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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL

OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING STUDIES Volume V /Issue 3 /AUG 2015

DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF CENTRIFUGAL BLOWER USING COMPOSITE


MATERIALS

1
SAI RAGHU VEMURI, 2 P.V VISWANATH

1
PG Scholar, Department of MECH, Vidya Jyothi Institute of Technology, RangaReddy, Telangana, India.
2
Associate Professor, Department of MECH, Vidya Jyothi Institute of Technology, RangaReddy, Telangana, India.

Abstract Centrifugal blowers are used in them against, dampers and other components which causes
naval applications and motors. The Contemporary blades the resistance. Centrifugal fans accelerate air radically,
in Centrifugal Blower used in naval applications are changing the direction (typically by 90) of the airflow.
made up of Aluminum or Steel. It is proposed to design a They are quiet, sturdy, capable, and reliable of operating
blower using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software over a wide range of critical conditions.
with various metal alloys and Non-Metallic composite
Centrifugal blowers are constant volume or displacement
materials, analyze its strength and deformation using
devices, at a constant fan speed, centrifugal blowers will
simulation software. In order to evaluate the
pump a volume of air constantly irrespective with the
effectiveness of Metal Alloys and Non-Metallic
constant mass rate. This means that the air velocity in a
composites.
system is fixed even though mass flow rate through the fan
The present work aim is to change the material and is not.
performing the different analysis like Static, Dynamic,
Centrifugal fans are well suited for industrial and
Flow Simulation & Cost Analysis to find the best
traditional purpose. It has a fan wheel composed of a
material to decrease the weight and increase its efficiency
number of fan blades, or ribs, mounted around a hub. The
by using the software SOLID WORKS.
hub actuates on an electric driveshaft that passes through
Key Words: the fan housing. The gas enters from the entrance of the

Centrifugal Blower, Computer Aided Design (CAD), fan wheel, turns 90 and accelerates due to centrifugal
Metal Alloys, Non-Metallic Composite Materials, force as it flows over the curve of fan blades and exits the
SOLIDWORKS, Simulation Analysis.
fan housing.
I INTRODUCTION

A centrifugal blower is a mechanical device for moving air


or other gases. The terms "blower" and "squirrel cage fan"
(because it looks like a hamster wheel) are frequently used
as synonyms. Rotating impellers increase the speed of the
air blowing from other end.

They use the kinetic energy of the rotating blade or


impeller to increase the pressure and tends to slightly
decrease velocity of the air/gas stream which in turn moves Typical Centrifugal blower

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING STUDIES Volume V /Issue 3 /AUG 2015

Types of blowers

Blowers can achieve much higher pressures than fans and


also produce negative pressures for industrial vacuum
Efficiency of Various Fans
systems. Main types of blowers ,which are described
below.
a) Centrifugal blower Centrifugal Blower working principle
b) Positive-Displacement Blower
Centrifugal force is used as a main principle for the kinetic
Blower efficiency and performance:
energy produced by the impeller to the air/gas which is
Blower efficiency is the ratio between the power
used as a fluent. By this principle the gas enters in to the
transferred to the airstream and the power delivered by
impeller and thrown off by creating kinetic energy at the
the motor to the Blower. The power of the air flow is the
exit. As a result, the pressure is measured in terms of
product of the pressure and the flow, corrected for unit
kinetic energy because of casting and duct which offers
consistency.
system resistance. The gas is then guided to the exit via
Another term for efficiency that is often used with fans
outlet ducts. The gas pressure in the middle region of the
is static efficiency, which uses static pressure instead of
impellers decreases after it is thrown off. The cycle repeats
total pressure in estimating the efficiency. When
when the gas from the impeller eye rushes and therefore
evaluating fan performance, it is important to know
the same volume of gas can be continuously transferred.
which efficiency term is being used.
The Blower efficiency depends on the type of fan and Velocity triangle:
impeller. As the flow rate increases, the efficiency A diagram called a velocity triangle helps us in
increases to certain height (peak efficiency) and then determining the flow geometry at the entry and exit of a
decreases with further increasing flow rate. The peak blade. A minimum number of data are required to draw a
efficiency ranges for different types of centrifugal and velocity triangle at a point on blade. Some component of
axial fans are given velocity varies at different point on the blade due to
changes in the direction of flow. Hence an infinite number
of velocity triangles are possible for a given blade. In order
to describe the flow using only two velocity triangles we
define mean values of velocity and their direction.
Velocity triangle of any turbo machine has three
components as shown.

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OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING STUDIES Volume V /Issue 3 /AUG 2015

(c) Computational fluid dynamic (CFD)


Analysis.
(d) Cost analysis.
(e) Weight Analysis.

The modeling of the impeller and the above


mentioned analyses will be done by Solidworks software.
In addition to that a method to fabricate the Impeller with
E-glass/Epoxy is studied for realization of product.

LITERATURE REVIEW

(Dr). M.L Kulkarni has developed strategy and design


procedure for blower which is expected to bring down the
Velocity triangle for forward facing blade lead time during designing through the Reverse
Engineering approach. The different dimensions &
geometry of parts of the existing blower were found out by
These velocities are related by the triangle law of vector obtaining the Cartesian coordinates of various identified
addition: V= U+Vr points. Thereafter the required profile and models were
Where U= Blade velocity developed using this data with the help of CATIA V5
modeler. The Suction condition and other related datas
Vr= Relative Velocity such as inlet & outlet diameter, inlet & outlet vane
angles & vane width at the inlet and outlet were used to
V= Absolute velocity calculate specific datas such as Absolute velocity of the
jet, velocity at the inlet and outlet, whirl velocity at
Scope and objective of present work:
outlet and exit angle of jet at the vane. The project also
The Contemporary blades in Centrifugal Blower used in covers areas of Geometric Analysis, Fluid Dynamics and
Concept of Curve Generation
naval applications are made up of Aluminum or Steel. The
objective of present work is to design a Impeller of a THEORITICAL CALCULATION:
Centrifugal blower with four materials, which are:
Attempts are made to address this issue
through considering the input values as below.
(a) Aluminum Alloy 1060
Sl.
(b) Graphite Parameters Values
No.
(c) Titanium 1 40o
(d) E-glass/Epoxy 2 50o
3 N 1300 rpm
To analyze which material made impeller gives 4 b1 53.4 mm
better results in terms weight, Output pressure, Out-put 5 b2 58.4 mm
velocity, Breaking point, efficiency and cost-friendly. 6 r1 16.25 mm
7 r2 295 mm
These results can be obtained by performing the following
8 R 381 mm
analysis on each material type.
9 Blade curve Parabolic

(a) Static Analysis.


(b) Dynamic Analysis. =

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
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=
tan = v1/u1, v1 = vf1
Q = 2r1b1v1
Vf2 = Q/2r2b2

By using the above mentioned equations and input values,


the following values were calculated:

Angular velocity = 136.13 rad/sec


Vane velocity at inlet u1 = 2.212 m/s MODELLING AND SIMULATION:
Vane velocity at outlet u2 = 29.4 m/s
Velocity of flow at inlet vf1 = v1 =292 m/s
Velocity of flow at outlet vf2 = 26.17 m/s
Discharge Q = 1.592 m/s
Whirl velocity at outlet Vw2= 12.47

ANALYSIS & DATA COLLECTION:


Material properties:
Static Analysis on impeller of Al Alloy 1060:

Model with volumetric properties of AA1060

Applying Loads and fixtures

Applying Loads and Fixtures on impeller of AA1060

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Meshing:

Mesh information of AA1060

Total deformation table of AA1060

Dynamic Analysis

Dynamic Analysis on impeller of Al Alloy 1060:


Meshed model of AA 1060

Static stress, Strain and total deformation values Applying Loads and fixtures

Static stress result table of AA1060


Applying Loads and Fixtures on impeller of Al Alloy 1060
Dynamic Stress, Total deformation and Mass
participation:

Strain result of AA 1060

Dynamic stress result table of Al Alloy 1060

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OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING STUDIES Volume V /Issue 3 /AUG 2015

Total deformation table of Al Alloy 1060


Pressure Counters

Mass participation (normalized) table of Al Alloy 1060

Flow simulation

Applied Boundary Conditions


Velocity Counters

Pressure and velocity distribution at blades

Inlet Velocity -14m\s

Pressure distribution at Blades

Angular velocity of impeller up to 13000 rpm

Pressure and velocity counters

Velocity distribution at Blades

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OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING STUDIES Volume V /Issue 3 /AUG 2015

Pressure and velocity flow trajectories: Load applied on each material was 1500N

Pressure flow trajectories Minimum stress (N/M2) Vs. Material

Velocity flow trajectories

As we observe the pressure counters, it is shown that the


pressure is slightly decreased at the outlet due to the peek Maximum stress (N/M2) Vs. Material
efficiency reached by the flow rate.

Cost analysis:

Deformation (Mm) Vs. Material


RESULTS, DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS

Static Stress analysis results Dynamic analysis Results

Load applied on each material was 1500N

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OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING STUDIES Volume V /Issue 3 /AUG 2015

Cost Analysis Result:

Minimum stress (N/M2) Vs. Material

Material Cost

Maximum stress (N/M2) Vs. Material


Manufacturing Costs

Total Costs
Deformation (Mm) Vs. Material

Flow Analysis Result

It is observed that the Velocity at out let is decreased


compared to inlet and Pressure increases at the outlet, due
to the peek effect.

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Weight Analysis Result: [2] S R Shah, S V Jain and V J Lakhera, CFD based flow
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National & 4th International Conference on Fluid
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[3] P.Usha Shri ans C.Syamsundar, computational


analysis on performance of a centrifugal pump impeller,
Proceedings of the 37th National & 4th International
Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power, IIT
Madras, Chennai, 2010.

[4] E.C. Bacharoudis, A.E. Filios, M.D. Mentzos and D.P.


Margaris, Parametric Study of a Centrifugal Pump
Impeller by Varying the Outlet Blade Angle, The Open
Weight Density Vs. Material Mechanical Engineering Journal, no 2, 75-83, 2008.

CONCLUSION [5] Marco Antonio Rodrigues Cunh and Helcio Francisco


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