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FAMILIES OF CURVES 4. Straight line with slope and x-intercept equal.

Obtain the differential equation of the family of plane curves y


described.
1. Straight lines through the origin.
y

x
x
m=a
General Equation:
y = m(x - a)
where m = slope = arbitrary constant
General Equation: Subst. a = m,
y = mx y = m(x - m)
where m = slope = arbitrary constant dy = m dx
Differentiate, dy
m= = y
dy dx
y = m or m = Substitute,
dx
Substitue m, y = y (x - y)
dy y = xy (y)2
y= x
dx
(y)2 = xy y
y dx = x dy
y dx x dy = 0
5. Circles with centers at the origin.
2. Straight lines through the fixed point (h,k) ; h and k not to be
y General Equation :
eliminated.
x2 + y 2 = r 2
2x dx + 2y dy = 0
y
r x dx + y dy = 0
x
(h,k)

6. Circles with center on the x-axis.


y
General Equation :
General Equation:
(y - k) = m (x - h)
(x-h)2 + y2 = r2
Where m = slope = arbitrary constant
r Differentiate
Differentiate,
x 2(x + h) + 2yy = 0
dy = mdx
dy x h + 2yy = 0
m=
dx Differentiate
Substitute, 1 + (yy + yy) = 0
dy
(y - k) =
dx
(x - h) yy + (y)2 + 1 = 0
(y - k) dx = (x - h) dy
(y - k) dx - (x - h) dy = 0 6. Parabolas with vertex on the x-axis, with axis parallel to the y-axis,
and with distance from focus to vertex fixed as a.
3. Straight lines with slope and y-intercept equal.
y y

m=b x

General Equation :
y = mx + b General Equation:
where m = slope = arbitrary constant (x - h)2 = 4a (y - k)
Substitute b = m, Subst. k = 0
Y = mx + m (x - h)2 = 4ay EQ1
Differentiate, h = arbitrary constant
dy = m dx Differentiate,
dy 2(x - h) = 4ay
m=
dx (x - h) = 2ay
Substitute,
dy dy
(x - h)2 = 4a2 (y) 2
y= x+ Subst. in EQ1
dx dx
y dx = x dy + dy 4a2 (y) 2 = 4ay
y dx - (x + 1) dy = 0 a(y) 2 = y