

valve.

Sudden cardiac death: Death caused by a sudden loss of heart function (cardiac arrest).

Cardiac arrest: Sudden loss of heart function.

4. Enumerate 5 rays on how to take care of the heart.


Eat more cardiac-friendly foods
Eating well is always your best medicine. Choose heart-healthy, organic foods.
Dont smoke
Smokers are three to four times more likely to experience fatal heart attack than nonsmokers.
Exercise daily
Brisk walking, jogging, swimming, canoeing, kayaking, cross-country skiing, and bicycling
are all good ways of getting cardio exercise.
Get enough sleep
Make sleep a priority. Get 7 to 8 hours of sleep most nights. If you have sleep apnea, you should be
treated as this condition is linked to heart disease and arrhythmias.