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GR7/8 COOKING TERMS AND TECHNIQUES Dictionary Teacher: Ms. D. Smith Website: Dsmithlrsd.weebly.com Darlene Smith Email:

GR7/8

COOKING TERMS AND TECHNIQUES Dictionary

Teacher: Ms. D. Smith

Website:

Dsmithlrsd.weebly.com

Darlene Smith Email: Darlene.smith@lrsd.net

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COOKING

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OR

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HEATING

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TERMS

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SIMMER:

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FRY:

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SAUTÉ:

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MELT:

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BOIL:

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Bake To cook by dry heat, usually in an oven.
Bake
To cook by dry heat,
usually in an oven.
Baking Powder A quick-acting leavener where there is no need for an acidic ingredient to
Baking
Powder
A quick-acting leavener
where there is no need for an
acidic ingredient to be
present in the recipe.

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Baking Soda A quick-acting leavener that requires an acidic ingredient in the recipe.
Baking
Soda
A quick-acting leavener
that requires an acidic
ingredient in the recipe.
Barbecue To cook foods on a rack or a spit over coals or flames.
Barbecue
To cook foods on
a rack or a spit
over coals or
flames.

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Baste To moisten food while it’s cooking to add flavour.
Baste
To moisten food
while it’s
cooking to add
flavour.
Batter A thick mixture of dry and liquid ingredients.
Batter
A thick mixture
of dry and liquid
ingredients.

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Beat To mix or stir very hard & very quickly; usually until well combined.
Beat
To mix or stir very
hard & very quickly;
usually until well
combined.
Blanch To cook briefly in boiling water to seal in flavour & colour; usually used
Blanch
To cook briefly in
boiling water to seal in
flavour & colour; usually used
for veggies/fruit, to prepare
for freezing, &/or to
ease skin removal.

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Blend To mix ingredients together until they become one.
Blend
To mix ingredients
together until they
become one.
Boil To cook in bubbling water that has reached 212°F/100°C.
Boil
To cook in bubbling
water
that has reached
212°F/100°C.

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Braise To cook first by browning, then gently simmering in a small amount of liquid
Braise
To cook first by browning,
then gently simmering in a
small amount of liquid
over low heat in a covered
pan until tender.
Bread To coat the surface of food with bread, cracker, or cereal crumbs.
Bread
To coat the surface of
food with bread, cracker,
or cereal crumbs.

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Broil To cook food under or over direct heat in broiler oven or hot coals.
Broil
To cook food under or
over direct heat in broiler
oven or hot coals.
Broth Stock) (a.k.a. A flavoured liquid used in cooking that was made from simmering animal
Broth
Stock)
(a.k.a.
A flavoured liquid used in
cooking that was made from
simmering animal bones
&/or meat, seafood, or
veggies in water.

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Brown To cook food, usually meat, until brown.
Brown
To cook food,
usually meat,
until brown.
Caramelize To turn brown from the sugar in baking; to heat sugar until it liquefies
Caramelize
To turn brown from the sugar
in baking; to heat sugar until it
liquefies and becomes a syrup
ranging in colour from golden
to dark brown.

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Chill Refrigerate promptly; to put food in cold storage until it is cooled.
Chill
Refrigerate promptly;
to put food in cold
storage until it is cooled.
Chop To cut into small pieces.
Chop
To cut into
small pieces.

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Coat To cover food with flour or bread crumbs before cooking it.
Coat
To cover food with
flour or bread
crumbs before
cooking it.
Cool To allow foods to drop in temperature by placing hot foods on a wire
Cool
To allow foods to drop
in temperature
by placing hot foods on a wire
cooling rack or room temperature
foods into cold storage.

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Combine To put ingredients together.
Combine
To put
ingredients
together.
Cooking Method A way of cooking. Baking, frying and steaming are cooking methods.
Cooking
Method
A way of cooking.
Baking, frying and steaming
are cooking methods.

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Core To remove the seeds &/or tough woody centres from fruits & veggies.
Core
To remove the seeds
&/or tough woody
centres from fruits &
veggies.
Cream (verb) To beat ingredients, usually sugar and a fat, until smooth and fluffy.
Cream
(verb)
To beat ingredients,
usually sugar and a fat, until
smooth and fluffy.

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Cut-In To cut solid shortening or fat into dry ingredients.
Cut-In
To cut solid
shortening or fat into
dry ingredients.
Dash A very tiny amount (a few shakes); Less than the smallest measuring spoon. A
Dash
A very tiny amount
(a few shakes);
Less than the smallest
measuring spoon.
A quick shake

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(De)Bone To remove bones from meat.
(De)Bone
To remove bones
from meat.
Deglaze To loosen brown bits from a pan by adding a liquid, then heating while
Deglaze
To loosen brown bits
from a pan by adding a
liquid, then heating while
stirring and scraping the pan.

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Dice To cut into small cubes.
Dice
To cut into
small cubes.
Dish Food cooked or made in a certain way. For example, a pasta dish, a
Dish
Food cooked or made
in a certain way.
For example, a pasta dish, a
veggie dish, a side dish, etc.

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Dissolve To mix a solid ingredient such as sugar with a liquid until they form
Dissolve
To mix a solid
ingredient such as
sugar with a liquid
until they form a
solution.
Dollop A spoonful of soft food such as whipped cream or mashed potatoes.
Dollop
A spoonful of soft food
such as whipped cream or
mashed potatoes.

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Dot To scatter food (like butter) in bits over food.
Dot
To scatter food (like
butter) in bits over food.
Dough A baking mixture that has very little liquid. It may be shaped by kneading
Dough
A baking mixture that has
very little liquid. It may be
shaped by kneading or
rolling.

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Drain To remove the liquid that food has cooked or soaked in.
Drain
To remove the liquid
that food has cooked or
soaked in.
Dredge To cover or coat uncooked food, usually with a flour mixture or bread crumbs.
Dredge
To cover or coat
uncooked food, usually with
a flour mixture or bread crumbs.

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Dress To coat foods such as salad with a sauce. Also, to clean fish, poultry,
Dress
To coat foods such as salad
with a sauce. Also, to
clean fish, poultry, or
game for cooking.
Drizzle To pour runny food, like melted butter, back & forth over food in a
Drizzle
To pour runny food, like
melted butter, back & forth
over food in a fine
stream.

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Dust To coat lightly with a powdery ingredient (like icing sugar or cocoa powder)
Dust
To coat lightly with a
powdery ingredient
(like icing sugar or cocoa powder)
Few Grains A very small amount that is less than 1/8 tsp. The same as
Few Grains
A very small amount
that is less than 1/8 tsp.
The same as a dash or a pinch.

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Fillet A flat piece of boneless meat, poultry, or fish. Also, to cut the bones
Fillet
A flat piece of boneless
meat, poultry, or fish.
Also, to cut the bones from a
piece of meat, poultry, or
fish.
Fold (in) To combine a delicate ingredient with a solid mixture using a slow rolling
Fold (in)
To combine a delicate
ingredient with a solid
mixture using a slow
rolling motion.

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Fork Tender To cook food until it is tender enough to slip a fork into
Fork Tender
To cook food until it is
tender enough to slip a
fork into it.
Glaze To coat foods with glossy mixtures such as jellies or sauces.
Glaze
To coat foods with
glossy mixtures
such as jellies or sauces.

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Gluten The protein in flour which allows flour mixtures to stretch & rise.
Gluten
The protein in flour
which allows flour
mixtures to stretch &
rise.

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Grate To rub food on a grater to produce small particles.
Grate
To rub food on a
grater to produce
small particles.

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Grease To rub the interior surface of a cooking dish or pan with a fat
Grease
To rub the interior
surface of a cooking dish
or pan with a fat
to prevent food from sticking
to it.
Grill To cook food on a rack under or over direct heat, as on a
Grill
To cook food on a rack
under or over direct
heat,
as on a barbecue or in a broiler.

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Grind To reduce food to tiny particles using a grinder or a food processor.
Grind
To reduce food to tiny
particles using a grinder or
a food processor.
Increase (Heat) To turn heat to a higher setting.
Increase
(Heat)
To turn heat to a
higher setting.

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Julienne To cut into sticks. May range from fine (like matchsticks) to large (like French
Julienne
To cut into sticks.
May range from fine
(like matchsticks) to large
(like French Fries).
Knead To stretch and press dough with the heels of your hands so it becomes
Knead
To stretch and press
dough with the heels of
your hands so it
becomes elastic.

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Layer To arrange food in layers by placing one food on top of another food,
Layer
To arrange food in
layers by placing one food
on top of another food,
usually without mixing.
Leaven The puffing or rising of food from air (CO 2 ) bubbles.
Leaven
The puffing or rising
of food from air (CO 2 )
bubbles.

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Let Stand To leave food alone for a while so it can marinate (to allow
Let Stand
To leave food alone for a
while so it can marinate
(to allow flavours to blend) or
finish cooking.
Marinate (Marinade) To let food stand in a mixture to improve flavour and tenderness.
Marinate
(Marinade)
To let food stand in a
mixture to improve
flavour and tenderness.

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Mash To make a soft mass of food with a fork, masher tool or beater.
Mash
To make a soft mass of
food with a fork,
masher tool or beater.
Mince To chop into very little pieces.
Mince
To chop into very
little pieces.

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Mix To stir foods together.
Mix
To stir foods
together.
Optional Not really needed; Up to you to have or not have.
Optional
Not really needed;
Up to you to have or not
have.

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Parboil To partially cook food by boiling. Usually done to prepare food for final cooking
Parboil
To partially cook food
by boiling.
Usually done to prepare food
for final cooking by another
method.
Peel To strip away outer covering of certain vegetables and fruit.
Peel
To strip away outer
covering of certain
vegetables and fruit.

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Pinch An amount too small to measure.
Pinch
An amount too small
to measure.
Poach To cook gently over very low heat in barely simmering liquid.
Poach
To cook gently over very
low heat in barely
simmering liquid.

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Preheat To bring oven or broiler to desired temperature before using.
Preheat
To bring oven or broiler
to desired temperature
before using.
Prepare AKA: PREP To get food ready to cook.
Prepare
AKA: PREP
To get food ready to
cook.

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Puree To mash or grind food until completely smooth, usually with a beater or in
Puree
To mash or grind food
until completely smooth,
usually with a beater or in a food
processor, blender, sieve, or food
mill.
Reduce (verb) To thicken a liquid and concentrate its flavour through evaporation usually from boiling.
Reduce
(verb)
To thicken a liquid
and concentrate its flavour
through evaporation
usually from boiling.

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Reduce Heat Turn heat lower/down.
Reduce
Heat
Turn heat lower/down.
Roast To cook food uncovered with dry heat in an oven.
Roast
To cook food
uncovered with dry
heat in an oven.

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Sauté or Pan Fry To cook food in a small amount of fat over relatively
Sauté or
Pan Fry
To cook food in a small
amount of fat over
relatively high heat.
Scald To heat a liquid almost to a boil until bubbles begin to form around
Scald
To heat a liquid almost
to a boil until bubbles begin
to form around the edge.

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Sear To brown the surface of meat by quick- cooking over high heat in order
Sear
To brown the surface
of meat by quick-
cooking over high heat
in order to seal in the meat’s
juices.
Season To add flavour with spices.
Season
To add flavour
with spices.

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Shred To cut food into narrow strips with a knife or a grater.
Shred
To cut food into
narrow strips
with a knife or a grater.
Sift To add air to dry ingredients, usually by passing it through a sieve, to
Sift
To add air to dry
ingredients, usually by
passing it through a sieve, to
remove lumps and make
it light & fluffy.

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Simmer To cook in liquid just below the boiling point; bubbles form but do not
Simmer
To cook in liquid just
below the boiling point;
bubbles form but do not burst
on the surface of the liquid.
Skim To remove surface foam or fat from a liquid.
Skim
To remove surface foam
or fat from a liquid.

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Slice To cut into thin pieces (slices) with a knife.
Slice
To cut into thin
pieces (slices) with
a knife.
Steam To cook food on a rack or in a steamer set over boiling or
Steam
To cook food on a rack or in
a steamer set over boiling or
simmering water in a
covered pan.

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Steep To soak in a liquid just under the boiling point to extract the essence
Steep
To soak in a liquid just
under the boiling point to
extract the essence – e.g., tea.
Stew To cook food in a liquid, covered, over low heat for a long time.
Stew
To cook food in a
liquid, covered, over
low heat for a long
time.

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Stir Move ingredients in a circular motion to mix or to prevent burning while cooking.
Stir
Move ingredients in a
circular motion to mix or
to prevent burning while
cooking.
Stir-Fry To quickly cook small pieces of food over high heat, stirring constantly.
Stir-Fry
To quickly cook small
pieces of food over high
heat, stirring
constantly.

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Stock (a.k.a. Broth) A flavoured liquid used in cooking that was made from simmering animal
Stock
(a.k.a. Broth)
A flavoured liquid used in
cooking that was made from
simmering animal bones
&/or meat, seafood, or
veggies in water.
Substitute To exchange an ingredient for another similar ingredient.
Substitute
To exchange an
ingredient for another
similar ingredient.

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Thickener An ingredient, such as a roux (flour/fat mixture), that thickens liquids when cooked together.
Thickener
An ingredient, such as a
roux (flour/fat mixture), that
thickens liquids when
cooked together.
Toss To lightly mix and coat ingredients; usually for a salad.
Toss
To lightly mix and coat
ingredients; usually for
a salad.

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Turn AKA: Flip or Rotate To move food to another side.
Turn
AKA:
Flip or Rotate
To move food to
another side.
Whip To beat rapidly to incorporate air and increase volume.
Whip
To beat rapidly to
incorporate air and
increase volume.

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Whisk To beat ingredients with a fork or whisk in order to mix, blend, or
Whisk
To beat ingredients
with a fork or whisk
in order to mix, blend, or
incorporate air.
Yield How many servings, portions or pieces the recipe will make.
Yield
How many servings,
portions or pieces the
recipe will make.

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Zest (noun) The outer, coloured part of the peel or citrus fruit.
Zest
(noun)
The outer, coloured
part
of the peel or citrus fruit.
Zest (verb) To finely grate the outer, coloured part of the peel or citrus fruit.
Zest
(verb)
To finely grate the
outer, coloured part
of the peel or citrus fruit.

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Cooking

or

Heating

Terms

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Min – #3
Min –
#3

Simmer: To cook in liquid just below the boiling point. Small bubbles appear:

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#4-7
#4-7

Fry: To cook in hot fat until golden brown.

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#5-7
#5-7

Sauté: To cook in a small amount of hot fat in a skillet.

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#3-5
#3-5

Melt: To heat solid food until it becomes liquid.

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#7- Max
#7-
Max

Boil: To cook in liquid hot enough for large bubbles to break on the surface.

Still Liquid : Bursting Bubbles = 10 : 90