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# Numerical Problems Synchronous Machines

1. A three phase, 10 pole, 600rpm, star connected alternator has 12 slots per pole with 8
conductors per slot and the windings are short chorded by 2 slots. The air gap flux per
pole contains a fundamental component of 0.09 webers, third harmonic component
having an amplitude of 20% and the fifth harmonic component having an amplitude of 10
% of the fundamental. Calculate the RMS values individual components, phase and line
voltages. (Ans: E 1 = 2964.5 V, E 3 = 293.8 V, E 5 = 16.93V, E ph = 2979.18 V, E L = 5134.7
V)

2. The flux per pole in a 6 pole, 50 Hz, star connected alternator, is 0.014 Weber. The stator
has 90 slots, double layer winding with a coil span is 12 slots and 4 conductors per slot.
The sinusoidal flux density distribution in the air gap is given by B() = B 1 sin + 0.3
B 1 sin3, where is measured from quadrature axis. Determine (i) the magnitudes of
fundamental and 3rd harmonic fluxes (ii) RMS values of induced emf per phase and
between the lines due to the above fluxes. ( Ans: 0.0127 wb, 0.00127 wb,159 V, 275 V,
12.6 V , 0 V)

3. A three phase, 50 Hz, 10 pole star connected synchronous generator is designed with 90
slots and flux per pole of 0.15 wb. The winding has to be connected to generate a line
voltage of 11 kV. Find the number of stator conductors to be connected in series per
phase to get the required voltage. ( Ans: 396 )

4. Show that in a three phase synchronous generator third harmonic line neutral voltages are
all in phase, fifth harmonic voltages are in opposite phase order to the fundamental. Also
show that line voltages of an alternator does not contain harmonics of the order 3n even
though they are present in the phase voltages.
5. A 6 pole, 480 MVA, 13.8 kV, 60 Hz star connected, round rotor alternator has a rated
current of 20 k Amps. Upon conducting OC and SC tests the following results are
obtained. Filed current to produce rated voltage on open circuit under normal running
conditions is 1000 amps. Field current required to circulate rated current on short circuit
is 2000 Amps. The machine has synchronous reactance of 0.8 ohm and negligible
resistance. Draw the phasor diagram of the machine when operating under rated terminal
voltage and current and unity power factor. Determine the field current required to
operate under such condition. What is the real power developed by this machine when
under excited and the power factor is 0.4 and 0.6.
( Ans: I f = 2237 Amps, 52.4 MW, 90 MW)
6. Fro a 164 kVA, 3 phase, star connected, 2200 volts, 2 pole, 60 Hz alternator the OC and
SC characteristics are as shown below. The effective resistance of the armature resistance
is 0.60 ohm at working temperature. Determine the no load emf per phase and the
regulation at unity PF and 0.8 pf lagging using EMF method. Also Draw the relavent
phasor diagram. ( Approx. Ans for graphical method Eo = 1271 V, 2160 V, and 35.5%,
70.1%)

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7. A salient pole alternator has the following per unit parameters X d = 1.2, X q = 0.8 and R a
= 0.025. Calculate the excitation voltage on per unit basis when the alternator is
delivering rated kVA, at rated voltage at 0.8 pf lagging and leading. (Ans: 1.969422.60
and 0.94350.50)
8. A power station has two 2 MVA, 2 pole, turbo alternators operating in parallel. During
no load to full load operation of one of the alternator it is found that the frequency
reduces uniformly from 50 Hz to 48 Hz. In the second machine it is observed that the
corresponding speed variation from no load to full load is 3000 rpm to 2850 rpm. If a
load of 3 MW is connected to the system how will these machines share the load? What
any machine? (Ans: 1.6667 MW, 1.3333 MW, 3.6 MW)
9. A salient pole alternator with the pu parameters R a , X d , X q , is supplying the rated current
at a lagging power factor of cos . Show that
(i) The angle between E and I is given by tan = ( sin + X q ) / (cos + R a )
(ii) Per unit regulation =

## [( 1+ 2 R a cos + (X d + X q ) sin + R a 2 + X d X q ) / sqrt((cos + R a )2 + ( sin + X q )2) -1]

10. A 3000 kVA, three phase, 6 pole, 50 Hz, alternator runs in parallel with other generators
on 3.3 kV bus bars. The synchronous reactance is found to be 20%. Calculate the
synchronizing power developed per phase per mechanical degree of rotor displacement
and the synchronizing torque produced. ( Ans: 261.73 kW/phase, 7498 N-m)
11. Two synchronous generators are running in parallel on a common bus bar. The bus bar is
connected to a lighting load of 3MW and other loads of total 5 MW working at a power
factor 0.72 lagging. One of the generators is loaded in such a way that it supplies a load
of 5 MW at a power factor of 0.8 lagging. Calculate the load supplied by the other
generator and the operating power factor. ( Ans: 3 MW at a pf of 0.94)

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12. A 12 MVA, three phase 50 Hz, 4 pole, 6.6 kV, star connected alternator is connected to
an infinite bus bar. It has a synchronous reactance of 25%. While operating at full load
and unity power factor the natural period of oscillation is limited to 2.5 seconds.
Calculate the moment of inertia of the rotor. (Ans:1180.95kg-m2)
13. A 1875 kVA, 6 pole 60 Hz, 3 phase 2400/4160 volts salient pole alternator is working at
a power factor of 0.8 lagging. It has 72 slots and 8 turns per coil. When operating at 4160
volts the generator is connected in two parallel star connection. The stator winding is
designed for the current density of 2.84 A/mm2. It has a double layer winding with length
of the mean turn of 2.46 m. For the winding designed the pu leakage reactance is 0.096.
The open circuit characteristics of the machine is as shown in the figure below. The field
current required to circulate the rated stator current on short circuit is 74 Amps. The
resistance of the field winding is 0.643 ohm. The total iron loss, stray load loss and
friction and windage loss are 17 kW, 9.6 kW and 12.5 kW respectively. Determine the
field current and the efficiency when the generator is supplying full load. (Ans: 113.6 A,
96.4%)

14. Calculate the maximum power received from the 11 kV bus when the synchronous
impedance of the synchronous motor is 3 ohm/phase, and armature resistance is 1.5
ohm/phase. The field current of the motor is so adjusted that the motor develops a back
emf of 10.5 kV. Calculate the corresponding value of armature current and the power
factor. (Ans: 41 MW, 2170 A, 0.998)
15. A 2 MW, 11 kV bulk load is operating on an average power factor of 0.8 lagging. A
synchronous condenser is installed to supply an additional load of 560 kW to improve
the power factor to 0.95. The synchronous condenser has an efficiency of 92%.
Determine the kVA rating of the condenser and the power factor at which it operates.
( Ans: 990 kVA,0.82)

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