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Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

Si una accin ha tenido lugar en un momento determinado, pero este no es relevante (solo cuenta el hecho de que la accin
haya sucedido), se emplea el pretrito perfecto.
Ej. I have been to New England.
(He estado en Nueva Inglaterra.)

Este tiempo verbal suele ir acompaado por adverbios como 'ever', 'never', 'yet', 'still', 'always', 'already', etc.
Ej. I have never been to Peru.
(Nunca he estado en Per.)

El pretrito perfecto se construye con el verbo 'have' + el participio pasado del verbo principal.

La forma continua del pretrito perfecto ('present perfect continuous') se contruye combinando el pretrito perfecto de 'be'
('has' / 'have been') con el participio presente (la forma en -ing). Se emplea este tiempo verbal para una accin que ha
comenzado en el pasado y que contina en el momento presente.
Ej. I have been reading since two o'clock.
(He estado leyendo desde las dos en punto.)

'since' desde un momento preciso


'for' durante un tiempo preciso

El pretrito perfecto y su forma continua

Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

Present perfect simple and continuous compared - El pretrito perfecto frente a su forma continua

Se emplea el pretrito perfecto para expresar una accin acabada, cuyo resultado a menudo es tangible.
Ej.: I've biked over 5,000 miles this year.
(Este ao he hecho ms de 5.000 millas en
bicicleta.)

Con la forma continua del pretrito perfecto, en cambio, se expresa una accin que comenz en el pasado y que an no ha
finalizado. Aqu lo importante es la accin y no su resultado.
Ej.: I've been biking all morning.
(He estado toda la maana paseando en
bicicleta.)
Lee la explicacin gramatical y los ejemplos.

Present perfect
Translators have translated the books into other languages.
The story of 'The Old Man and the Sea' has moved many readers.
I have always wanted to climb Mount Everest.
Holly has been running daily for weeks.
She has been drinking enough water.

The present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

Este tiempo verbal se construye con el presente del verbo 'have' y el participio pasado del verbo que se conjuga (gone,
done, seen, talked, worked, etc.)
Este tiempo se utiliza (a menudo con 'ever', 'never', 'yet', 'still', 'always', 'already') cuando la accin ya ha ocurrido y no es
necesaria una referencia temporal (solo importa que haya ocurrido):
Ej.: I have never been to Peru. (Nunca he ido a Per.)
I've already done it. (Ya lo he hecho.)
She hasn't arrived yet. (Todava no ha llegado.)

Complete the sentences with the present perfect of the verbs in parentheses.

Never say never again


He never a finger to help us. (lift)
I this movie yet. (see)
you ever to the Grand Canyon? (be)
She still the work. (finish)
I've always he was a very touchy person. (think)

see US > UK f m
ver; (~ you soon) hasta pronto; (I ~) ya lo entiendo; (let's ~) vamos a ver; verbo irregular:
see, saw, seen Phrasal verbs: see about, see beyond, see off, see through, see to
be US > UK f m
ser, estar; verbo irregular: was, were, been
finish US > UK f m
terminar; acabar, completar, perfeccionar Phrasal verbs: finish off, finish up
finish off
terminar completamente; rematar, dejar de
finish up
acabar, terminar; (he ~ed ~ in third place) termin en tercera posicin
think US > UK f m
pensar, creer; (to ~ about sth) reflexionar sobre algo; (I think so) creo que s; verbo irregular: think, thought, thought
Grand Canyon US > UK f m

Grand Canyon, parque nacional en Arizona, Estados Unidos


still US > UK f m
todava, an; tranquilo; sin embargo
touchy US > UK f m
susceptible; delicado, emotivo, sentimental
lift US > UK f m
(brit.) ascensor; levantar; (ski~) telefrico, telesilla; (to give sb a ~) llevar a alguien en coche; (to ~ a finger) hacer un
esfuerzo
Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto
Para una accin que ha comenzado en el pasado y que se prolonga hasta el presente se utiliza el pretrito perfecto en lugar
del presente simple. 'Desde' es siempre 'since', pero 'since' expresa el momento en que se inicia la accin, mientras que 'for'
indica la duracin de la accin. Cuando la accin se prolonga en el pasado, se utiliza la forma continua:
Ej. I have been working for/at Mompaco for five years.
(He trabajado para Mompaco durante cinco aos.)
I have seen Tom three times since Tuesday.
(He visto a Tom tres veces desde el martes.)
I have been trying to call him since he came back from L.A.
(He estado intentando llamarle desde que regres de Los ngeles.)

Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto


The present perfect continuous - La forma continua del pretrito perfecto
La forma continua del pretrito perfecto se construye combinando el pretrito perfecto del verbo 'be' ('has'/ 'have been') y
el participio presente (la forma '-ing') del verbo conjugado.
Ej.: I have been working here for two years.
(Trabajo aqu desde hace dos aos.)

Fill in the blanks with the correct words.

Since when?
I'm sorry I'm late. have you been ?
How long have you at this firm?
She me four months.
So you've been this secret for half a year?
sorry US > UK f m

Perdn!, Cmo?; (to be ~) sentirlo; triste


late US > UK f m
tarde; (to be ~) retrasarse; (it's getting ~) se hace tarde
half US > UK f m

mitad; medio; (~ an hour) media hora

Completa los espacios con las palabras adecuadas.

Since when?
I'm sorry I'm late. How long have you been waiting?
How long have you been working at this firm?
She hasn't visited me for four months.
So you've been keeping this secret for half a year?

Use the words in parentheses to form correct sentences. Be careful! Should it be British or American
English?
Utiliza las palabras entre parntesis para formar frases correctas. Pero cuidado! Es ingls britnico o
americano?

Have you and did you


(I/just/have/breakfast)British English: I've just had breakfast.American English:
I just had lunch.
(I/already/see/that play)British English:

.American English: .

(your homework/do/yet?)British English: ?

American English: ?

(Paul/just/go/to work)British English:

.American English: .
Drag the missing words into the blanks.

Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon?


I ___ seen this movie yet.
She ___ still finished the work.
They ___ washed their windows in months.
She ___ visited me for four months.
We ___ heard the news yet today.
Completa los espacios con las palabras adecuadas.

Have you ever been to the Grand Canyon?


I haven't seen this movie yet.
She still hasn't finished the work.
They haven't washed their windows in months.
She hasn't visited me for four months.
We haven't heard the news yet today.

The present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

Este tiempo verbal se construye con el presente del verbo 'have' y el participio pasado del verbo que se conjuga (gone,
done, seen, talked, worked, etc.)
Este tiempo se utiliza (a menudo con 'ever', 'never', 'yet', 'still', 'always', 'already') cuando la accin ya ha ocurrido y no es
necesaria una referencia temporal (solo importa que haya ocurrido):

Ej.: I have never been to Peru. (Nunca he ido a Per.)

I've already done it. (Ya lo he hecho.)

She hasn't arrived yet. (Todava no ha llegado.)

Can you identify the present perfect? Read the text and highlight the verbs that are in the present
perfect.

What have you done?


I've been here before! I'm sure of it.
I don't think so, Bob.
But, I've seen that bar before.
You're imagining things, Bob.
I'm not! We've had a drink in that bar. I'm sure of it!
Bob, I haven't been to this bar. I can assure you.
Honey, look at the sign on the door! It's Hemingway's bar! You've been here! Bel
ieveme!
Oh my God, Bob! You're right! We had breakfast there this morning.
Puedes identificar el pretrito perfecto? Lee el texto y seala los verbos que estn en pretrito
perfecto.

What have you done?


I've been here before! I'm sure of it.
I don't think so, Bob.
But, I've seen that bar before.
You're imagining things, Bob.
I'm not! We've had a drink in that bar. I'm sure of it!
Bob, I haven't been to this bar. I can assure you.
Honey, look at the sign on the door! It's Hemingway's bar! You've been here! Believeme!
Oh my God, Bob! You're right! We had breakfast there this morning.

The present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

El pretrito perfecto se forma con el verbo 'have' / 'has' + participio pasado. Los verbos regulares forman el participio pasado
aadindole al infinitivo -ed. Usos:

1. Cuando una accin ya ha sido realizada y no hay una indicacin temporal precisa (suelen aparecer las expresiones 'just',
'already', 'notyet').

Ej.: I've just bought a laptop. (Acabo de comprar un ordenador porttil.)

2. Para saber si alguien ha hecho algo o si ha ocurrido algo alguna vez (suele usarse con 'ever' y 'never').

Ej.: Have you ever been to Durban? (Has estado alguna vez en Durban?)

3. Para una accin que comenz en el pasado y se sigue en curso ( con 'for', 'since).

Ej.: I've worked here since 1990. (Trabajo aqu desde 1990.)

Drag the right form of 'have' into the blanks.

American literature
Have you watched the movie 'For whom the Bell Tolls'?
Many students ___ discussed the books in school.
Translators ___ translated the books into other languages.
The story of 'The Old Man and the Sea' ___ moved many readers.
Hemingway's fiction ___ changed the image of American literature.
Hemingway's US > UK f m

genitivo de Hemingway
Hemingway
(Ernest ~) escritor norteamericano
discussed US > UK f m
pas. simp. y part. pasado de discuss
discuss
discutir, hablar de; (to ~ further) discutir con detalle
translated US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de translate


translate
traducir
moved US > UK f m

pasado simple y part. pasado de to move


move
mudarse, moverse; cambiar; mudanza, turno Phrasal verbs: move away, move in, move on, move up
changed US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de change


change
cambio; cambiar, hacer transbordo; modificacin, modificar, canjear
American US > UK f m

estadounidense, americano, -a; norteamericano, -a


Completa los espacios con la forma correcta de 'have'.

American literature
Have you watched the movie 'For whom the Bell Tolls'?
Many students have discussed the books in school.
Translators have translated the books into other languages.
The story of 'The Old Man and the Sea' has moved many readers.
Hemingway's fiction has changed the image of American literature.

The negated sentence in the present perfect - La negacin en el pretrito perfecto

Para negar los verbos en pretrito perfecto ('present perfect') se sita la negacin 'not' entre la forma correspondiente del
verbo 'have' y el participio pasado.
Formas abreviadas: 'haven't' y 'hasn't'.

Rewrite the sentences according to the example.

An American writer
Have you seen the paperback edition of Hemingway's book?No, I haven't seen the paperback edition of
Hemingway's book.
Have you read a book by Hemingway?

Have you seen the movie 'The Old Man and the Sea'?

Have you visited Hemingway's house in Key West?

Have you had a daiquiri Hemingway style?

paperback US > UK f m

libro de bolsillo, libro en rstica


Hemingway's US > UK f m

genitivo de Hemingway
Hemingway
(Ernest ~) escritor norteamericano
Key West US > UK f m

isla del sur de Florida


daiquiri US > UK f m

Daiquiri; cctel a base de ron

Complete the sentences in the present perfect using the verbs in parentheses.

A stamp in your passport


I always to climb Mount Everest. (want)
you ever to Tahiti? (be)
No, I time to go to Tahiti. (not have)
I just back from the Caribbean. (come)
He never to another country. (go)
The present perfect continuous - La forma continua del pretrito perfecto

La forma continua del pretrito perfecto se construye combinando el pretrito perfecto del verbo 'be' ('has'/ 'have been') y
el participio presente (la forma '-ing') del verbo conjugado.

Ej.: I have been working here for two years.

(Trabajo aqu desde hace dos aos.)

Completa los espacios segn corresponda empleando la forma continua del pretrito perfecto.

Stay healthy!
Holly daily for weeks.
She to the health club.
She enough water.
But she weight for a couple of weeks.
healthy US > UK f m
sano, bueno
stay US > UK f m
estancia; quedarse, alojarse; permanencia, permanecer Phrasal verbs: stay ahead
stay ahead
permanecer delante, estar a la cabeza
daily US > UK f m
diariamente
health club US > UK f m

centro de deportes, gimnasio


gaining US > UK f m
part. presente del verbo to gain
gain
ganancia, beneficio; ganar; vencer, lograr; (to ~ weight) engordar, ganar peso

Completa los espacios segn corresponda empleando la forma continua del pretrito perfecto.

Stay healthy!
Holly has been running daily for weeks.
She has been going to the health club.
She has been drinking enough water.
But she has been gaining weight for a couple of weeks.
The present perfect continuous - La forma continua del pretrito perfecto

La forma continua del pretrito perfecto se construye combinando el pretrito perfecto del verbo 'be' ('has'/ 'have been') y
el participio presente (la forma '-ing') del verbo conjugado.

Ej.: I have been working here for two years.

(Trabajo aqu desde hace dos aos.)

Rewrite these sentences using the present perfect continuous.

Health problems
Kayla gave Holly advice about her health.Kayla has been giving Holly advice about her health.
Holly and Kayla ran together.

Holly tried to reduce her weight.

She did not drink enough water.

Did you work out hard enough?

?
Rewrite these sentences using the present perfect continuous.

I have been running


I ran last week.I have been running.
I went to the health club.

I tried to lose weight.

Did you drink enough water?

She gained weight.

.
sins US > UK f m

plural de sin; 3 pers. sing. del presente del verbo to sin


sin
pecado; pecar

Present perfect forms - Forma continua o no?


El pretrito perfecto se utiliza para acciones que han comenzado en el pasado y continan con interrupciones hasta el
presente. La forma continua del pretrito perfecto se utiliza cuando se quiere expresar el desarrollo de una accin que
empez en el pasado y contina sin interrupcin hasta el presente y posiblemente se prolongue en el futuro.

Drag the various verb forms into the blanks.

Weight problems
Holly 5 pounds in 2 months.
Holly weight since she started the wellness program.
She all night.
Holly nothing the whole day.
Holly for 10 minutes.
Holly 15 miles since last week.
She a lot about wellness lately.
She a book about wellness.
whole US > UK f m

todo, entero; totalidad; (a ~ lot bigger) mucho ms grande; on the whole


on the whole
en general
wellness US > UK f m

bienestar, salud
lately US > UK f m
ltimamente, recientemente, desde hace poco; forma adverbial de late
late
tarde; (to be ~) retrasarse; (it's getting ~) se hace tarde
Desplaza las formas verbales segn corresponda.

Weight problems
Holly has lost 5 pounds in 2 months.
Holly has been losing weight since she started the wellness program.
She has been eating all night.
Holly has eaten nothing the whole day.
Holly has been running for 10 minutes.
Holly has run 15 miles since last week.
She has been reading a lot about wellness lately.
She has read a book about wellness.

Fill in the correct form of the verb in parentheses.

What's the matter?


Holly unhappy. (be)
She 5 pounds since the holidays. (gain)
But she to lose weight. (try)
When you to lose weight, you have to eat less fat. (try)
you the new diet pills? (try)
They very effective. (be)
Holly weight continually since she towork in the fast food restaurant.
(gain, start)
Completa las frases con la forma correcta de los verbos entre parntesis.

What's the matter?


Holly isunhappy. (be)
She has gained5 pounds since the holidays. (gain)
But she 's tryingto lose weight. (try)
When you 're tryingto lose weight, you have to eat less fat. (try)
Haveyou triedthe new diet pills? (try)
They 'revery effective. (be)
Holly has been gainingweight continually since she startedtowork in the fast food restaurant.
(gain, start)

Rewrite these sentences using the present perfect continuous form of the verbs in parentheses.

What's been going on recently?


She very nice clothes lately. (wear)
He a bit strangely recently. (act)
I very fit recently. (keep)
She jewelry at Tiffany's a lot lately. (buy)
Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

El pretrito perfecto se construye con el presente del verbo 'have' y el participio pasado del verbo principal.

Ej.: I have worked. She has worked.

Aunque esta forma existe en espaol (he trabajado), no se utiliza en los mismos casos. En ingls se utiliza para expresar:
1. Una accin indeterminada en el pasado. Indica que se ha producido una accin y casi siempre va acompaada de
'already', 'always', 'ever', 'just', 'never', 'still' o 'yet'.
2. Una accin que comenz en el pasado y que todava no ha terminado en el presente.
Complete the sentences with the present perfect of the verbs in parentheses.

Have you ever ...?


He has always completed his projects on time. (always, complete)
Have you to India? (ever, travel)
He's not coming. I've him. (already, ask)
I have this museum. (never, visit)
Has she the work ? (yet, finish)
She hasn't my letter. (still, answer)
It has raining. (stop)

always US > UK f m

siempre
complete US > UK f m

completo, acabado; terminado; completar, terminar


ever US > UK f m
alguna vez; siempre
travel US > UK f m

viajar; (~s) viajes


already US > UK f m
ya, listo
ask US > UK f m

precio de venta, preguntar; (to ~ for sth) pedir algo; informarse


yet US > UK f m

ya, an, todava; hasta ahora; (not ~) todava no


finish US > UK f m

terminar; acabar, completar, perfeccionar Phrasal verbs: finish off, finish up


finish off
terminar completamente; rematar, dejar de
finish up
acabar, terminar; (he ~ed ~ in third place) termin en tercera posicin
still US > UK f m
todava, an; tranquilo; sin embargo
answer US > UK f m

respuesta, contestacin; contestar, responder; (to ~ the door) ir a abrir la puerta


stop US > UK f m

parada; parar; terminar, dejar de, impedir, detener


raining US > UK f m
part. presente del verbo to rain
rain
lluvia; llover
coming US > UK f m

venida, llegada; part. presente de come


come
venir; aparecer; verbo irregular: come, came, come Phrasal verbs: come across, come around, come back, come
between, come in, come up
Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

El pretrito perfecto se construye con el presente de 'have' para todas las personas + participio pasado, excepto para la
3 persona del singular ('he', 'she' e 'it').

Ej.: It has turned out...

(Ha resultado ...)

Mark the correct sentence.

Have you ever been lonely?


Her article still hasn't been published.
Her article still haven't been published.

I always been a bit unhappy, but I have never admitted it.


I've always been a bit unhappy, but I've never admitted it.

She's already helped me ten times. I can't ask her again.


She'll already helped me ten times. I can't ask her again.

They don't have convinced him to change his mind yet.


They haven't convinced him to change his mind yet.
Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

A continuacin se citan algunos verbos irregulares:

buy: bought bought make: made made

come: came come pay: paid paid

do: did done put: put put

drive: drove driven say: said said

have: had had see: saw seen

give: gave given sell: sold sold

go: went gone throw: threw thrown

know: knew known write: wrote written

El pasado simple es la segunda forma, el participio de pasado es la ltima: 'he has given', 'he has written'.

Complete the sentences in the present perfect using the verbs in parentheses.

Bills, nothing but bills


Have you paid the telephone bill yet? (pay)
Where's Angus? He just
to the grocery store to get some vegetables. (go)

But I've already some food for tonight! (buy)

You still a letter to Paul to say thank you. (not write)

Yes I have, but where is it? I hope you it away. (not throw)
paid US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de pay


pay
remuneracin, paga, sueldo; pagar; abonar, compensar; verbo irregular: pay, paid, paid Phrasal verbs: pay back, pay
for, pay off, pay up
bill US > UK f m
factura, cuenta, proyecto de ley; billete; facturar
grocery US > UK f m

comestibles; (- store) tienda de comestibles/ultramarinos


hope US > UK f m

esperanza; esperar
away US > UK f m

lejos de, fuera; ausente; (it's 2 km ~) est a 2 km. de aqu


go US > UK f m

ir, irse; (to ~ in for sth) presentarse a, dedicarse a, ser aficionado a; (to ~ about sth) concernir, propagarse,
emprender; verbo irregular: go, went, gone Phrasal verbs: go after, go ahead, go along, go away, go back, go back
on, go down, go for, go into, go on, go out, go over, go with
buy US > UK f m
compra, comprar; adquirir; verbo irregular: buy, bought, bought
write US > UK f m

escribir; verbo irregular: write, wrote, written Phrasal verbs: write down, write off, write out, write to, write up
throw US > UK f m
lanzar; (to ~ away) tirar, derrochar; verbo irregular: throw, threw, thrown

Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

El participio de pasado de:


choose: chosen

drink: drunk

eat: eaten

find: found

get: gotten

Click on the blank until you see the correct verb form.

Oh, for a frozen pizza!


Has Clara a nice restaurant yet?
Yeah, she's just a nice place by the beach.
Is she talking about 'Sea Food'? Because I've
there and to be honest,the food isn't very good.
Really? Clara said that it has good reviews.
Okay then. Let's go, eh? Who's driving?
Well, you, naturally.
Eh, I'm afraid I can't. I've just three beers.
said US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de say


say
decir; verbo irregular: say, said, said
reviews US > UK f m

plural de review; 3 pers. sing. del pres. de to review


review
crtica, comprobacin, repaso; comprobar; estudio, reunin, discutir, pasar revista
afraid US > UK f m

miedoso; (to be ~) temerse, tener miedo de; temeroso, tmido

Pulsa sobre los espacios hasta que reconozcas la forma verbal adecuada.

Oh, for a frozen pizza!


Has Clara founda nice restaurant yet? Yeah, she's just chosen
a nice place by the beach.
Is she talking about 'Sea Food'? Because I've eatenthere and to be honest,the food isn't very good.
Really? Clara said that it has gottengood reviews.
Okay then. Let's go, eh? Who's driving?
Well, you, naturally.
Eh, I'm afraid I can't. I've just drunkthree beers.

Present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

Para una accin que ha comenzado en el pasado y que se prolonga hasta el presente se utiliza el pretrito perfecto en lugar
del presente simple. 'Desde' es siempre 'since', pero 'since' expresa el momento en que se inicia la accin, mientras que 'for'
indica la duracin de la accin. Cuando la accin se prolonga en el pasado, se utiliza la forma continua:
Ej. I have been working for/at Mompaco for five years.

(He trabajado para Mompaco durante cinco aos.)


I have seen Tom three times since Tuesday.
(He visto a Tom tres veces desde el martes.)
I have been trying to call him since he came back from L.A.
(He estado intentando llamarle desde que regres de Los ngeles.)

Rewrite these sentences using the present perfect continuous and the words in parentheses.

Since when?
Frank is reading the newspaper. (two hours)

I am waiting in front of the door here. (five o'clock)

Brenda lives in Cleveland. (three years)

You are phoning Virginia in Venezuela. (I arrived home)

Present perfect simple and continuous compared - El pretrito perfecto frente a su forma continua

Se emplea el pretrito perfecto para expresar una accin acabada, cuyo resultado a menudo es tangible.
Ej.: I've biked over 5,000 miles this year.
(Este ao he hecho ms de 5.000 millas en

bicicleta.)

Con la forma continua del pretrito perfecto, en cambio, se expresa una accin que comenz en el pasado y que an no ha
finalizado. Aqu lo importante es la accin y no su resultado.
Ej.: I've been biking all morning.

(He estado toda la maana paseando en

bicicleta.)

Put the correct form of the verb in the blank. The auxiliary 'have' has already been filled in for you.

We don't know what we've done


'Your clothes are full of oil.' 'Yes, I've the car.'
I've ten cars this week.
She's tired because she's on that report for weeks.
She's only two reports since she started the job.
Completa los espacios con la forma conjugada del verbo. Para ayudarte hemos aadido el auxiliar
'have'.

We don't know what we've done


'Your clothes are full of oil.' 'Yes, I've been repairing the car.'
I've repaired ten cars this week.
She's tired because she's been working on that report for weeks.
She's only written two reports since she started the job.
repairing US > UK f m
part. presente del verbo to repair
repair
reparacin; reparar, arreglar; (in good/bad ~) en buen/mal estado
repaired US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de repair


repair
reparacin; reparar, arreglar; (in good/bad ~) en buen/mal estado
working US > UK f m
trabajador, activo; part. presente de work
work
trabajo; trabajar, funcionar; empleo Phrasal verbs: work for, work on, work out, work up, work with
written US > UK f m

escrito; part. pasado de write


write
escribir; verbo irregular: write, wrote, written Phrasal verbs: write down, write off, write out, write to, write up
worked US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de work


work
trabajo; trabajar, funcionar; empleo Phrasal verbs: work for, work on, work out, work up, work with
writing US > UK f m
escritura, caligrafa; part. presente de write
write
escribir; verbo irregular: write, wrote, written Phrasal verbs: write down, write off, write out, write to, write up

Drag the correct words into the blanks.

How long?
I've been for this company for five years.
She's been the newspaper since two o'clock.
We've been in Los Angeles since 1992.
We've been about it for three months now. It's time to do something!
How long have you been to reach him on the phone?
How long have you been tennis?

Completa los espacios con las palabras adecuadas.

How long?
I've been working for this company for five years.
She's been reading the newspaper since two o'clock.
We've been living in Los Angeles since 1992.
We've been talking about it for three months now. It's time to do something!
How long have you been trying to reach him on the phone?
How long have you been playing tennis?

The present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

El pretrito perfecto se forma con el verbo 'have' / 'has' + participio pasado. Los verbos regulares forman el participio pasado
aadindole al infinitivo -ed. Usos:

1. Cuando una accin ya ha sido realizada y no hay una indicacin temporal precisa (suelen aparecer las expresiones 'just',
'already', 'notyet').

Ej.: I've just bought a laptop. (Acabo de comprar un ordenador porttil.)

2. Para saber si alguien ha hecho algo o si ha ocurrido algo alguna vez (suele usarse con 'ever' y 'never').
Ej.: Have you ever been to Durban? (Has estado alguna vez en Durban?)

3. Para una accin que comenz en el pasado y se sigue en curso ( con 'for', 'since).

Ej.: I've worked here since 1990. (Trabajo aqu desde 1990.)

Drag the correct verb forms into the blanks.

Economic activity
Since 1995, the state three billion dollars on a satellitetelecommunications project.
The entrepreneur two million dollars to his old school during theholidays to set
up a multimedia laboratory.
This developing nation ten billion dollars so far from theInternational Monetary
Fund for road construction.
The shareholders said that the board a lot of money on travel andentertainment last year.

Desplaza los verbos segn corresponda.

Economic activity
Since 1995, the state has spent three billion dollars on a satellitetelecommunications project.
The entrepreneur gave two million dollars to his old school during theholidays to set
up a multimedia laboratory.
This developing nation has borrowed ten billion dollars so far from theInternational Monetary
Fund for road construction.
The shareholders said that the board wasted a lot of money on travel andentertainment last year.

spent US > UK f m
gastado, utilizado; pas. simp. y part. pasado de spend
spend
gastar, pasar; verbo irregular: spend, spent, spent
gave US > UK f m

pas. simp. de give


give
dar; regalar; verbo irregular: give, gave, given Phrasal verbs: give away, give back, give in, give out, give up
borrowed US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de borrow


borrow
pedir o tomar prestado; prestar
wasted US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de waste


waste
derroche, desperdicio, basura; derrochar, desperdiciar, malgastar
given US > UK f m

dado; part. pasado de give


give
dar; regalar; verbo irregular: give, gave, given Phrasal verbs: give away, give back, give in, give out, give up
destroyed US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de destroy


destroy
destruir
entrepreneur US > UK f m

empresario -a
developing US > UK f m

part. presente de develop


develop
desarrollar; contraer; urbanizar; renovar, ampliar
shareholders US > UK f m

plural de shareholder
shareholder
accionario, accionista
said US > UK f m

pas. simp. y part. pasado de say


say
decir; verbo irregular: say, said, said
entertainment US > UK f m

diversin, entretenimiento; ocio; (~ industry) sector del ocio

The present perfect - El pretrito perfecto

El pretrito perfecto se forma con el verbo auxiliar 'have' en presente (en concordancia con el sujeto) y el participio del verbo
principal.

Escribe las siguientes frases en pretrito perfecto. Puedes utilizar tambin las formas abreviadas.

Transformations
I vacation in Florida.I've vacationed in Florida frequently.
We didn't hear the news this morning.

yet today.

I buy this paper daily.

before.

They don't wash their windows.

in months.
Use of the present perfect - El uso del pretrito perfecto

En el ingls britnico se utiliza el 'pretrito perfecto' para describir una accin que ya haya acontecido en el pasado y an
tenga consecuencias en el presente.
Ej.
I've lost my key. (Can you help me look for it?)
He perdido mis llaves. (Puedes ayudarme a buscarlas?)

En el ingls americano tambin se puede usar en este caso el pasado simple.


Ej.
I lost my key. (Can you help me look for it?)
Perd las llaves. (Puedes ayudarme a buscarlas?)

En el ingls britnico este ejemplo sera errneo, pero en EE. UU. ambas variantes son correctas.

Present perfect - Pretrico perfecto

Past tense - El pasado


For each pair of sentences, mark the one that is correct in British English.

I've lost my key!


I've lost my key. Can you help melook for it?
I lost my key. Can you help melook for it?
Oh no, the car has broken down.Let's push it.
Oh no, the car broke down. Let'spush it.

We have to stop. The light turnedred.


We have to stop. The light hasturned red.

I've lost my glasses. I can't find themanywhere.


I lost my glasses. I can't find themanywhere.

Yes, you can have the newspaper. Iread it all.


Yes, you can have the newspaper.I've read it all.

Click on the blank, go through the options and choose the correct solution.

I broke or I've broken?


British English:
I my purse. I can't find it anywhere.
Oh no, I the glass. Look at the mess!
Look! Somebody the window.
I know that man, but I his name.
Sam and Sue aren't here. They home.
American English:
I my purse. I can't find it anywhere.
Oh no, I the glass. Look at the mess!
Look! Somebody the window.
I know that man, but I his name.
Sam and Sue aren't here. They home.

Haz clic sobre los espacios en blanco, estudia las opciones y decide cul es la solucin.

I broke or I've broken?


British English:
I've lostmy purse. I can't find it anywhere.
Oh no, I've brokenthe glass. Look at the mess!
Look! Somebody has openedthe window.
I know that man, but I've forgottenhis name.
Sam and Sue aren't here. They've gonehome.
American English:
I lostmy purse. I can't find it anywhere.
Oh no, I broke
the glass. Look at the mess!
Look! Somebody openedthe window.
I know that man, but I forgothis name.
Sam and Sue aren't here. They wenthome.

Present perfect and past simple - Pretrito perfecto y pasado simple'

En ingls americano se puede usar el pasado simple en las frases que contienen palabras como 'just', 'already' y 'yet'. Por el
contrario, en ingls britnico se utiliza el pretrito perfecto.

Ej.

Ingls britnico Ingls americano

Have you seen him yet? Did you see him yet?

He has just gone out. He just went out.

Have you already bought it? Did you buy it already?

Present perfect - Pretrito perfecto


Past simple - Pasado simple

Present perfect and past simple - Pretrito perfecto y pasado simple'

Present perfect - El presente perfecto

El presente perfecto se forma con las formas have/has + participio de pasado. Este tiempo verbal se emplea en varias
situaciones.

Para describir acontecimientos que aunque tuvieron lugar en el pasado, tienen una conexin con el presente.

Ej. John has done his homework, so he can go out to play now.
(John ha hecho sus deberes y por eso puede salir a jugar ahora.)

Para indicar que se acaba de realizar o terminar de hacer algo.

Ej. I've finished the project. I'm so happy!

(He terminado el proyecto. Estoy tan contento!)

Para dar a conocer una novedad o algo que ha ocurrido hace poco.

Ej. Uncle Tom has died.

(El to Tom se ha muerto.)

Para hablar de situaciones o acontecimeintos que empezaron en el pasado y cuya accin dura an en el presente.

Ej. I've known her for almost 20 years.

(La conozco desde hace casi 20 aos.)

El presente perfecto aparece frecuentemente acompaado de las siguientes palabras: 'ever', 'before', 'never', 'yet', 'recently'
y 'already'.

Ej. Have you seen the new student yet?

(Ya has visto a los nuevos estudiantes?)

Present perfect and past simple - Pretrito perfecto y pasado simple'

Past tense - El pasado

Presente Pasado

buy bought

drive drove

eat ate

go went
have had

steal stole

Drag the verb forms as needed.

Did you just do it?


American English you him yet?James just out. you the homeworkalready?We just lunch.
British English you the film yet?Julie just out. you the exercisealready?We just to thesupermarket.

Desplaza las formas verbales segn corresponda.

Did you just do it?


American EnglishDid you see him yet?James just went out.Did you do the homeworkalready?We just
had lunch.
British EnglishHave you seen the film yet?Julie has just gone out.Have you done
the exercisealready?We've just been to thesupermarket.
Short forms - Contracciones

La 's puede tener tres significados:


Ej.
He's at home at the moment. (is)

She's gone home. (has)

Sue's book is on the table. (posesivo)

El verbo 'have' aparece a menudo en su forma contrada 've.


I've seen the film.

Drag the right short forms into the blanks.

I've vacationed in Florida frequently


He taken my car regularly.
They made a number of improvements to the building so far.
I bought this paper before.
She called the police frequently.
Completa los espacios con la forma abreviada que corresponda.

I've vacationed in Florida frequently


He's taken my car regularly.
They've made a number of improvements to the building so far.
I've bought this paper before.
She's called the police frequently.