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School of Saint Athony

Lagro, Quezon City

A Study of Ampalaya Seeds as a Substitute for Coffee Beans

Members:

Valenzuela, Miles Kasey A.

Pilaspilas, Frances Nicole E.

Gabarda , Kianna S.

Abogado, John Carlo O.

CHAPTER 1:

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Introduction:

Coffee is a much known beverage to the majority of the people. It is known for its stimulating
effect on the functions of the brain, thus making the drinker active. Variants of coffee flavors
were already produced all throughout the world aiming for the discovery of alternative sources
for coffee production. The researchers goal is to make an alternative coffee beans using
ampalaya seeds since ampalaya tastes bitter. The researchers also chose this because people
nowadays drink coffee at work and when they are in home. This product is also cheaper than the
branded coffees which we can see in supermarkets.

Objectives:

The objectives of this study are the following:

1.) To know if fruit or vegetable seeds can be used to create a new product.

2.) Use bitter gourd seeds in making an alternative coffee beans.

3.) Cheaper and better because of its health benefits unlike the branded ones.
Statement of the Problem:

According to region3.dost.gov, coffee is a much known beverage to the majority with the
reference to the people especially the youth. It is known for its stimulating effect on the functions
of the brain, thus making the drinker active. Variants of coffee flavors were already produced all
throughout the world aiming for the discovery of alternative sources for coffee production. To
create this product, the researchers analyzed if it will give people an impact in their lives. This
study intends to know the importance of bitter gourd seeds as an alternative coffee beans which
is rich in antioxidants and vitamins A, B and C.
Bitter gourd is believed to benefit diabetes. Researchers from University of Bologna, Italy,
asked 720 herbalists what herbal remedy that they would recommend to those suffered from
diabetes. They suggested some herbal remedies and bitter gourd is in the list. Bitter gourd has
been recognized as a Chinese herbal medicine for diabetes for centuries. Bitter gourd is more
popular in Asia to be used as a natural product for diabetes.
Researchers from Natural Standard, MA, consider bitter gourd as an alternative therapy that has
primarily been used for lowering blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. Components of
bitter gourd extract appear to have structural similarities to animal insulin.
Bitter gourd is also a lipid-lowering activities and its extracts provide benefits for cancers.
Bitter gourd is the nearest vegetable that has the same taste of coffee, bitter and sour at the same
time. The researchers product aims to make people more lively by drinking this kind of coffee
because it makes people alive even at night. This product to informal settlers is a big impact
because coffee is their main food even for their lunch, and even for babies. This study will make
the people, especially the youth, patronize this product because of the fact that people nowadays
drink coffee more often.

Significance of the Study


To keep people awake at night, the most commonly beverage to drink is coffee. Coffee, the most
widely used beverage. Coffee has many benefits to body's system. According to mayoclinic.org,
coffee can protect a person from Parkinson's Disease, Diabetes, and Liver Disease, including
Liver Cancer. Although coffee is not advicable to drink it every day.
Through this study, the researchers are able to create alternative ingredient as coffee. Since
Philippines is rich in growing ampalaya. Consumers can buy a much more cheaper product of a
different variety of coffee, ampalaya coffee. Based on debate.org, coffee is beneficial to office
workers like are journalists, teachers, policeman, etc. It is a power-up for most people to keep
awake at night, to work longer, and to be more productive. The Department of Agriculture, will
also have an idea on which commodities can have alternatives. Unfortunate families will benefit
from this product since this is cheaper and since coffee is commonly used by these kind of
people. For students, it will help to stay awake and continue to finish student's task. This kind of
product is processed not by machines but by hands. Nowadays, products are processed by
machines that some chemicals go in the product which can harm a person's body. Moreover, this
study aims to give opportunity to people to buy a much cheaper yet a healthy product.

Scope and limitation


This research focus mainly in the use of ampalaya seed to boost our regular coffee with the
nutrients that are present in an ampalaya seed and learning on how long can the researchers
stretch the the use of this element. The researchers found out that the ampalaya seed carries a lot
of nutrients that can help the people that consume our product. This product is produced in the
process of sun drying the seeds for 1 week then toasting the ampalaya seed and pulverizing it to
powder then extracting the juice by boiling it into hot then infusing it in the coffee.

CHAPTER 2:
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

Components of Ampalaya
Ampalaya is composed of three components. The first component is called Flavanoids.
According to Jane Higdon, Ph.D of Oregon State University, it is a large family of polyphenic
compounds by plants. This has the ability to modulate cell-signaling tunnels.
According to News Medical Net, Flavonoids are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. It is
beneficial for it gives a pigment that attracts pollinating insects.
Flavanoids are linked to be as an antioxidant. One of the protection from "free radicals" of the
body, Ariefdjohan MW, Savaiano D.
The second component is alkaloids. It can control the blood sugar in diabetics. Alkaloids are very
bitter and it's extracts are active. http:www.biology-online.org
Alkaloids have many effects on humans and other animals according to Mcdaniel.edu.

Structure of Ampalaya
According to Philippine Herbal Medicine, Ampalaya belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceae.
Ampalaya grows up to 20 centimeters. It's leaves are shaped as a heart and grown up to 5-10
centimeters in diameters. Ampalaya's texture is ribbed and wrinkled.

Variety of Ampalaya
The first variety of Ampalaya is called Karela. Stated by Healthy By Nature, Karela is a thin and
vine and a long stalked leaves that makes yellow flowers. Karela grows in tropical areas such as
Amazon,East Africa, Asia, The Caribbean, and South America.
The second variety is Japan Green Spindle. It is a medium sized fruit that grows up to 15-20
centimeters. http://forum.xcitefun.net/
The last variety is the Hybrid Indian Baby Doll. This kind of Ampalaya can be found in
Thailand. This weight 30 grams.
Process of Planting An Ampalaya
There are four steps in planting ampalaya. The first step is climate adaption. The climate that
ampalaya can thrive is a cool climate. Cooler climates will result to a fast production of flowers
and bigger fruits, as said by Sunstar PH.
The second step is land preparation. On the word of Rice Knowledge Bank, Land preparation is
very important because it insures that the soil is ready for plantation. The field or soil should be
cleaned from debris of other seeds.
The third step is plastic mulching. It is the process of covering the soil to make more conditional
temperature that will affect 2 factors: plant growth development and beneficial crop production.
http://www.agridr.in
The fourth step is planting. There are two ways of planting an ampalaya by its seed. It can be
either direct seeded or transplanted.
Agricultural and Rural Development said, Direct seeding is a kind of cropping system that goals
to improve soil moisture. The seeds are needed to be soaked overnight and wrapped in a moist
cloth.
The other way of planting is transplanted. This process needs to cut the flower of the ampalaya in
half. The flower needs to be shaded in order to recover by University of Illinois Extension.
Proper Care
The seeds need to be fertilized. In accordance to Business Diary, the first step in taking care an
ampalaya is to apply fertilizer on the soil. Add 1 teaspoon of fertilizer on the soil.
the second step is vine training. A kind of system that refers to the position of the vine. This aims
to minimize the space, quality, and reduce costs of facilitation, According to Plumpton College.
The last step is Pest Management. Pest management is a method to keep away of unwanted
pests. http://tmnehs.gov.in/writereaddata/Chap-14.pdf
Benefits of Ampalaya
According to Gourmet Farms, ampalaya leaves and fruits are rich in sources of Vitamin B,
calcium, and phosphorus. It is also a rich beta carotene, it has the ability to enhance cells and
promote insulin.
Ampalaya has the ability to reduce total cholesterol. It also has the ability to lower the blood
sugar or the amount of sugar intake by Teddy Brul.
As said by Kidney Cares Organization, ampalaya is beneficial in curing kidney stones and helps
maintain healthy liver and bladder.
Issues/Side Effects of Ampalaya
According to Nalanda College, ampalaya can make a heartburn and make ulcer worse. Also
pregnant women are not allowed to eat or drink any food with ampalaya. It may stimulate the
uterus and may cause a premature birth.
Taking too much or taking a large doze of ampalaya can cause abortion for pregnant women in
accordance with All About Diabetes.
Related Studies
Department of Science And Technology of the Philippines conducted a study on Ampalaya seeds
as Coffee. The study shows that ampalaya are capable of having the same taste as coffee, it can
be a substitute for coffee. Which is not only cheaper, but also full of healthy benefits. The first
process of this is grinding the seed and toasting it until it can be mixed with water like the coffee
powder. The weight of the ampalaya seed is 23.3 grams before grinding, after grinding the
weight was 11.4 (it is a powdered version) . After the pulverization of the seed, the sample which
is the powder is put on a cup with hot water and is tasted. It tasted like a coffee, bitter but without
caffeine. They concluded that ampalaya can be a source of coffee.

Common use of ampalaya seeds


According to Rasco, E.T. Jr there are improvement of ampalaya by local plant over the last five
years resulted in the commercial. These new cultivars can result in yield which ten times the
average yield and more resistant to diseases.
(http://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=PH8910474)

Origin of ampalaya seeds


herb is a plant that is valued for flavor, scent, or other qualities. Herbs are used in cooking, as
medicines, and for spiritual purposes. From ancient days to now a day, medicinal plants are a
potential and useful for the treatment of several diseases and disorders and it actually originated
in India and eventually carried to chain during the 14th century.
(http://herbalnet.healthrepository.org/handle/123456789/2564)
Health benefits of ampalaya seeds
Most of the useful health benefits of bitter gourd never come to the forefront at all. For example,
did you know that bitter gourd is a medicinal food for people with liver disorders. One of the
prime health benefits of bitter gourd is that, it helps to cleanse the liver and regenerate the liver
cells. This healthy vegetable has beauty benefits too.

Coffee
Benefits
According to www.rd.com or www.readersdigest.com , a clinical study in Illinois discovered that
caffeine has the ability to reduce the swelling of the blood vessels and can lessen the intensity
and frequency of headaches. Some subjects were experimented and 58 percent reported
beneficial relief. .

Coffee has the ability to lessen the risk of having Alzheimers disease and Parkinson's disease.
These two are the most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world. By drinking coffee,
the risk of this disease will lessen 32-60 percent in accordance with Authority Nutrition.
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death, by drinking coffee this can be prevented. Coffee
can lessen the risk of obtaining two types of cancer. According to Authority Nutrition, the two
types of cancer are liver cancer and colorectal cancer, liver cancer is the third leading cause of
cancer while colorectal cancer is the fourth one.

Side Effects
According to Top End Sports, however, although coffee has many god benefits it also has
negative side effects. Too much of coffee us bad for the health. Increase amount of caffeine the
the body can leady to restlessness, nausea, sleep difficulties, urine production, many more.
Excessive of caffeine can lead to dehydration, taking coffee on a hot day weather will result
of a lot of fluids in the body bases on Fit Day.
Drinking too much coffee may result to difficulty in absorbing minerals. Based on a study,
Coffee disturbs the distribution of minerals in the body.
Components
Caffeine
It is a bug killer that stimulates us by blocking neuroreceptors for the sleep chemical adenosine
by Wired Magazine.
Quinic Acid
Along citric and malic represent an important ingredient of coffee's total acid content. Coffee
Chemistry, during roasting quinic acid progressively increases as the levels of chlorogenic acid
decrease suggesting that its formation results from the cleavage of the chlorogenic acid moiety
Trigonelline
a niacin-related compound, is a natural constituent of coffee accounting for approximately 1%
dry matter in roasted beans.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19710155
Process
Planting
According to NCA USA, coffee bean is actually a seed. When it is not yet processed it can
be planted it will turn into a coffee tree. Coffee is usually places in a large bed if shades. After
growing into a sprout, the seedling are removes and ti be planted in individual pots and requires
bright sunlight. Planting requires a wet season so other plants will be moist and the roots will
mature.
Harvesting The Cherries
Depending on the kind of coffee bean, it will take estimately 3 to 4 years for the newly
planted coffee trees to grow to bear fruit. The bear fruit is called a coffee cherry, it is a bright,
deep red when it is ripe and ready to be harvested.
Processing The Cherries
After the cherries are harvested, the cherries are to be prevented from spoilage. There are
two ways to prevent this, the dry method and wet method.
The dry method is placing the cherries on a clean mat on a huge surface and letting expose on
the sun.
The wet method is removing the pulp from the coffee cherry. The skin of the cherry removed
by a machine.
Drying The Beans
Once the beans are processed in the wet method, they are supposed to he dried by exposing it
to thr sun. The beans are put on drying tables.
Milling The Beans
The beans are need to be process before exportation.
Hulling
Machines are used to separate the parchment layer of the cherry.
Polishing
This step is optional only if there are left silver skin on the cherry
Grading and Sorting
The beans are sorted by variety of size and shape before exportation.
Exporting The Beans
Once the beans are processed carefully it is ready for exportation. These are transported either is
sisal bags or jute.
Tasting The Coffee
For a sure taste and quality it is tested by tasting the coffee. The coffee is roasted and is
concentrated on a high temperature. To taste the coffee, the cupper "slurps" a spoonful with a
quick inhalation.
Roasting The Coffee
The roasting process is controlled by a machine. The roasting machine maintains its temperature
which is 550 Fahrenheit. When the beans turn brown they are put in water or air for it to cool
down.
Grinding Coffee
Grinding coffee turns the beans into a powder version by a machine. The better the powder the
easier the preparation it will be.

Countries
According to National Coffee Association, countries that produce coffee are North America,
Caribbean, Central America, South America, Africa, Middle East and Asia.

Coffee Bean

Types of Coffee Bean

Through the studies of coffee bean there are two types of coffee bean the two types of coffee
bean is Arabic beans and Robusta bean. These two kinds of beans are used than the other large
variety of beans.
The beans in the coffee are one of the concerns of average people who drink coffee. The Coffea
Arabica bush is grown all around the world and is the bean that over seventy percent of all coffee
beverages are made from.
The Arabica bean is a highly flavorful bean that contains less caffeine than the Canephor coffee
bean. The different growing regions of the Arabic bean create different flavors in the bean.info
stated in here can be found inhttp://www.coffee.org/types-of-coffee-bean

Differences
But the two types of bean have 6 difference between each other There are two kinds of coffee
beans that are used in production, Arabica and Robusta.
They differ in taste and where they are grown. The most preferred beans is Arabica while
Robusta are commonly used in blends.
First, their flavor the Arabica bean is mostly used in the 3 n 1 packets of sachet we see in stores
but the Robusta bean is described as much more richer bean but it has a much more stronger and
contain a higher level of caffeine than Arabica beans has a much more milder aromatic taste.
When it comes to their difference in shape, Arabica beans are flat and elongated while Robusta
beans have a more obvious rounded shape.
In color the Arabica beans have a darker shade of green.

Proper Care
The Robusta bean but when it comes to proper care and temperature of cultivating Arabica
beans are cultivated in more subtropical climates and can only be grown in higher climates in
places such as Central and South America.
Robusta beans on the other hand can be cultivated at lower altitudes and require little rainfall to
grow, making them more common to places in Central and West Africa and South East Asia.
based on this sitehttp://www.coffeebeansblog.co.uk/6-differences-between-arabica-and-robusta-
coffee-beans/
Origin
Based on http://www.coffeeresearch.org/coffee/history.htm, There is a legend about coffee. This
is how the story goes. An arabaian sheperd names Kaldi found his goats hapoy around a bold
green nature with bright red cherries in the southern tip of the Arabian Peninsula.Kaldi tasted the
red cherries to know it's effect. He learned it was the reason why his sheeps were acting that way.
This amazing effect was a used by monks at a local monastery to keep people awake during
praying activites and extend praying hours around the world.but beacause os recent research
evidence seggested a different type of coffee bean origin. This evidence indicates that the history
of the coffee bean beagan on the plateaus of central Ethiopia and somehow it has been brought to
yemen where it was cultured since the 6th century upon the first rising of varius coffee shop in
Cairo and Mecca that have been a passion rather than a stimulant.

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

Coffee is a much known beverage to the majority of the people. It is known for its stimulating
effect on the functions of the brain, thus making the drinker active. Variants of coffee flavors
were already produced all throughout the world aiming for the discovery of alternative sources
for coffee production. The researchers goal is to make an alternative coffee beans using
amapalaya seeds since ampalaya tastes bitter. The researchers also chose this because people
nowadays drink coffee at work and when they are in home. This product is also cheaper than the
branded coffees which we can see in supermarkets.

Materials
Ampalaya seeds
Mortar and Pestle
Baking pan (for roasting)
Pan (for roasting)
Ladle
Knife
Chopping board
Procedure
In making Ampalaya Coffee Beans, you only need one ingredient and two tools. The ingredient
that you need is ampalaya
seeds, the two tools are mortar and pestle or something that can break an object into pieces. This
method is
needed to be done by an adult to be safe. Be careful in cooking the seeds in order to achieve the
goal.
1. Ready your whole and fresh ampalaya. Cut it into half and get the seeds inside.
2. Peel the cover of the ampalaya seeds.
3. Dry the seeds with a dry cloth or with a tissue paper.
4. You can either roast it in a pan until its color turns black or bake them in an oven in a medium
temperature (250 degrees) for 10-15 minutes. But if you want to be sure, you better do both until
you achieve the exact taste and color.
5. Crush the roasted/toasted ampalaya seeds using mortar and pestle until it looks like powder
(pulverized). Do not crush the
ampalaya seeds completely, leave bits of solid ampalaya seeds for comparison taste.
6. Put the powder in a secure container in order for the aroma of the powder to stay.
7. Now, the product is complete. This product can be more tastier by putting the right amount of
sugar and/or creamer.

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