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Building L

ighter, shallower, and cheaper: com-

posite steel joist floor systems can save
Shear Studs Are Key Difference
costs, save materials, and optimize Composite joists are manufactured open-web

space. These cost-saving reasons for steel trusses used to support floors and roofs
designing a composite steel joist floor system are with a structural concrete slab. The main dif-
described in depth along with how these proven ference between composite and non-composite
systems are best coordinated between the specifier joists is that shear studs are attached through
and the joist manufacturer. the composite steel deck to the joist top chord
updates and information
(Figure 3, page 16 ). A composite section is cre-
on structural materials ated between the slab and the joist top chord
Lighter Materials Reduce Costs after the concrete is poured and cured. This
When joists are supporting a concrete slab, the composite action allows for the use of a lighter
specification of composite joists as opposed to joist. The reduction in weight is due to design-
standard Steel Joist Institute (SJI) non-composite ing the joist to withstand only construction
joists should be investigated, because they are loading with no strength contribution from the
lighter. Potential weight savings can be deter- slab and then designing
the joist top chord as a

mined by using the project-specific design loads in
conjunction with Load Resistance Factor Design

Joist Total Load (plf) Live Load Joist
(LRFD), composite steel joist weight tables, and Span Factored Service (plf) Joist
the joist manufacturers economic joist design (ft.) (plf)

LRFD ASD 1/240 1/360
F 190 127 96 64 20K3 5.5
table. Used in floor construction
ht applications,

F 253 169 136 91 22K4 6.4
composite joists improve the F 277 185 163 109 24K4 6.5
efficiency and advantages of

F 285 190 153 102 22K5 7.0

Three Benefits of the non-composite joists. For F 312

F 340

example, accounting for
Composite Steel Joist
F 370 247 235 157 26K6 7.8
the concrete slab adds extra
i n F 399 266 266 183 28K6 7.9

strength, allowing the joist
F 412 275 261 174 26K7 8.3
F 445 297 297 203 28K7 8.4

top chord to be smaller and
therefore, reducing material, because the joist
F 478
F 492

By Angelo Nieves, P.E. alone does not support full design loads.
F 529 353 353 256 30K8 9.3
F 535 357 357 241 28K9 9.9
Composite joists are typically designed using
the LRFD design method to be consistent with
the concrete slab design. For example, consider a
F 576
40 F 589
F 636
joist spanning 40 feet, spaced at 4 feet on center, F 657 438 438 315 30K10 11.6
F 711 474 474 368 32LH07 12.8
subject to 25-psf non-composite/construction F 771 514 514 400 32LH08 14.2
dead load, 50-psf composite superimposed dead F 793 529 529 360 28LH07 15.4
load and 100-psf composite live load. Using the F 967 645 645 500 32LH09 16.8
F 1069 713 713 552 32LH10 18.1
appropriate LRFD factors, the total load to be F 1146 764 764 514 28LH10 20.2
carried by the joist is 1000 plf. A non-composite F 1171 781 781 604 32LH11 19.9
Angelo Nieves is the Assistant joist design shows a 32LH10 is the most eco- F 1228 819 819 549 28LH11 22.8
Engineering Manager at the nomical at 18.1-plf joist weight. Conversely, a F 1377 918 918 705 32LH12 22.8
F 1407 938 938 628 28LH13 24.6
New Millennium Building composite joist design shows the same 32-inch F 1534 1023 1023 784 32LH13 25.8
Systems, Lake City, Florida deep joist would weigh only 11.2 plf, which is a F 1581 1054 1054 807 32LH14 26.8
Plant. He can be reached at 38% savings in the material per joist (Figure 1). F 1633 1089 1089 834 32LH15 27.0


Figure 1. An example of joist economic design tables and CJ weight tables.

14 November 2016
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composite joist designation. Us ver quam. Sata, con patis; no. Viteri
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composite section with the slab to withstand It is not uncommon for composite joists to
pertum num publicaestri prei patus. nonsust popteroris; nes mo inte cla num
the full-design loading after the concrete has be spaced 4 or 5 feet on center and beyond.
cured. Conversely, fur, que mo ce ereordientem
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designed to support the full nicut vigit.design
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build on the efficiency and benefits inherent ses nica- Scipios cote tum nem maximis,
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Shallower Floors Specifying Professional
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ADVERTISEMENTFor Advertiser Information, visit www.STRUCTUREmag.org

the joist. Also,
estraequam iam shear
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Cature consus joist joist system
publiu que tem guarantees
meAn depos, a smooth project life
horit. thereby expanding the span- cycle. Not only will this
nost L. Lariciam. Icam acchuid nihilicminimize
i te,

to-depth ratio limit to 30vid times the joist during the approval process, but complete
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is, C. Fuitu mora erdii publium in sesdepth
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headroom can be achieved with no loss in the quoting phase. Most importantly, clear
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the length of the joist span. For example,
vit; Catquodius? Rarider ivigitam con- a
consua norum ade facterivideo castem
communication reduces the likelihood of
signatus confeciis moercest? Opio, prit. An
a non-composite 24-inch deep joist can change orders due to missing information
suli pos, quam iamquod consulique ficis, Itanu spero, nem vividiem, te plius, utum
span up to 48 feet; however, a 20-inch deep during the drawing approval process.
dem arehebatin
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duct conos ium,
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joist manufacturer to determine theM.feasi-
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the specifier and the joist manufacturer maximus
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are inatius
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project. However, due to the omprebendi-
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For the same et pateris
examplehum above,audacem urninte
if the building um fui silici cuperis
of composite etifec facciaeciam
joists, additional information id
design signamlimiting
required tum derium re, quam
the joist depth to forit.
is required as outlined in the SJI Code of
28-inch Otionessil tem coenatijoist
a non-composite enteatus,
would Ur losulero
Standard venatque
Practice tem, num moraec
for Composite Steel Joists.
elum, approximately
weigh que nihic intidesimis 20.2 plf, mo confere
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omperijoist would
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this situation
es? Nihil utus;would allow for anopota
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tum quam to a non-composite
re nesimum in sti, design.
con in itabus loading for each phase is required.
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Each of these non-composite loads should
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Another composite joist benefit is the include any loading the joist is expected
vehem in susque nunum derfir hoccips, vis deesintrum egilin veres fachine iam hos,
ability to space joists farther apart than to carry prior to the concrete slab curing.
confess idesce cri cem vis. quius Ad arbi prox nonsum octus? Urnum
non-composite joist framing. Fewer joists This includes, but is not limited to, the
can often me aur intilinatio,
translate to reductionsquis visincles steel auctam pubi inatium
joist self-weight, iniam firium diena,
the wet-concrete weight,
See Page
Page 17
__ to
to Find
Find Out.
cost, manufacturing cost, shipping L.
ampectur. Haberfex senam, nossent costs, viribuntes sulturi demuntimili
and any equipment and personnel pribus;loads
and erectionconcosts.
Joistsfurnit; no.applica-
in a floor Per La revidientiam ditium omnesse
expected during the pouring of the slab. stasdam
labenihil con henatque tem sent
tion are generally spaced at 2 feet on center. fescis hor nocrei
The secondcoendacrum
phase of ad co mis.
loading Lis aperi
required sto
is the
utus stiam. Gra, se cor hi, ficonsi llestoru- videt vid publisquam,

STRUCTURE magazine 15 November 2016


Equally Spaced limited to, the design loading, camber, shear

4.5 Configuration May Vary Depending on Number of Studs 4.5 stud information, and slab information pro-
Min. Studs Min.
vided by the specifying professional. Shear
stud criteria includes the diameter, quan-
tity, and a simple shear stud layout (Figure
3). Shear stud sizes vary from 3/8-inch to
-inch . All of this information is typi-
cally provided in tables displaying the total
quantity of studs required for each joist.
Note, shear studs are not furnished by the
Figure 3. Cross-section of a composite joist top chord with shear stud layout. joist manufacturer.

composite dead load and composite live

load. These loads would typically include
the building code prescribed live loads
Manage Camber and
In Conclusion: Communicate

Providing clear expectations and open lines

and the total of the non-composite dead
Vibrationt Challenges of communication between the specifying

load plus any expected superimposed dead Cop
Camber specification is often overlooked on professional and the joist manufacturer
loads not accounted for in the construc- composite joists. SJI recommends the joist leads to a seamless design process, from

tion phase. Additionally, if there are to be be cambered for a minimum of 100% of beginning to end. Additionally, there are

any considerations for concentrated loads, the non-composite dead load. The inclusion significant cost savings due to the three
axial loads, or end moments, these must of a camber results in the joist being flat
i n benefits of using composite joists: materials

be shown in the drawings, in the notes, or after the concrete slab has cured. If a flat reduction, shallower structural floor fram-
on a load diagram. Explicitly displaying joist under a different loading condition ing, and the savings realized in the erection
this loading information on the structural a
is desired, the joist manufacturer must be
phase. Consider composite steel joists when

plans facilitates accurate and economical advised on which loading to use in deter- designing your next floor system to improve
joist design. a
mining joist camber. For example, a joist floor strength and reduce costs.
Knowing the best way to represent com-
posite joist design criteria on structural m
is cambered for 100% non-composite dead
load + 50% composite dead load + 10%
drawings is just as important as knowing composite live load. Although the camber
what information must be provided. The is a function of many variables, it is typi-
Steel Joist Institute (SJI)
most direct way to convey design criteria is cally in line with the SJI standard camber Additional Information
to display it all in one table including slab, published in the SJI catalog.
The SJI Standard Specifications
deck, and joist design requirements. Also, Vibration analysis is also an important
for Composite Steel Joists
showing joist designations on the plan, design factor when using composite joists
https://steeljoist.org/ansi provides
in the form required for composite joists, in a floor application. The specifying pro-
guidance on allowable duct sizes based
avoids confusion for the joist manufacturer. fessional is responsible for conducting the
on joist depth.
The SJI format for a composite joist desig- required vibration design analysis of the floor
nation is 24CJ2000/1000/400. See Figure system to verify the floor framing meets the Also available through SJI are design
2 for the definition of joist designation. project requirements. See the sidebar for tools to assist in floor vibration analysis.
It is permissible to supply service loads additional resources on joist vibration. Visit www.steeljoist.org/design_tools
for Allowable Stress Design (ASD) joist For more information on vibration con- for more information on available
design. However, it must be clearly indi- siderations, contact the joist manufacturer. design tools.
cated on the drawings that service level They are able to provide direction on con-
SJI provides direction on conducting
loads are provided in place of factored ducting vibration analysis. However, final
vibration analysis of floor systems
LRFD loads. In the SJI Code of Standard confirmation of the framing adequacy is the
in Technical Digest number 5.
Practice for Composite Steel Joists, there is a responsibility of the specifying professional.
composite joist design parameter checklist
Responsibilities of the product-category/publications
to assist specifying professionals in iden-
Joist Manufacturer
tifying information required by the joist Introduced by the SJI in 2007,
manufacturer. Using this checklist as a Similar to a conventional project, the joist composite steel joists or CJ-Series joists
guide and representing this information manufacturer provides joist placement plans take the efficiency of steel joists and
on structural drawings ensures that the joist containing all relevant information required improve upon it by accounting for the
manufacturer has the design criteria neces- for erection. Due to the nature of composite composite action between the concrete
sary to quote and design a composite joist joist design, all design criteria is represented slab and joist top chord.
framing system. on the joist plans. This includes, but is not

STRUCTURE magazine 16 November 2016