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# SMK MAHSURI,

## JALAN AYER HANGAT,

07000 KUAH, LANGKAWI,
KEDAH DARUL AMAN.

AQIAS

PARTICIPANTS IC NUMBER
RIFQI BIN ROSHDI 950820-10-5473
MUHAMMAD ASRI BIN MOHAMMED ROSHAIZAT 950720-08-5495

A) ABSTRACT:

1. Solar car is one of the solutions needed for the new generation because
petroleum source is decreasing rapidly. This project is one big step in
realizing the dream of unpolluted world, with vehicle using resource able
power supply.
2. Our mini solar car is called AQIAS. It is design to run fast on the track
which hopefully gets past the other competitor.
3. AQIAS is a four wheels car, with an electric motor position on the front
with the base made of compress polystyrene, chassis build out of a cover
plastic and the power (P) is gain by current (I) produced multiply the
potential difference (V) of the solar panel ( V = 6.0 Volts, I = 0.16A
, P = 0.96 Watts and weight = 65 g).
4. There are a few obstacles that we face during the completion of the project
but it giving us good experience and some idea on what the engineering
course might offer.

B) OBJECTIVE:

1. Designing the mini solar car that uses solar power because
a. It is a resource able energy.
b. Reduce the burning of petroleum so that the carbon monoxides
which release up to the atmosphere will be lesser.
2. Maximizing the usage of the solar energy gain, so that it is directly
proportional to the velocity of the car
3. In term of building a car, we aim to build a car that
a. Has a good stability and well align.
b. Can run extremely fast.
c. Cost effective.
C) SCIENTIFIC THEORY:

There are few theories that we use in our consideration during the
designing and manufacturing process of the car.

## 1. Changes of energy from solar energy to electrical energy, then to

kinetic energy.
a. This theory is the conservation of energy theory.

## 2. Another theory that we use in this project is Ohms Law.

a. Ohms Law states that a current flowing through an ohmic
conductor is directly proportional to the potential different
across its end, provided that its temperature and the other physical
conditions remain constant.

SOLAR PANEL
6 X 1V = 6Volts
V1=V2 = 6 Volts

I1+I2 = 0.16 A

P = VI
= 6 x 0.16
= 0.96 Watts

MOTOR

Figure 1: The circuit connection between the solar panel and the
electric motor and the calculation of the power gain.

## b. From figure 1, the potential difference is 6 Volts and total current

produced is 0.16 A. So, the power obtain is equal to 0.96 Watts
3. The shape and the aerodynamic of the car is designed base on the
Bernoullis Principle which
a. Bernoullis Principle states that for uniform flow of a fluid,
region of high velocity corresponds to low pressure; region of low
velocity corresponds to high pressure.
b. The figure below shows the region of high and low pressure which is
essential in giving the stability to the car.

HIGH
PRESSURE

Low velocity
AIR FLOW

High velocity

LOW
PRESSURE

Figure 2: the low pressure region and high pressure region created
by applying the Bernoullis Principle.

c. From the figure, it shows that the area between the track and the
base of the car is quite narrow which results in high velocity air
through it. Then it will create a low pressure region underneath
the car.
d. Otherwise, on the top of the car, the area is quite large and the slope
created in front of the car is an obstacle for the air to flow with high
speed. So, low velocity will correspond to high pressure (due to
the Bernoullis Principle and the atmospheric pressure).

D) MANUFACTURING:

## To build the car, several things have to be considered such as availability of

materials, aesthetics, durability and aerodynamic of the car. Table below shows
the components, durability, materials and reason behind it. The picture shows
the aesthetics, and shape (aerodynamic) of the car.

## No. Item Reason Remarks

1. Base
Made from compress 1. To give a durable and
polystyrene light base which can
afford the torque of the
motor.
2. It is design to be
lowered as much as it
can to lower the
centre of gravity and
bring more stability to
the car.
2. Electric Motor
Taken from a cd rom 1. The motor is light
2. Only need small
amount of current /
potential difference
to be operated.
3. Gears and gear box
Taken from a toy car 1. The gear box needed to
(mini remote control hold the motor and
car) gears.
2. The ratio is 29:39 which
can be simplify to 3:4

## 4. Tires with shaft

Taken from the 1. The tires needed as the
dispose toy car. main part for the car
to move.
2. 4 tires is much more
stable than 3 tires.
5. The body/ chassis
Build by using plastic 1. Easy to get
cover 2. Light
3. Cost efficient
4. Attractive
5. Easy to shape (to any
aerodynamic shape)
6. Solar Panel
Using CETREE solar 1. Affordable
panel 2. Light
3. Easy to design the
circuit

E) COST EFFICIENCY:
Cost is also the crucial factor to be considered during the designing process
where it is more efficient if the cost is low.
No. Item Quantity Cost (RM)
1. Motor (disposed cd rom) 1 -
2. Tyres (disposed toy car) 4 -
3. Plastic cover (old report cover) 1 -
4. Solar panel (CTREE) 12 125.00
5. Compress polystyrene 1/2 7.50
6. Super glue 1 2.50
TOTAL COST 135.00

## F) TRIAL AND RESULT:

Time for 5 meter, t
(minutes)
Average, t/4 Velocity,v
No. Time Date T1 T2 T3 T4
(minutes) (m/s)
11.00-
1. 11.20 19/7 4.7 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.90 0.017
a.m
12.00-
2. 12.30p. 20/7 5.0 4.5 5.3 4.3 4.78 0.017
m
1.00-
3. 6/8 5.0 4.6 5.4 4.7 4.93 0.017
1.30p.m

1.30-
4. 12/8 4.1 4.0 4.3 3.8 4.05 0.021
2.00p.m

The best time per 5 meter for MAHSURI STRIKER is 3.8 minutes with
0.021 m/s velocity.

## The acceleration, a (m/s2) of the car can be calculated as follows:

a = (v u)/t
a = (0.021 0)/(4.05 x 60)
= 8.642 x 10-5 m/s2

## The force forward can be obtain by the formula force, F = ma.

Where, m = 65 g = 65 x 10-3 kg
So, that F = (65 x 10-3)(8.642 x 10-5)
= 7.521 x 10-8 Newton

The 3D view

The base

The plan

First Prototype

Trial run

## Modification during the trial run

APPENDIX 3 MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Calculation of the suitable circuit of the
solar panel

## PARTICULARS OF THE TEAM MEMBERS

NO PARTICIPANTS PROFILE REMARKS
.
AGE: 15 YEARS 9 MONTHS
CLASS: 4 STT
SUBJECT TAKEN:
BM, BI, MATHS, SEJARAH, PI, ADD MATHS,
EST, PHYSICS, CHEMISTARY, ENGINEERING
DRAWING
HOBBY: PLAYING FOOTBALL

AGE: 15 YEARS 11 MONTHS
SUBJECT TAKEN:
BM, BI, MATHS, SEJARAH, PI, ADD MATHS,
EST, PHYSICS, CHEMISTARY, ENGINEERING
DRAWING
CLASS: 4 STT
HOBBY: PLAYING FOOTBALL

.
1 EN. HISYAMUDIN BIN OTHMAN 771201-02-5809
SUBJECT TEACH:
PHYSICS ( FORM 4 & 5)
ENGINEERING DRAWING (FORM 4 & 5)

VALIDATED BY:

i
CONTENTS

NO ITEM PAGE
.
1. TEAM MEMBERS PROFILE i

2. A) ABSTRACT 1

3. B) OBJECTIVE 1

4. C) SCIENTIFIC THEORY 2

5. D) MANUFACTURING 4

6. E) COST EFFICIENCY 6

## 9. APPENDIX 2 THE PROTOTYPE AND 9

TRIAL RUN
10. APPENDIX 3 MANUFACTURING PROCESS 10