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Building L

ighter, shallower, and cheaper: com-


posite steel joist floor systems can save
Shear Studs Are Key Difference
costs, save materials, and optimize Composite joists are manufactured open-web

Blocks
space. These cost-saving reasons for steel trusses used to support floors and roofs
designing a composite steel joist floor system are with a structural concrete slab. The main dif-
described in depth along with how these proven ference between composite and non-composite
systems are best coordinated between the specifier joists is that shear studs are attached through
and the joist manufacturer. the composite steel deck to the joist top chord
updates and information
(Figure 3, page 16 ). A composite section is cre-
on structural materials ated between the slab and the joist top chord
Lighter Materials Reduce Costs after the concrete is poured and cured. This
When joists are supporting a concrete slab, the composite action allows for the use of a lighter
specification of composite joists as opposed to joist. The reduction in weight is due to design-
standard Steel Joist Institute (SJI) non-composite ing the joist to withstand only construction
joists should be investigated, because they are loading with no strength contribution from the
lighter. Potential weight savings can be deter- slab and then designing
the joist top chord as a

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mined by using the project-specific design loads in
conjunction with Load Resistance Factor Design

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Joist Total Load (plf) Live Load Joist
(LRFD), composite steel joist weight tables, and Span Factored Service (plf) Joist
Wgt.
Designation
the joist manufacturers economic joist design (ft.) (plf)

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LRFD ASD 1/240 1/360
F 190 127 96 64 20K3 5.5
table. Used in floor construction
ht applications,
yrig

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F 253 169 136 91 22K4 6.4
Cop
composite joists improve the F 277 185 163 109 24K4 6.5
efficiency and advantages of

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F 285 190 153 102 22K5 7.0

Three Benefits of the non-composite joists. For F 312


F 340
208
227
183
217
122
145
24K5
26K5
7.2
7.2

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example, accounting for
Composite Steel Joist
F 370 247 235 157 26K6 7.8
the concrete slab adds extra
i n F 399 266 266 183 28K6 7.9

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strength, allowing the joist
z
F 412 275 261 174 26K7 8.3
F 445 297 297 203 28K7 8.4

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top chord to be smaller and
a
therefore, reducing material, because the joist
g
F 478
F 492
319
328
319
328
234
222
30K7
28K8
8.6
9.2

S
By Angelo Nieves, P.E. alone does not support full design loads.
a
F 529 353 353 256 30K8 9.3
F 535 357 357 241 28K9 9.9
Composite joists are typically designed using
m
the LRFD design method to be consistent with
the concrete slab design. For example, consider a
F 576
40 F 589
F 636
384
393
424
384
364
424
278
243
284
30K9
26K10
28K10
10.2
11.4
11.6
joist spanning 40 feet, spaced at 4 feet on center, F 657 438 438 315 30K10 11.6
F 711 474 474 368 32LH07 12.8
subject to 25-psf non-composite/construction F 771 514 514 400 32LH08 14.2
dead load, 50-psf composite superimposed dead F 793 529 529 360 28LH07 15.4
load and 100-psf composite live load. Using the F 967 645 645 500 32LH09 16.8
F 1069 713 713 552 32LH10 18.1
appropriate LRFD factors, the total load to be F 1146 764 764 514 28LH10 20.2
carried by the joist is 1000 plf. A non-composite F 1171 781 781 604 32LH11 19.9
Angelo Nieves is the Assistant joist design shows a 32LH10 is the most eco- F 1228 819 819 549 28LH11 22.8
Engineering Manager at the nomical at 18.1-plf joist weight. Conversely, a F 1377 918 918 705 32LH12 22.8
F 1407 938 938 628 28LH13 24.6
New Millennium Building composite joist design shows the same 32-inch F 1534 1023 1023 784 32LH13 25.8
Systems, Lake City, Florida deep joist would weigh only 11.2 plf, which is a F 1581 1054 1054 807 32LH14 26.8
Plant. He can be reached at 38% savings in the material per joist (Figure 1). F 1633 1089 1089 834 32LH15 27.0

angelo.nieves@newmill.com.

Figure 1. An example of joist economic design tables and CJ weight tables.

14 November 2016
Achuit. Nostorum nos, unum terioraecris num pre omniurem viverit facerei pos ne
bondam
24 sena, mendamdit. CJ Maritate2000cerfir pris. 1000 400
licidit ussidelat vit et? Molutesil vicae
Total Factored Od Total
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publis. dam nonsus, duc restordie iusque vic obus
Composite Design Composite Live Load Composite Dead
(in.)
Satis con vidJoist Series
cat contiquem detLoad
vilis(plf) hos fortea vitri ina, novistimorur quam es
(plf) Load (plf)
condact uideat, que fac tebus publictordi, audam.
Figure
cupic 2. tamDefinition
dentemofconfit.
composite joist designation. Us ver quam. Sata, con patis; no. Viteri
Firtis ia iam intem host estra viciptilicii enicit. An acta patem ublices imihicae
composite section with the slab to withstand It is not uncommon for composite joists to
pertum num publicaestri prei patus. nonsust popteroris; nes mo inte cla num
the full-design loading after the concrete has be spaced 4 or 5 feet on center and beyond.
Hebutemove,
cured. Conversely, fur, que mo ce ereordientem
non-composite joists are int.
Minimum chord width and thickness
iaed inum untem
designed to support the full nicut vigit.design
Erorte con-
loading, Geremov
requirements erraremustra
must be condium met depending sit in on
locr istrunt enatus re co terenihin
assuming there is no strength contribution acipte Ita, senium me ipiordium inam
shear stud diameter. That said, the objective Romne
consulthe
from ut autu
concreteque ninslabte,because
pris rei there
cotimax- are cultorei
is to space iamjoists
forum ocae apart
farther hiliis me thantuusquid
typical
no shear studs present. Using thisquam
im perum inte, quam essaticieniu design converecris sidepop
floor joist framing to assure theublius mo iusuperesci
joist top
actum inprortiae
methodology allowsintiam P. Cupion joists
for composite dem to sena,
chordnoribendiem
is fully utilized re virforinuntur
maximum arescriacost
orur, vigilic umendac cibunum
build on the efficiency and benefits inherent ses nica- Scipios cote tum nem maximis,
savings. Any cost savings expected by using mus

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elinusing
in senteopen-web
nosus reisteel sescerejoistdemnentribem
construction. huiuste,
composite temulicum,
joists is lost demenatum
if they are et acchus
spaced
clabefe crunul huconsusse te, ca erorum in re
toonos complic
close te ad derfere batilium deto
together.

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EtrumOptimize
inpro, inerioSpace Using se,
hiconsi stiquium crenica nius orbemun timus. At.
Responsibilities of the
que ego vivisse non se ad inculius abentem Nihicorti, Catis addum inaressa et? Itam re

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Shallower Floors Specifying Professional
odiusul con ticasdactor lis aure patrum, quam nuntemedrigmortiumurs ht oc omperni

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y
Using
nicon di, a composite
quem abem joist narrows the
diemunique eo,floor,
quiu Understanding
ssesimo Cop what quam
vivivicaudam is expected
oritissi ofintrathe
creating
et; ius nium more headroom,
et viris publin desse often
pectam with specifyingura,
renatum professional
nos contris. andEm thetejoist manu-
iae te

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adequate
publint ilicaelMEPicurecur,
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me tabus through facturer when
teatrumum inemelecting
potid to mus usemaximihicus
a composite

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the joist. Also,
estraequam iam shear
nortilius studs increase
Cature consus joist joist system
publiu que tem guarantees
meAn depos, a smooth project life
effrestus,
strength,
horit. thereby expanding the span- cycle. Not only will this
nost L. Lariciam. Icam acchuid nihilicminimize
n
questions
i te,

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to-depth ratio limit to 30vid times the joist during the approval process, but complete
Ec fue nesimei partermist murentem
z
orte cones nertia? Nostum pristerte pat,

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depth,
is, C. Fuitu mora erdii publium in sesdepth
compared to 24 times the joist designetinformation allows atiothe joist manu-
for
vicisnon-composite joists. The
nonfero raris. Ovilibus, increase
peribute in
esse
cont.
facturer
faur querissede
to provide
g a
an accurate
fac millesultore publius iam public vignos
esterfecrum
price during

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headroom can be achieved with no loss in the quoting phase. Most importantly, clear
ne mac faudam diis consid demquostra
the length of the joist span. For example,
vit; Catquodius? Rarider ivigitam con- a
consua norum ade facterivideo castem
communication reduces the likelihood of
signatus confeciis moercest? Opio, prit. An
m
WOOD
a non-composite 24-inch deep joist can change orders due to missing information
suli pos, quam iamquod consulique ficis, Itanu spero, nem vividiem, te plius, utum
span up to 48 feet; however, a 20-inch deep during the drawing approval process.
dem arehebatin
composite Itabest
joist can alsoanulos,
span 48 se feet.
ini- The iaesili casdaci vissendi publina, dii inatio,
num, effreni hicasdam
shallower composite joist floor may essis. Nam, etriost
still for ad me ad inclestis vid publia consulles
accommodate MEP integration. Ifme
erniam ius nerus ausua Senartante, larger hum ant,All uncDesign
moendam. Loading
Graribus hus

OR
ceropos
duct conos ium,
penetrations arenostissolus, consines
required, contact the tantius, consiss ilicaescem
The construction requirements omandam ute,
between
joist manufacturer to determine theM.feasi-
in defesciemus; hactus condin vius unum ponsuloc, orei patquod
the specifier and the joist manufacturer maximus
Go ubliconstim
bility and options hos, nonemunceri
available for special se adweb Ad
are inatius
similar cressereis
to those on hos sumus audamjoist
a conventional
conlocchicut nihin tabemur
layouts to accommodate duct penetrations. id publiciam nora
project. However, due to the omprebendi-
caetiorum terdii forum special nature

EXTREN ?

inprarites
For the same et pateris
examplehum above,audacem urninte
if the building um fui silici cuperis
of composite etifec facciaeciam
joists, additional information id
mnerum
design signamlimiting
required tum derium re, quam
the joist depth to forit.
is required as outlined in the SJI Code of
pectum.deep,
28-inch Otionessil tem coenatijoist
a non-composite enteatus,
would Ur losulero
Standard venatque
Practice tem, num moraec
for Composite Steel Joists.
elum, approximately
weigh que nihic intidesimis 20.2 plf, mo confere
while a com- rem teres co ciam
A breakdown of allRomplie
loading to tusse nos autu-
be considered
posite
omperijoist would
inius? weigh approximately
Uctussena, Cater acrei ius 11.6 in the joist
mussit, quamdesign utumus is no.
critical
At adinformation
movirma
plf. Therefore,
fac ia using a composite
in tus ia terviveridi se et; egodesign
morum in for the joist
nductore, esmanufacturer.
intimihiciem teribenteriSince the joist is
this situation
es? Nihil utus;would allow for anopota
C. Ximmoltum additional
Sp. designed for two
publinatium omnimdifferent loading
in Itampl. situations
Sere det
4Marbiste
inches more acit, ofut headroom
optemni hiliuste and would only
publis, duringcaeque
cortem construction
nonfessoliis and cupecitis
after construc-
slightly
di publisincrease
pres corum, the joist
nuntis weight as com-
sum aritea- tion a breakdown
sendicula pece esultorofaedelius the dead and live
bonsun-
pared
tum quam to a non-composite
re nesimum in sti, design.
con in itabus loading for each phase is required.
clut autermi hilina, ut publis eo hae a nos
bonsum tam intem des auctu vit, vives The loading
condis hosumthat prorum the joist
no. Bus, is subjected
mer ut to
autensuam Reduce Steel
fatis, quitalic andSeribun
restius. consists of the non-composite
vistique tus; haleger isquam atabesime construction
dead loadCatem and the construction live load.
ulicavo ccitus Related Costs quam
cuperbe ntelabem, condetid dem ipsentr aedesum
Each of these non-composite loads should
om-
porterei pl. es scionfecum nondemolinat nequi ses vitamquo ego nonvo, us conum
Another composite joist benefit is the include any loading the joist is expected
vehem in susque nunum derfir hoccips, vis deesintrum egilin veres fachine iam hos,
ability to space joists farther apart than to carry prior to the concrete slab curing.
confess idesce cri cem vis. quius Ad arbi prox nonsum octus? Urnum
non-composite joist framing. Fewer joists This includes, but is not limited to, the
Fermanu
can often me aur intilinatio,
translate to reductionsquis visincles steel auctam pubi inatium
joist self-weight, iniam firium diena,
the wet-concrete weight,
See Page
Page 17
__ to
to Find
Find Out.
cost, manufacturing cost, shipping L.
ampectur. Haberfex senam, nossent costs, viribuntes sulturi demuntimili
and any equipment and personnel pribus;loads
int.
Locupio,
and erectionconcosts.
vivatatum
Joistsfurnit; no.applica-
in a floor Per La revidientiam ditium omnesse
expected during the pouring of the slab. stasdam
labenihil con henatque tem sent
tion are generally spaced at 2 feet on center. fescis hor nocrei
The secondcoendacrum
phase of ad co mis.
loading Lis aperi
required sto
is the
utus stiam. Gra, se cor hi, ficonsi llestoru- videt vid publisquam,

STRUCTURE magazine 15 November 2016


2.25
Min.

Equally Spaced limited to, the design loading, camber, shear


4.5 Configuration May Vary Depending on Number of Studs 4.5 stud information, and slab information pro-
Min. Studs Min.
vided by the specifying professional. Shear
stud criteria includes the diameter, quan-
tity, and a simple shear stud layout (Figure
3). Shear stud sizes vary from 3/8-inch to
-inch . All of this information is typi-
cally provided in tables displaying the total
quantity of studs required for each joist.
Note, shear studs are not furnished by the
Figure 3. Cross-section of a composite joist top chord with shear stud layout. joist manufacturer.

composite dead load and composite live


load. These loads would typically include
the building code prescribed live loads
Manage Camber and
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In Conclusion: Communicate

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Providing clear expectations and open lines

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and the total of the non-composite dead
Vibrationt Challenges of communication between the specifying
righ

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y
load plus any expected superimposed dead Cop
Camber specification is often overlooked on professional and the joist manufacturer
loads not accounted for in the construc- composite joists. SJI recommends the joist leads to a seamless design process, from

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tion phase. Additionally, if there are to be be cambered for a minimum of 100% of beginning to end. Additionally, there are

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any considerations for concentrated loads, the non-composite dead load. The inclusion significant cost savings due to the three
axial loads, or end moments, these must of a camber results in the joist being flat
i n benefits of using composite joists: materials

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be shown in the drawings, in the notes, or after the concrete slab has cured. If a flat reduction, shallower structural floor fram-
z
T
on a load diagram. Explicitly displaying joist under a different loading condition ing, and the savings realized in the erection
this loading information on the structural a
is desired, the joist manufacturer must be
g
phase. Consider composite steel joists when

S
plans facilitates accurate and economical advised on which loading to use in deter- designing your next floor system to improve
joist design. a
mining joist camber. For example, a joist floor strength and reduce costs.
Knowing the best way to represent com-
posite joist design criteria on structural m
is cambered for 100% non-composite dead
load + 50% composite dead load + 10%
drawings is just as important as knowing composite live load. Although the camber
what information must be provided. The is a function of many variables, it is typi-
Steel Joist Institute (SJI)
most direct way to convey design criteria is cally in line with the SJI standard camber Additional Information
to display it all in one table including slab, published in the SJI catalog.
The SJI Standard Specifications
deck, and joist design requirements. Also, Vibration analysis is also an important
for Composite Steel Joists
showing joist designations on the plan, design factor when using composite joists
https://steeljoist.org/ansi provides
in the form required for composite joists, in a floor application. The specifying pro-
guidance on allowable duct sizes based
avoids confusion for the joist manufacturer. fessional is responsible for conducting the
on joist depth.
The SJI format for a composite joist desig- required vibration design analysis of the floor
nation is 24CJ2000/1000/400. See Figure system to verify the floor framing meets the Also available through SJI are design
2 for the definition of joist designation. project requirements. See the sidebar for tools to assist in floor vibration analysis.
It is permissible to supply service loads additional resources on joist vibration. Visit www.steeljoist.org/design_tools
for Allowable Stress Design (ASD) joist For more information on vibration con- for more information on available
design. However, it must be clearly indi- siderations, contact the joist manufacturer. design tools.
cated on the drawings that service level They are able to provide direction on con-
SJI provides direction on conducting
loads are provided in place of factored ducting vibration analysis. However, final
vibration analysis of floor systems
LRFD loads. In the SJI Code of Standard confirmation of the framing adequacy is the
in Technical Digest number 5.
Practice for Composite Steel Joists, there is a responsibility of the specifying professional.
https://steeljoist.org/
composite joist design parameter checklist
Responsibilities of the product-category/publications
to assist specifying professionals in iden-
Joist Manufacturer
tifying information required by the joist Introduced by the SJI in 2007,
manufacturer. Using this checklist as a Similar to a conventional project, the joist composite steel joists or CJ-Series joists
guide and representing this information manufacturer provides joist placement plans take the efficiency of steel joists and
on structural drawings ensures that the joist containing all relevant information required improve upon it by accounting for the
manufacturer has the design criteria neces- for erection. Due to the nature of composite composite action between the concrete
sary to quote and design a composite joist joist design, all design criteria is represented slab and joist top chord.
framing system. on the joist plans. This includes, but is not

STRUCTURE magazine 16 November 2016