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# General equations for round sections (substitute width for square section)

= )( ,

57,000
( ) = ,
1000

= 144,
2

= = 12 ,
32

12
= =  , =
2

= )( ,

= )( , ()

144 /
= , =
4

( ) = () ( )

( ) = ( )( )

= (1 )

( = )( )

( )

= ( )

+ ( ) + ( )

)(
1728 ( )
=
2
1728 ( ) ( )

2

## SoilStructure.com Lateral Foundation 2.0 Equations 1 of 3

Fixed head equations (M = 0)

144 /
= , =
4

( ) = (1 )

( ) = ( )

= (1 )

( = )( ( ))

( )
= 1 ( ) ( )
1

2

)(
1728 ( ) + ( )
=
4

## Induced Lateral Soil Pressures =

2(shear)(Lamda x)(e^-lamdax)(cos lamda x) + 2(Moment)(Lamda x)^2(e^-lamda x)(Cosine Lamda x)
________________________________________________________________________________
B

## where Kp is factored by a minimum of 1.33. (in

geotechnical engineering, we always factor the ultimate passive resistance of soils by 1.33-2.0)

## SoilStructure.com Lateral Foundation 2.0 Equations 2 of 3

Due to arching in soils, several studies have shown that the passive resistance is much greater
than the flange width or the pile/pier width. According to Caltrans Trenching & Shoring Manual,
Passive Wedge is equal to 2.0 in cohesive soils and 3.0 or slightly greater for granular soils.

2B 3B

The above passive wedge assumes that pile/pier spacing is 3.0B or greater. This passive
wedge cant exceed the pile spacing. For example, if the pile is 1 ft wide that is spaced 2 ft on
center and embedded in granular soils, passive wedge would indicate 3.0 However, since pile
center to center spacing is 2.0, passive wedge is limited to 2.0 and not 3.0.

Passive wedge can be computed more accurately as 0.08 x . is the soils angle of internal
friction. A passive wedge of about 2.5 is common for most soils.

The passive resistance is comprised of frictional and cohesive component. Even in granular
soils, it is possible to get some apparent cohesion. So one can have a Medium Dense SM soil
profile and through a direct shear test (ASTM D 3080) still get measurable cohesion.