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Heat Transfer Through Submerged Helical Coil In Agitated Vessel


Determination of coil side heat transfer coefficient through submerged helical coil in the vessel
under steady state conditions.


Tube coils offer a substantial amount of heat transfer area at a considerably low cost.
Coils have lower wall resistance & higher coil side HT coefficient. Because of turns of helix
geometry turbulence is generated inside the tube and hence the helical coil arrangements heat
transfer coefficient is better than corresponding straight coil. Advantages of a helical coil heat
exchanger lie in its compact size and less expensive


The tubes are coiled into helices in which inlet and outlet are conveniently located side
by side. When such coils are used with mechanical agitation they tend to increase the side wall
heat transfer coefficient. We use the Sieder Tate Correlation, and not the Dittus-Boelter Equation
because though the Dittus-Boelter is easier to solve, it is less accurate when there is a large
temperature difference across the fluid, i.e., when the temperature differences between bulk fluid
and heat transfer surface are large, this equation fails to give accurate results.

As far as mechanical agitation is concerned, heat transfer through the conducting surface
improves with agitation as contact with the heat transfer area is improved. The correlation
describing the Nusselt no. for heat transfer to fluids in vessel with mechanical agitation heated or
cooled by submerged coils is as follows:

Known as Chilton, Drew and Jebens correlation

d= inside diameter of the agitated vessel [m]
= coil side heat transfer coefficient [kcal/hr-m2-C]
L = agitator diameter [m]
N = agitator speed [rev/sec] or rev/hr
= density of fluid in the vessel [kg/m3]
K = thermal conductivity of fluid in the vessel [Kcal/hr-m-OC]
= viscosity of fluid in the vessel [kg/m-hr]
= viscosity of fluid in the vessel at coil wall temp. [kg/m-hr]

General heat transfer equation:

The thermal conductivity of pipe material is very high so the above expression is reduced to:

Combining overall heat transfer coefficient equation and the Sieder Tate equation, we get
straight line equation in term of and . Plot of v/s give the outer heat transfer


For calculating experimentally, we use the relation between U and N:

Taking logarithms we will get slope of ln U vs ln N as 2/3.

As far as the inside coefficient for the coil is concerned because of the increased
turbulence due to circulatory path the heat transfer coefficient will be greater than those
calculated for straight pipes. For ordinary use McAdams suggested that straight tube equations
such as Dittus-Boelter equation or Sieder-Tate equation can be used, when the value of h so
obtained is multiplied by 1 + 3.5[D/DC] where D is the inside diameter of the tube and DC is the
diameter of the coil helix.

1. Fill the given agitated vessel with the given test liquid to about 85-90 % of its capacity.
Start the agitator motor and set its speed at the desired r.p.m. by manipulating its speed
2. Connect the inlet of the cooling water circulation pump to cooling water supply line, and
start the pump. Adjust the flow rate of the cooling water at the desired level by adjusting
its speed regulator.
3. Start the heaters in the agitated vessel and set the desired temperature on the thermostat,
so as to keep temperature in the agitated vessel at a constant level. Throughout the given
set of readings keep this temperature at this level.
4. Allow sufficient time for the steady state to be attained. After steady state is attained note
down inlet and outlet temperatures of the cooling water. Also measure the flow rate of the
cooling water.
5. Take six readings for different flow rate of the cooling water keeping the agitation speed
6. Now keeping the flow rate constant, vary the agitator speed and note down inlet and
outlet temperatures of the cooling water.

Given Data:

Specific Heat of water(CP)=4.2 KJ/kgC

Thermal conductivity of water=k=0.58 W/mK

Viscocity of water at 30C -40C= 0.798 E-3 Ns/m2

Viscocity of water at 60C=0.464 E-3 Ns/m2

Liquid in the agitated vessel : Ethylene Glycol

Length of coil immersed in the agitated vessel=L=2.59 m

Inside diameter of the coil tube=di=0.009m

Outside diameter of the coil tube=do=0.012m


Temperature of liquid in the agitated vessel = .C

Part 1

Angular Speed of the agitator: . rpm

Cold fluid Flow Rate Cold fluid inlet Cold fluid oulet
(LPH) temperature t1 (C) temperature t2 (C)


Flow rate of cold water: . LPH

Cold fluid Inlet Cold fluid Outlet

S.No Agitator Speed (rpm) Temperature t1 (C) Temperature, t2 (C)

Calculation :

1. Mass flow-rate of water (m) = kg/sec

2. t=t2-t1=.C
3. Q = m x Cp x t = . kJ/sec
4. T1 = T t1
5. T2 = T t2
6. LMTD ( Tlm) = ( T1- T2)/ [ln( T1/ T2)]
7. U = Q/ (A x Tlm)
8. V = . m/sec

1. Plot [1/U] versus [1/v0.8] on the linear scale. Intercept of this graph will give the
experimental estimate of [1/ho].
2. Compare the experimental value of hi with that from Sieder Tate equation. Plot the two
heat transfer coefficient as function of Reynold no and 1/v0.8 to discuss the difference.
3. Determine the relationship among coil side heat transfer coefficient and volumetric
4. For constant cold fluid flowrate plot lnU vs ln N to determine relationship among hot
fluid side heat transfer coefficient and speed of agitation.