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(1) young leaders, need to find the best way

Formed in accordance with the phrase structure following:

N (ADJ) (Pen)
seek, choose ...
leader, roads, ...
must, can, ...
best, great, ...
, therefore, this ...
From the rule phrase structure can be diagram generation trees as seen below (in


Description: C:\Users\Acer\Downloads\Bab 1 Hal 19.jpg

Young Leaders, need to find the best way.[19]

In theory standard Noam Chomsky, applying phrase structure as the above can be
charged the transformation to change it to his words. Of the sentences (1) can be
reduced sentences negative
(1b) young leaders does not have to find the best way
By applying the rule transformation negative. Exodus of the components syntax
without transformation called inner structure. After a transformation is named the
structure was born.
Different with components syntax, components phonology is interpretif. These
components to handle affairs related to the sound. The sound is a symbol orally
that is used by man for any reported that wants to be conveyed. With the English is
no sounds that nature universal, namely, that was found in any language also
(Jakobson, 1971). The sound vocal [a]tiles, [i], and [u] is vocal minimum system
that was found in every language. Language might have more than three vocal about
this, but there is no language in the world that has less than three vocal.
In components phonology not only listed the amount and kind a sound that is in a
language but also how sounds were set up a system in the language. Language-A, for
example, has the sound of the sound of others [s], [k], [t], [l], [p], [m], and [b)
who is also owned by language B. However, the rules (fonotaktik), the rules
governing how sounds, kiwi, with the English B make it possible for the sound
[s]tiles, [k], and (t) are at the end of each person's race, while in A not. Thus
the language B we find the words such as asked [skt) and masked [mskt] as already
mentioned, but in A forms such as this cannot possibly be. So with the English B
can be found (l) and (p) respectively, but not in A. We can find the words such as
help and pulp plant in language B but these words is not possible in A. In
contrast, in A language, English, nasal /eng (letter)/ can start a tribe as the
words having a coffee and sleepy, but with the English, the English language B,
this is not possible. There is no, for example, in English words such as ngik even
though there is a king or ngos and song.
Output that resulted by components syntax, such as the structure hidden in (1a),
then sent to components phonology to get interpretation phonological. In this
component inputs from components syntax is examined in phonological, namely,
observed that all the method phonological the language was kept. In the next
example (1a) on we see there is looking for. The word is made up of prefix (in
Indonesia) men- and root word search. Phonology component will see whether mixed
with men- with search that produce looking for, according to the regulation
fonotaktik our language. If there is a rare exception, like kulak and pen and it is
a loan shark, not pengulak, then the exception, there are listed in these
If there is no input from sintaktik component that contain forms phonological that
violate the rules the language so the word will be rejected or treated as foreign
words. So, if we find the word miss or ngos but whose language is English and the
words are surely will be rejected by components phonology because jejeran sound (m)
and (b) and the sound /?/ with the English language could not have started a word.
Or, the original word is and was treated as the word, for example, in foreign words
I really don't like miss Judie.
Components semantics devote himself to discuss the meaning. In these components the
word is not only given the meaning as was found in most dictionaries, but also
details the meaning of the so-called semantics features. The word bachelor, for
example, has also to be found are exasperated at: [+N], [+man], [+man], [+adults],
and [+has not been a marriage deed]. The word a virgin have (No. +N], [+man], [-a
man], [+adults], [+has not been a marriage deed], and also (No. +is still a
In certain matters should also be included features semantics that are related with
the elements syntax. The word to marry, for example, in addition have features [+V]
and [+transitif], also requires that perpetrators are men. So, for this word must
also added [+guilty man]. This is necessary to prevent the emergence of verse as
Tuti would marry Ahmad next week.
Like components phonology, components semantics is also interpretif. Exodus of the
components sintaktik included, in addition to components phonology, also sent to
components semantics to get interpretation semantics. In these components are a set
the semantics that used to determine whether input from components syntax is to
rule semantics that is in the language. When applying it produces inconsistencies
semantics and His words were to be anomulus; it means, could not be accepted in
terms of the meaning. Verse Tuti would marry Ahmad next week as exemplified on will
be rejected by components semantics as one of the features semantics to verb to
marry, namely, [+guilty man], had been violated.[21]
So do words:
(2) green horse us smoking a dozen lime.
(2) of course, can be produced by components syntax because of the order sintaktik
English this sentence would not violate the rules grammatical anything. However,
were sent to components semantics, this will be examined. Here seen that horses
have features semantics colors, but the color that is in a horse is black, white,
brown. There is no horses that black-green. Even If there is a horse that color is
green, he did not do what is called smoking rooms. Horses to eat, drink, diabetes,
and movement but do not smoke. Even If there is a horse weird who smoke, so that
they would not dirokok spheroid like orange.
It is not impossible that rule are exasperated at that is implemented, produces two
different meanings. If this happens, the words of this is ambiguous. See English
words are:
(3) Visiting mothers-in-law can't be a nuisance.
After this phrase is interpreted by components semantics found that there are two
possibilities meaning: (a) mother-in-law who was visiting we can entangle, or (b)
mother-in-law can visit menusutkan. With two reading material is then paragraph (3)
must have meaning double.
After a verse passing phonology components to get interpretation phonological and
simultaneously through components semantics to obtain interpretation semantics and
only then can we produce whatever we want.
Three components in the theory standard Noam Chomsky can be realized in chart 1
Noam Chomsky views about language, many changes. Standard theory was changed to the
so-called Revised Standard Theory of the 1970s, and then in the year of 1980, laid
low under a re-theory to Government and Bindings, which is often Midwest as the
theory GB.[22]
Description: C:\Users\Acer\Downloads\Bab 1 Hal 23.jpg[23]
Chart 1: Models Standard Noam Chomsky 1965

(Art) (Adj ~ mungkin) N" but "XP?X Comp" in which X is a main categories, for
example, N. In a NP, N always acted as their mother; in the Government Regulation,
P has always been a mother. This led to a typology languages, namely, the language
may be his mother's first (headfirst) or his mother's recent years (headlast).
Language allies Britain and English, for example, is his mother's first; meanwhile,
Japanese is his mother's recent years. Knowledge that a language, his mother's
first or later it is very important for the children in the business he gets
Second, in theory before GB there is too many different transformation, there is a
T-passive, T-interrogative, T-negative, etc.[24] Various this transformation has
also replaced to the 'move a'. Existed this transformation is: (a) what will be
moved, (b) the element that was transferred to which, (c) places that were left
behind will be given a thread (trace), and (d) of the transfer, meaning the local
wide coverage cannot be passed through a clause in which the original elements are
located. If we are given English word is The man who importers you is her uncle,
then we will not be able to reduce verse Who did the man importers you is her
uncle? Because the transfer world health organization outlook has passed through
the clause children in the world health organization which was originally were.
Third, the role leksikon extended. The structure hidden now effected by leksikal
features. The verb (Verb) is located, for example, is a V need (a) the
perpetrators, aug, (b) an entity that is placed, pat(ient), and also (c) the place
where entity is placed, Loc.. Verb looking for is V that requires aug, Pat, and
The four, keterbelajaran (learnability) simplified from some of the order to only a
few principles that were more powerful engine (powerful) and universal named
grammatical universal (Universal grammar, UG). To deal with the difference between
a common language with other languages, UG has a set parameters. Mother in the land
or mother in the background is an example of this parameter.
The Principles and parameters is kudrati, which means that any child has supplied
with the knowledge about this issue. Thus, the children only "correct" is what
language that is being acquired, follow these parameters or parameters. It is too
is why children do not need a long time to get their own language.
Theory GB now is replaced with the theory series that was named The Minimalist
Program (Noam Chomsky 1995). In theory deliver it no longer there is a difference
between the structure hidden vs structure was born. It is assumed that sentence
structure was sent down to finally terkonversikan into two types representation is
different: (1) Phonetic Form (PF) and (2) Logical Form (LF). [25] Therefore, a
grammatical points that reached the point keadekwatan observational (observational
adequacy) must cover (a) representation PF to show how the verse is spoken and (b)
representation LF to show the meaning verse. Derivations a single one of the Signs
that relates to a set computing operations or the structures produces syntax, at
the same time with computing PF well LF. Compute the structures PF converse syntax,
into the representation PF. Meanwhile, computing the structures LF convert such
syntax into the representation LF.
If representation PF only containing some of the same features as a phonetic can be
interpreted, and if representation LF also only containing some of the same
features as ethnicity are semantically can be interpreted, so in this kind of thing
UG was said to have been fulfilled principle of full interpretation (PFI). If
representation PF and representation both meet LF PFI then said that the derivation
centralised (converge). If representation PF and/or LF broke PFI, then derivation
is nabrak (crash).
Before a derivation to computing PF well LF, form leksikal leksikon beforehand from
need to be selected, and then through the merger constituents-constituents,
combined to form a diagram trees, with each word in diagram, have features
phonetics, semantics, and grammatical. Then, this should be revealed (spellout).
Radford provide a clearer picture thus schematic as follows (Radford 1997: 172 :
see also a.l. Bulbourethral Gland, 1992; Noam Chomsky 1996).
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If it is in example, the theory as above will be receiving words like Ahmad will
marry Tuti but rejected *Tuti will marry Ahmad. This happened because of the
rejection features semantics in the word wed that does not meet the requirements
LF. His Words Ahmad will mengkawini Tuti also will be rejected because prefix men-
with the marriage must produce wed and not mengkawini. In other words, *Tuti will
marry Ahmad and *Ahmad will marry both will Tuti nabrak, crash.

VI. Pragmatic
Remain Pragmatic perspective on language. Remain Pragmatic includes into the use of
language of unlimited interacting and remain pragmatic based nor other aspects in

B. Speech perception
Perceptions ujaran is not an easy thing done by man, because ujaran is an activity
that shot verbal without any time limit between one to another word.
When one talk sense of hearing or singing, we should be able to distinguish the
characteristic sound to the other. Sense of hearing to be able to catch and
understand the series sound vocal and the consonants form a narrative, fast-slow
discourse, and tone discourse that produced by a speaker. A probe tried in a
electronic media is required to have a sense in perception sounds that produced by
the candidate anchor. It has to be able to catch the accuracy sound vowel and
consonant. In addition, it has to be able to catch quickly- slowly, the pressure
this tone, as well as the candidate anchor. A commentator in the event singing
competition that have become popular in television was demanded to be able to catch
the accuracy tone that produced by the singers.
Based on the explanation above, the perception of sounds produced by talking are
categorized into two categories, namely
Perception toward the sound in the form of structural, namely vowel and consonant
Perception toward the noise that a quick-slow, bleached, pressure, and tone.[27]
The linguistic, sounds vowel and consonant sounds that we have heard called
segmental. The sound bhasa a quick-slow, bleached, pressure, and tone called bunyio
suprasegmental or prosodi.
Look at three ujaran follows: a) not the number, b) Open jackfruit c) is not
jackfruit, though third ujaran is different from its interpretation from one
another, in third , ujaran form this could be the same [bukanahka].
In addition, a sound is also not spoken in exactly the same each time the sound,
emerged. How a sound spoken influenced by an environment in which the sound is
located. The sound (b) in the word rush, for instance, is not exactly the same with
the sound [b) to the words blue . In the rush to the sound /b/ were influenced by
the sound /u/ that followed him so that it is only a few many there are elements
rounding the lips in the making this sound. In contrast, the noise of the period
was to speak with the lips widened in the blue because the sound /i/ is the sound
vocal home with her lips widen. [28]
However, man is still only can mempersepsi sounds language. Of course, this kind of
perception done through certain stages. Basically there are three stages in
processing perception sound (Clack & Clark, 1977) :
The auditori: At this stage people accept ujaran piece by piece. Ujaran was then
responded in terms of features akustiknya. Concepts like the articulation, how
articulation, features distingtif, and VOT[29] is very useful here because they
were protesting like this that separate the noise from the noise of the other.
Sounds in ujaran, we keep them in our memory auditori.[30]
The phonetic : sounds, then we identification. In the process our mental,we see,
for example is the sound was (No. +konsonantal], [+vois], [+nasal], etc. So is the
sound environment, : what is the sound were followed by vocal or by the consonants.
If by vocal, vocal about what kind - vocal front, vocal behind his back, vocal,
vocal low, etc. If it is not ujaran jackfruit , then we analyze the sound mental
/b/ first and determine the voice what we have heard that things such as the
articulation, how articulation, and features distingtifnya. Then votnya also note
that this is going to be VOT menetukan when vibrations on vocal cord that can
The phonological : At this stage our mental phonological rule applies to the suite
sound we hear for menetukan whether sounds earlier had to follow the fonotaktik
that in our language. For English, the sound /h/ could not have started a tribe
said. Because of that, "native English would not be associated with the vowels. If
there were the order this sound by the noise of the next, he surely would put the
sound with a loud noise in his face, not in his absence. Thus the sound suite
/b/, /?/, /h/, /i/, and /s/ will certainly be dipersepsi as beng and is , cannot be
and ngis.[31]