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Developments of the Quarter: Comment and Chronology

Source: Middle East Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3 (Summer, 1952), pp. 329-335
Published by: Middle East Institute
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4322411 .
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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER:
COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY
NONE OF THE variousproblemsof the eral terms of Britain's alleged injustices to
Middle East had been solved by July i; Iran; in the following sessions the more legal
nevertheless,the acrid debates and violence of aspects of Iran's case were ably presented by
I95I and early I952 had been supersededby the Belgian advocate, Henri Rolin. His argu-
a few weeks of relative quiet. ment hinged on whether Iran was bound to
The Egyptian elections, originally scheduled submit to the jurisdictionof the Court in dis-
for late in May, were postponedto allow for a putes involving treaties and conventionssigned
revision of the electoral lists and possibly the prior to I932 (the year in which Iran so agreed
electoral law. An election in May would al- to submit), and on whether in fact Iran's con-
most certainly have returned the Wafd to cessionaryagreementof I933 with the AIOC
power, an outcome the Palace was anxious to was either a treaty or convention: his answer
prevent. There was still no indicationof what to both was in the negative. One further point
direction an electoral reform might take be- made by M. Rolin was that the AIOC and
yond a refusal, announcedon June i i, to ex- British governmental negotiators had agreed,
tend the franchise to women. This decision, in numerous statements, to the principle of
taken in the face of a militant feminist move- nationalization,and had therefore denied Brit-
ment headed by the Bint al-Nil (Daughters ain's own case since the Court could not have
of the Nile) society, followed the line laid jurisdictionin such essentiallynational matters.
down by a May 2 fatwa of the Grand Mufti This argument elicited the responsethat Brit-
of Egypt and an opinion rendered in June by ain's recognition of the principle of nationali-
a committee of al-Azhar ulema. Echoing the zation had been conditional upon a negotiated
general conservativesentimentin Egypt, it was settlement- possibly very much as Britain's
also a move by the Government against los- recognition of Egypt's and Iraq's political in-
ing support among Muslim-dominatedgroups. dependence had been conditional upon their
Elections were now tentatively scheduled for willingness to sign restrictivetreaties. In gen-
October. In the meantime, Egypt continued eral, the British argument was based on the
to be administered under martial law and plea that the questionof jurisdictioncould not
without a parliament. be decided on purely legalistic grounds; it was
Nor could any progress be reported from inseparablefrom the merits of this particular
Iran toward bringing its oil industry back into dispute, and these were heavily on Britain's
production. Attempts to work out a plan of side. Further, the I933 agreement could be
operation through the intermediaryof the In- considereda treaty becauseit settled a matter
ternational Bank broke down in the middle of which had been an internationaldispute before
March for the same reasonsthat previousnego- the League of Nations. No decision could be
tiations with the AIOC had broken down: expected until well into the summer.
failure to agree on the degree of the Bank's Israel and the surrounding countries were
authority, on its freedom to hire British tech- each concernedwith domestictroubles of their
nicians, and on the price at which the oil was to own. In Israel it was the chronic financial and
be sold. On June 9 Prime Minister Mosaddeq economic problem, which the Government at-
appeared before the International Court of tempted to meet through two drastic measures.
Justice at The Hague to open Iran's case On February I3 it introduced two additional
against the Court's jurisdiction in its dispute exchange rates. Essential foodstuffs could still
with the AIOC. Dr. Mosaddeq spoke in gen- be bought at the former rate of $2.8o to the
329

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330 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

Israeli pound. The general basis for prices, surrendered to civil courts by the Christian
however,was now set at $1.40 to the Israeli communitiesin the interest of Christian Leb-
pound, while for investors the exchange rate anese nationalism. Lawyers were bitterly op-
was put at $I to the pound. At the same time, posed to this reassertionof the prerogativesof
the free market rate hovered in the neighbor- the religious communities since it greatly re-
hood of $.40 to the pound. stricted their freedom of practice, and they
The immediateeffect of the devaluationwas eventually refused to handle cases involved in
a rise in basic food prices of almost I5 %in the new law. When the Lebanese Parliament
one month, and in individual imported items considereda revision,however, both the Chris-
of as much as 50o in the same period. In due tian and Muslim clergy raised violent protest
course exporters were able partially to offset on the other side. It still remainedfor the Par-
these rises through increasedsales abroad,but liament to work out an acceptablecompromise.
the net result was neverthelessa lower stand- The struggle of the Tunisian nationalists
ard of living for the general public. reachedits climax on April I4, when the U.N.
A second move, with similar effect, came on Security Council voted against putting their
June 8. The Government then announced a case on its agenda. The United States, lining
compulsoryloan of io% on all bank deposits behind it both Greece and Turkey, abstained
and currency in circulation. This was to be from voting and was thereby instrumental in
effected by the withdrawal of all old currency defeating the motion, which had been intro-
notes and the substitution of an appropriate duced by twelve Arab and Asian countries. It
number of new. The Government expectedby was evident that the United States' decision
this meanisto realize LI 25 million from do- was dictated by its negotiations with France
mestic soturcesand an unknown amount from over military plans for Western Europe.
Israeli currency abroad, of which no notes of (France bluntly warned that a U.S. vote in
a denomination larger than LI i would be support of the motion would bring the break-
down of these negotiationsand France's with-
honored. A further measure in prospect was
drawal from active participationin the United
a compulsoryloan or tax on property.
Nations.) Nevertheless, the Arab countries of
In Jordan attention was centered on the
the Middle East interpreted U.S. policy as
mental health of King Talal. On May i8 he
willing connivancewith Western imperialism.
left again for France and Switzerland for The tacit backing which the U.S. gave
possible treatment; on June 4 the Cabinet France was conditionedupon a positive effort,
named a Regency Council which the King was by France, to introduce reforms in Tunisia.
reported to have accepted on June I3. Al- The French Governmentstated, however, that
though the Jordan Constitution states that no it could go no further than the proposalsput
personshall ascendthe throne unless he is sane, forward for discussion in March 1 and hope
it makes no provision for the removal of a to survive a vote of confidence. Since the
ruling monarch nor any specific mention of Franco-Tunisian commissionoriginally sched-
abdication. King Talal's eldest son, Prince uled to convene in April had never been able
Husayn, will reach his majority in July I953. to meet because of the non-cooperation of
While Syria continued to be governed by Tunisian nationalist leaders, the French Gov-
decrees- totalitarian in nature, but their true ernment now decided to proceed directly to
import still to be put to the test by interpreta- the implementation of its proposals. Foreign
tion - Lebanonwas engaged in a legal dispute Minister Schumannpresented his program to
which was the direct outcome of its communal the French Parliamenton June I9, but because
organization. In 195I legislation had been of opposition from both right and left (the
passed transferring back to the various Chris- one saying that the reforms went too far, the
tian religious courts jurisdiction over such other that they did not go far enough), he
mattersof personalstatus as marriage,divorce, could not secure a vote. The French Govern-
and inheritance- jurisdictionwhich had been 1 See the Middle East Journal, vol. 6
retained by the Muslim courts but had been (Spring,
1952), pp. 208-9.

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 331

ment was faced, therefore, with the necessity special sessionof the General Assemblyto take
of proceeding without a parliamentary man- up the questionof Tunisia. A week later their
date. In the meantime, on June 20, thirteen request had received the support of I7 coun-
Arab and Asian states again approachedthe tries (including the Soviet Union) out of the
United Nations, this time with a requestfor a 3I requiredfor favorableaction.

ChronologyI
MARCH 1 -MAY 31, 1952

General Egypt
1952 1952
Mar. 3: An Arab Feminist Congress was convened Mar. i: Prime Minister Ali Mahir Pasha resigned.
in Baghdad to consider such questions as the King Faruq requested Ahmad Nagib al-Hilali
granting of the franchise to women, restrictions Pasha to form a Cabinet.
on divorce, the stimulation of rural life, and the Mar. 2: Prime Minister Nagib al-Hilali Pasha an-
raising of social and moral standards through- nounced a new Cabinet as follows:
out the Arab world. (Arab News Agency Nagib al-Hilali Pasha -Prime Minister
[ANA ], Mar. 8.) Salib Sami Pasha -Commerce, Industry,
A pr. 5: Spanish Foreign Minister Don Alberto Supply
Martin Artajo arrived in Beirut to begin a Muhammad Kamil Mursi Pasha-Justice
goodwill tour of Arab countries. Taha al-Siba'i -Municipalities, Rural Af-
Apr. 6: A Posts and Telegraphs Conference at fairs
which most Arab countries were represented, Muhammad al-Mufti al-Gaza'irli Pasha -
was opened at Damascus. The conference con- Welf are
sidered three main questions: the adoption of a 'Abd al-Khaliq Hassunah Pasha -Foreign
unified policy at the International Postal Union Affairs
Conference; the introduction of a uniform postal Muhammad Zaki 'Abd al-Muta'al Bey -
tariff between Arab countries; and the develop- Finance, National Economy
ment of speedier communications between Egypt Murtada al-Maraghi Bey - Interior, War,
and the other Arab countries. (ANA, Apr. i2.) Navy
Muhammad Rif'at Pasha -Education
May 7: A conference on desert research, sponsored
Muhammad Farid Za'luq- Propaganda
by UNESCO, was opened at Jerusalem, Israel.
Tarraf Ali Pasha -Communications
Nagib Ibrahim Pasha-Agriculture
Radi Abu Sayf Radi Bey-Social Affairs
Algeria The Government suspended Parliament for 3o
1952 days.
A pr. 25: Messali Hadj, nationalist leader, was Mar. II: The Wafd party announced its opposi-
placed under house arrest after a clash between tion to the Government of Prime Minister al-
nationalists and the police. Hilali Pasha.
May 14: A demonstration at Orleansville resulted Mar. 12: A special military tribunal sentenced 6
in the death of 2 nationalists. persons to prison for participation in the riots of
Jan. 26.
Mar. i6: Eight persons, found guilty of arson and
the destruction of property on Jan. 26, were sen-
Arab League tenced to prison by a military tribunal.
1952 Mar. 17: Ahmad Husayn, leader of the Egyptian
Mar. 29: The i6th session of the Council opened Socialist party, was sentenced to I8 months in
in Cairo, member countries being represented by prison for insulting and inciting hatred for the
heads of diplomatic missions. The session was Crown in articles in his newspapers.
adjourned the same day but remained "open" so Mar. i8: Fu'ad Sirag al-Din Pasha, former Wafd
that delegates could reassemble with a minimum Minister of the Interior, and 'Abd al-Fattah
of delay. Hasan Pasha, former Wafd Minister of Social
Affairs, were placed under house arrest for
1 In general, items in the Chronology are drawn disturbing public order surpassing "the limit
from the New York Times unless otherwise indi- which the Government responsible for mainte-
cated. nance of public order could ignore."

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3 3 2T fTHE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

Mar. 22: Conversations with British officials re- excluding all barter arrangements between the
garding the future of the Suez Canal Zone and two countries. (ANA, May 31.)
the Sudan were resumed.
Mar. 2?: The Government announced that the
existing Chamber of Deputies would be dissolved Eritrea
and that elections would be held May ig. 1952
Mar. 27, 29: Foreign Minister 'Abd al-Khaliq Has- Mar. 25: Voting began to elect a 68-member as-
sunah Pasha met with British Ambassador Sir sembly to approve a new constitution federating
Ralph Stevenson to discuss the Suez Canal and Eritrea with Ethiopia.
Sudan questions.
Mar. 29: Under the sponsorship of the "Daughters
of the Nile," four women were nominated for India
election to Parliament. The nominations, how- 1952
ever, were rejected by the Ministry of the In- Mar. 5: K. M. Munshi, Minister for Food and
terior. (ANA, Apr. 5.) Agriculture, announced in Parliament that the
Mar. 3-': The Cabinet passed a decree demoting Ford Foundation had agreed to assist in estab-
several thousand directors of Government offices. lishing 15 pilot agricultural extension projects
It also passed a decree providing heavy prison with a contributionof about $I,200,000.
sentences for cotton speculators. Mar. 12: A Japanese industrial mission sponsored
Jpr. 12: The Government announced the post- by the Japanese Government arrived in New
ponement of elections and suspension of electoral Delhi to survey the possibilities of establishing
activities pending revision of the electoral lists. industrial enterprises jointly with the Indian
Apr. 20: The Cabinet issued a decree establishing Government.
a committee which would investigate corruption The Kamioka Mining Company of Japan
in the Government. signed a 2-year technical aid contract with the
Apr. 24: Spanish Foreign Minister Don Alberto Metal Corporation of India to develop the Za-
Martin Artajo arrived in Cairo on an official war lead and zinc mine in Udaipur.
visit. (ANA, Apr. 26.) May 6: Dr. Rajendra Prasad was reelected Pres-
Apr. 26: Minister of Finance Muhammad Zaki ident of India for a 5-year term.
'Abd al-Muta'al Bey announced the formation May 7: A general strike was called in Calcutta to
of two investigation commissions. One would protest a governmental order regrouping the
seek out and demand punishment for those re- railway system so as to eliminate Calcutta as the
sponsible for speculation on the cotton market. headquarters of the East Indian Railway.
The other would investigate illegal appropria- A conference of state planning and develop-
tions of the state fund. ment officials and representatives of the U.S.
Technical Cooperation Administration (TCA)
Apr. 28: A trade mission from West Germany ar-
was opened in New Delhi.
rived to negotiate a new commercial agreement
May i_?: President Rajendra Prasad reappointed
with the Government. (ANA4, May 3.)
Jawaharlal Nehru as Prime Minister. The latter
May 6: King Faruq issued an official announce-
announced a new Cabinet as follows:
ment proclaiming his direct descent from the
Jawaharlal Nehru -Prime Minister
Prophet Muhammad. The king's ancestry was
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad-Education,
traced to the Prophet by al-Sayyid Muhammad
Natural Resources, Scientific Research
al-Biblawi, president of "The Society of the N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar -Defense
Prophet's Descendants."
Rajkumari Amrit Kaur -Health
May II: The Government charged Ahmad Hu- Dr. Kailas Nath Katju -Home Affairs,
sayn, leader of the Socialist party, and 5 other States
persons with having instigated the riots of Rafi Ahmad Kidwai- Food and Agriculture
Jan. 26. Chintaman D. Deshmukh -Finance
May 20: The Government rejected British pro- Jagjivan Ram -Communications
posals to recognize King Faruq as King of the Gulzarilal Nanda- Planning and River
Sudan only if the Sudanese also agreed. Valley Projects
May 21: The Cabinet approved a decree provid- T. T. Krishnamachari -Commerce and In-
ing for 3-year residence visas, renewable auto- dustry
matically, to be granted to foreigners who were C. C. Biswas -Law, Minority Affairs
born in the country, to foreigners resident in the Lal Bahadur Shastri -Railways and Trans-
country for 20 years, and to scholars and indus- port
trialists whose services are of value to Egypt. Sardar Swaran Singh- Works, Housing,
(ANA, May 24.) Supply
May 28: An economic agreement was signed with V. V. Giri -Labor
Western Germany which provided, among other K. C. Reddy -Production
things, that the German Government would issue Ajit Prasad Jain- Rehabilitation
import permits for Egyptian cotton to a total Satya Narayan Sinha -Parliamentary Af-
value of LE 25 million. A clause was inserted fairs

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 333
Mahavir Tyagi - Minister of State for Fi- May 28: Prime Minister Mosaddeq arrived at
nance The Hague to represent the Government at the
B. V. Keskar -Information and Broad- International Court of Justice hearing on the oil
casting dispute. (ANA, May 31.)
May 14: President Rajendra Prasad announced
the following new gubernatorial appointments:
Sir Girja Shankar Bajpai -Bombay Iraq
R. R. Diwakar-Bihar 1952
K. M. Munshi-Uttar Pradesh Mar. 27: The Senate ratified the collective security
Fazl Ali - Orissa and economic cooperation pact of the Arab
League.
Apr. 20: Prime Minister Nuri al-Sa'id Pasha left
Iran for an official visit to England. (ANA, Apr. 28.)
1952 May 8: Prime Minister Nuri al-Sa'id Pasha and
Mar. 4: A representative of the International Bank the Regent, Prince 'Abd al-Ilah, arrived in
arrived at Tehran to resume discussions with Madrid for an official visit.
Prime Minister Mosaddeq regarding the oil
question.
Mar. I6: It was announced that the mission of the
International Bank had been unsuccessful in
Israel
I952
solving the oil dispute. A representative of the Mar. 21: Meetings opened at The Hague between
Government said that the Government and the representatives of the Government and officials
Bank's mission had failed to agree on the use of the West German Government regarding
of British technicians, the Bank's position in Jewish claims against the latter.
operating the industry, and the price for the oil. Apr. x: The Government presented its budget to
Mar. 20: The U.S. Department of State announced the Knesset. Estimates for the fiscal year were
that a request for a $x20-million loan to Iran LI I68,450,000, including an appropriation of
had been refused because the Iranian Govern- LI 45 million for defense.
ment had the opportunity to get "adequate rev- Apr. 7: Negotiations with the West German Gov-
enues" from its oil resources. ernment were suspended because of a "totally
Mar. 28: About 5 persons were killed and 200 in- unsatisfactory" proposal made by the latter to
jured in a clash between a parading Communist settle Jewish claims.
group and anti-Communists. Apr. 24: Several thousand industrial building em-
Mar. 31: The Government concluded an agree- ployees, port workers, and new immigrants
ment whereby the U.S. would supply Iran with marched through Tel Aviv protesting against
about 34 thousand metric tons of sugar valued the Government's economic policy.
at $5 million. Iran would sell the sugar in com- Apr. 25: Goverment officials seized telephone equip-
mercial channels and deposit the equivalent of
ment from the Swedish cargo ship Britta. It was
$5 million in rials in a Point IV account avail-
alleged that the equipment was intended for the
able to the program director in Iran for meeting Syrian army.
local expenses.
Apr. i: An agreement with the U.S. was signed
in Tehran whereby the U.S. Government would
contribute $ii million for technical assistance to
Jordan
1952
agricultural, public health, and education proj- Mar. I9: Colonel Fawzi Silu, Syrian Chief of State,
ects. and Colonel Adib Shishakli, Chief of Staff, began
Apr. 18: The police arrested 45 Communists in a official talks with representatives of the Govern-
raid on a secret meeting of the outlawed Tudeh ment. (ANA, Mar. 22.)
party. Mar. 25: King Talal signed the collective security
Apr. 20: The Government announced that it had pact of the Arab League. (ANA, Apr. 5.)
resumed production of motor oil at the refinery A pr. I3: Spanish Foreign Minister Don Alberto
at Abadan. Martin Artajo arrived in Amman on an official
Apr. 25: The U.S. agreed to resume military aid visit to King Talal. (ANA, Apr. i9.)
to Iran. Apr. 16: A Spanish Cultural Center was opened
May 12: The Government announced that a bill in Amman. (ANA, Apr. i9.)
would be drafted which would provide for the Apr. 21: The Chamber of Deputies approved a
sale of government lands to peasants on a 20- new budget. The anticipated total income was
year installment plan. estimated at JD 11,28o,840; expenditure for the
May 24: The Soviet Union protested to the Gov- coming fiscal year at JD 12,2I6,148. Expenditure
ernment that U.S. military aid to Iran violated for security and defense would amount to JD
the Soviet-Iranian treaty of 192I and was not 7,I60,503. (ANA, Apr. 26.)
compatible with good relations between the two Apr. 30: Al-Sayyid Khulusi al-Khayri was ap-
countries. pointed Minister of Health and Social Affairs

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334 THE MIDDLE EAST JOURNAL

and al-Sayyid Ahmad al-Tarwana became Min-


ister of Agriculture. (ANA, May 3.)
Pakistan
May 27: Conversations began with Syrian offi- (See also Kashmir Problem.)
cials at Damascus for the purpose of concluding I952
an economic agreement between the two countries. Mar. I6: A new budget was presented to Parlia-
Among the subjects discussed were projects for ment. A gross revenue of Rs. 1,747,300,000 and a
the regulation of the waters of the Yarmuk gross expenditure of Rs. I,668,900,000 were es-
River and the building of a dam at Wadi al- timated. Rs. 950 million was allocated for na-
Dalil. (ANA, May 31.) tional defense.
Mar. 27: The International Bank announced that a
loan of $27,200,000 would be made to Pakistan
KashmirProblem for the rehabilitation, improvement, and mod-
ernization of the railroad system.
1952
Mar. I4: Pakistan accused India of 594 breaches Apr. 28: The Government signed an agreement
of the cease-fire agreement. with the United Nations which provided that
Apr. 25: U.N. Mediator Frank P. Graham sub- $I,500,000 would be allocated for technical as-
mitted a report on the situation to the U.N. Se- sistance to Pakistan.
curity Council which indicated that little, if any, May 19: A crowd of more than 2,000 persons tried
progress had been made toward achieving a to break up the annual meeting of the Karachi
settlement of the dispute. Ahmadiya Association.

Lebanon SpanishMorocco
1952
(See also General.) Mar. 12: The Spanish Government announced that
1952 it had authorized the formation of political
Apr. 3: A strike of both Christian and Muslim parties in Spanish Morocco.
businessmen was held in Beirut to protest against Apr. 8: The Spanish Government announced that
proposed legislation which would revise existing it would loan 260 million pesetas ($6,5oo,ooo)
legislation in such a way that certain personal to the caliphs of Spanish Morocco to finance a
status matters would come before civil courts. 5-year public works program.
A4pr. 5: Because the Government was scheduled
to revise existing personal status legislation,
the strike of Beirut's lawyers was ended. (ANA, Sudan
Apr. 5.) 1952
May I5: Prime Minister Sami al-Sulh Bey signed Mar. 23: A general strike called by the Sudan
a new agreement with the Iraq Petroleum Com- Workers' Federation went into effect. (ANA,
pany under which the Government's annual in- Mar. 29.)
come from oil transit would be increased by LL 3 Apr. 23: The Assembly asked for an amendment
million. (ANA, May 17.) to the British-sponsored draft constitution which
May 17: It was reported that the Government would allow the Sudan to determine for itself
concluded an agreement with the Tapline Com- whether to be independent or linked either with
pany which would increase the yearly revenue Britain or Egypt.
from oil transit from LL I,5o0,00o to an estimated Apr. 26: The budget for 1952-53 was presented to
LL 4 million. the Legislative Assembly. The estimated revenue
was ?28,500,000 and expenditure was ?24,500,000.
(ANA, May 3.)
Libya
1952 Syria
Mar. 14: The 24 members of the Senate were ap-
pointed
(See also Jordan.)
by the King.
1952
Mar. 25: The new Parliament held its opening
Mar. 28: A bomb explosion damaged the United
session at Benghazi.
States Information Service building in Damas-
cus, killing an Arab radio operator.
Apr. 3: The Government issued a decree curtail-
Morocco ing the distribution of information bulletins is-
1952 sued by foreign governments and news agencies.
Mar. 20: Sultan Sidi Mohammed Ben Youssef pre- Apr. 6: The Government, by decree, dissolved all
sented a written request to French President political parties and organizations.
Auriol for revision of the Treaty of Fez which Apr. 8: Colonel Adib Shishakli left the country for
would provide for the establishment of a govern- an official visit to King Ibn Saud of Saudi
ment responsible to the Sultan, and for negotia- Arabia. (ANA, Apr. 12)
tions to achieve these ends. Apr. I6: Spanish Foreign Minister Don Alberto

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DEVELOPMENTS OF THE QUARTER: COMMENT AND CHRONOLOGY 335
Martin Artajo arrived in Damascus on an offi- Council calling upon it to consider the "dete-
cial visit. (ANA, Apr. i9.) riorating situation" in Tunisia on the ground that
Apr. I8: A friendship and cultural agreement was it was a threat to international peace and se-
signed with Spain. curity.
Apr. 12: Prime Minister Salaheddine Baccouche
announced the formation of a new Cabinet as
Tangier follows:
1952
Mar. 30: The 40th anniversary of the Treaty of Salaheddine Baccouche -Prime Minister
Fez was marked by a strike and riots in which Taieb Balkiria - State
several people were killed and hundreds were Sadok Djaziri -Justice
wounded. Dr. Ahmed Ben Rais -Commerce
Apr. 3: Token forces were sent from French and Dr. Mohammed Ghachem - Health
Spanish Morocco to Tangier at the request of the Mohammed Dinguizli - Labor
Committee of Control to ensure order. Abdel-Aziz Menchari - Agriculture
A pr. 7: Spain formally demanded control of the AJpr. 14: The U.N. Security Council voted against
police forces in the international zone of Tangier. placing the Tunisian question on its agenda.
It was alleged that the existing security system The Soviet Union, China, Brazil, Chile, and
was inadequate to maintain order. Spain also Pakistan voted in favor of its inclusion; France
requested revision of the international statute of and Great Britain voted against it; and the
Tangier. United States, Greece, the Netherlands, and Tur-
key abstained.
Tunisia May 6: Former Prime Minister Mohammed Chenik
and three of his Ministers were released from
1952 house arrest.
Mar. II: French Resident General de Hauteclocque
May 12: The curfew in Tunis was advanced to
ordered a night curfew for the Arab section of
8:30 P.M. instead of midnight.
Tunis because of "a long series of terrorist acts
May 14: Former Prime Minister Mohammed
that have compromised order and public security."
Chenik and three of his former Cabinet Ministers
Mar. 25: It was reported that French Resident
General de Hauteclocque had informed the Bey were placed under armed guard and held in-
communicado.
of Tunis, Sidi Mohammed el-Amin, that negotia-
May 15: The Bey of Tunis, Sidi Mohammed el-
tions for home rule reforms could begin as soon
as the Ministry of Prime Minister Chenik was Amin, in a radio broadcast, denounced recent
replaced. The Bey was reported to have pro- terroristic acts and appealed to his people to
tested to French President Vincent Auriol de- end such violence.
manding an end "to procedures of intimidation." May 22: The dusk-to-dawn curfew was lifted by
Mar. 26: The French Resident General ordered the the French Government and 450 nationalists were
seizure and arrest of Prime Minister Chenik released.
and 3 members of his Cabinet. Martial law was
proclaimed. Turkey
Mar. 27: French President Vincent Auriol sent 2 1952
representatives to confer with the Bey of Tunis. May 8: The Government signed an agreement
Mar. 28: The Bey of Tunis, Sidi Mohammed el- with the U.N. Technical Assistance Administra-
Amin, appointed a pro-French Prime Minister, tion which would provide for the establishment
Salaheddine Baccouche, and called on his sub- of an institute of public administration.
jects to work in harmony with France for the May II: Field Marshal Viscount Montgomery,
future of Tunisia. It was reported that the Bey deputy Atlantic Pact Commander, arrived in
had been forced to yield to French pressure. Ankara for consultations concerning Turkey's
Apr. 2: Twelve requests from Middle Eastern and role in and contribution to the North Atlantic
Asian countries were filed with the U.N. Security Treaty Organization.

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