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The first article

A. Background
The survival of man on earth could not be separated from the need for an electric. At present,
there is a need for increasing increasingly listik along the ssemakin technological advances forward. With
the progress of teknolgi the growing forward will be very membutuhan the need for electrical energy more
and more anyway. Advances in technology can be said to be directly proportional to the electrical energy
consumption.
Therefore, the power plant is needed even more for the electricity needs of mmenuhi. With the use
of all existing natural resource as pembangkitnya. One of the most abundant beropersi plants to meet
the electricity needs of the world and including in Indonesia was a steam power plant. Most resources
are widely used as power generation on electricity are pembangit is the energy that cannot
be updated like coalor fuel oil.

B. Material
Steam power plant is a power plant that relies on the kinetic energy of the steam to
generate electricity.The main form of this type of power plant is a Generator in connect to the turbine to
rotate a turbine which needed the kinetic energy from the hot steam or dry. Steam power plants use a
variety of fuels mainly stone-coal and fuel oil as well as the MFO (Marine Fuel Oil)
to start early. But for now, prices for oil and coal is not very helpful to the economy of an industry. So
we recommend using gas to menghasil's burning so get used to menghasil's steam.

C. Section to Previde
1. Boiler
Boiler or boiler is a device functioning machine to turn water into steam. The process of
changing the water into steam by heating the water that happens to be in the pipes by utilizing the
heat from the burning fuel. The burning is done continuously in the combustion
chamber with fuel and air flow from the outside.

2. Steam Turbine
Steam turbine function to convert heat energy contained by
the steam into Rotary energy (mechanical energy). Dikopel turbine shaft with shaft generator so
that whenthe turbine spins a generator also rotates.

3. The condenser
The condenser is a piece of equipment that serves to transform steam into water. The
working principle of the condenser processes the changes done by the steam flowinto a
room containing pipes (tubes).

4. Generator
Generator function to change the play from the energy the turbine into electrical energy.

5. Desalination Plant (Unit Desal)


This equipment functions to change sea water (brine) into fresh water (fresh water) and the
method of refining (a combination of evaporation and condensation). This is due to the nature
of the corrosive sea water, so that if the sea water is left in directentry into the main unit, then it
can cause damage to the equipment to PROVIDE.

6. the Economizer
Economiser is a tool which is the last water heater before going into the
drum. Economiser in water absorb heat exhaust gases out of the atmosphere before
the superheater through the chimney.
7. Reverse Osmosis (RO)
Has the same functionality as desalination plant but the methods used are
different.This equipment is used on a semi permeable membrane that can filter
the salts contained in the water of the sea, so that fresh water such as can be generated on
a desalination plant. To PROVIDE the land/water use the water of the River, used pre-
treatment that serves to remove sediment, dirt and minerals contained in the water.

8. De Mineralizes Plant (Unit Demin)


Function to remove mineral levels (ion) that is contained in the fresh water. Water asa
working fluid to PROVIDE must be free of minerals, because if the water still
contains minerals means konduktivitasnya still high so that it can lead to the occurrence
of EMF induced at the time of the passing water piping in the line to PROVIDE. This can lead
to corrosion on equipment to PROVIDE.

9. Hydrogen Plant (units of hydrogen)


On PLTU used hydrogen (H2) as a refrigeration Generator.

10. Chlorination Plant (Unit Chlorin)


Function to generate a compound sodium hipoclorit (NaOCl) used to heady/microorganisms on
the undercut area of the water intake. This is intended to avoid the occurrence
of pengerakkan (scaling) on the pipes of the condenser unit or micro-organism breeding desal due
to the sea.

11. the Auxiliary Boilers (Boiler Auxiliary)


In general it is the oil-fuelled boilers (fuel oil), which serve to generate steam(steam) used at the
time of the main boiler start up or as auxiliary steam (auxiliary steam).

12. Coal Handling (Coal Service Unit)


Is the unit which serves the coal processing, namely from the process of loading and
unloading ships (ship unloading) in the dock, channelling to
the stock area to channeling to bunker the unit.

13. Ash Handling (Grey Service Unit)


Is the unit that serves good ash processing of ash fall (bottom ash) and fly ash (fly ash) from
the Electrostatic Precipitator hopper and SDCC (Submerged Drag Chain Conveyor) on the main
unit up to the shelter ash (ash valley).

D. working principles
1. Water from the condenser dipompakan/is pressed into the boiler
2. The water receives heat energy inside the boiler, turn into hot steam
3. rotate the Steam Turbine generator, with seporos changing heat into mechanicalenergy, the
energy that drives the turbine and electric energy generated by generator
4. Steam releasing heat energy in the condenser, back into the water, so it can be used again
for mnghasil's steam
The Second Article
A. Background
The needs of electricity consumption very much by adjusting the kodisi and current
technology. When viewing the Sun produces heat and light, it may be used as an energy. Then we
recommend to use PLTSF (solar power plant) which his later can take advantage of the light
rays emitted by the Sun.
Application of the technology of solar energy for electrical needs of remote areas can be done with a
variety of solar power generation systems, such as power plants, i.e. a combination
of a source hybrida solar energy with other energy sources, the most common are pengga-bungan solar
energy with energy diesel engines or micro-hydro energy source.

B. Material
Photovoltaic solar power plant is a power plant that converts solar energy into electrical energy. The main
tool to capture, electric generator and modifier is generally called Photovoltaic Module/Solar Cell Panels.

C. Section to previde

a) asolar panels (Photovoltaic)


b) the regular Controller
c) Battery ACCU
d) AIR CONDITIONER Inventer

D. Work principle
1. when the photons of solar cell surface, electron-electron excited States and will cause the flow
of electricity. This principle is known as the principle of photoelectric.Solar cells can
be excited because it is made of a semiconductor material, containing the
element Silicon. Silicone is made up of two types of layers, a layer of sensitivenegative (n-type)
3 and a layer of positive (p-type). Solar cells is easily broken and corroded if exposed
to water. Therefore these cells are made in the form of a certainsize panels covered
with plastic or clear glass that is impermeable to water.
2. Electricity generated by the solar panels can be directly used or stored first into the battery
compartment. An electric current that is produced is electric with direct current (DC). The series
of solar panels can be designed in series or in parallel, in order to obtain the output voltage and
current. To obtain the flow back and forth (AC) is required an additional tool called an
inverter. Then the flow obtained from the inverter can supply a load of AIR CONDITIONING.
E. Advantages and Disadvantages
Excess
1. Do not cause pollution
2. Save money
3. Reduce consumption
4. Maintenance free
5. no noise
Deficiency
1. If not installed properly may occur over-heating on solar panels.
2. Climate Variability
3. Solar panels are still relatively expensive,
4. But not 24 hours

Source:
1. The FIRST ARTICLE
PAPER POWER PLANT ( MAKALAH PEMBANGKIT TENAGA LISTRIK )

2. The SECOND ARTICLE


PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR POWER PLANT ( PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK TENAGA SURYA
FOTOVOLTAIK )