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2 NetworkModels

Thursday,May4,2017 1:11PM

1. MeettheFrame
NICsarepluggedintoindividualcomputers.Thehuballowslotsofcomputerstointerconnectwitheach
otherandshareresources(webpage,document,LANserver,etc.).
Howarecomputerssendingdata?Itlookskindoflikemorsecodebeingsentbetweendevices(1sand
0s).
Thedataissentinchunkscalled"frames"(sometimescalled"packets").Discretechunksof1sand0s
flyingbetweendevices.Packetizeddata.

Asingleframecanbecraaaaazylong!Somanybytes.
Aframeisgeneratedinthenetworkcard.TheNICcreatestheframeandshootsitoutintothenetwork.
ThedataiswipedoutintheNICitselfafteritissenttothesoftwarethatneedsit.
1500bytesandtheyhaveadiscretebeginningandend.

2. TheMACaddress
MediaAccessControladdress.
Openacommandpromptandtypeinipconfig/alltoseeaMACaddress
TheremaybelotsofNICsonacomputer.Rightnowheishookedupwirelessly.12hexadecimal
characters=48bits.

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Thefirst3groupsof2areOEM(OriginalEquipmentManufacturer),inthiscaseBroadcom.
Thelast3groupsof2aretheUniqueidentifier.
MACaddressisappliedtotheframetomakesureitgetsdeliveredtotherightplace(MACaddress
whereitisgoingtoandcomingfrom)
CyclicRedundancyCheck(CRC)verifiesthatthedataisgood.Ifnotittellsittoresendit.

EveryNICknowswhatitsownMACaddressis.

3. Broadcastvs.Unicast
MACaddressitisgoingtoandMACaddressitiscomingfrom:

Yourcomputerwillstore
Unicast:isaddressedtoasingledeviceonanetwork.TheexactMACaddressofthecardiswhoitwas
sentto
Broadcast:yourcomputersendsoutabroadcastontheLANtoallcomputersonit.ThedestinationMAC
addressisallFs.Everycomputerthatreceivesittakestheinfoandsendsitup.Anytimeyouhavea
groupofcomputerswhocanheareachothers'broadcastyouhaveaBroadcastDomain.

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4. Hubsvs.switches

i. Hub:isdumb.Justarepeater.Itreceivesaframeononeofthewiresandthenrepeatsthatframe
toallotherwires.

ii. Switches:aresmart.TheykeeptheassociatedMACaddressesofalldevicesconnectedtothemin
memory.

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SwitchcomparesthedestinationMACaddresstodeterminewhichporttosenditbackouton.

Switchesletyouusethefullbandwidthoftheswitch.Hubscutthebandwidthwaydownbecause
theysendoutinfoonallports!

5. IntroductiontoIPAddressing
MACaddressesdon'tidentifythatallthesecomputersarepartofaLAN.That'snotwhattheydo.

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Inordertomakeabignetworkwork,youneedtoaddLogicalAddressing.Theoverwhelming
predominantaddressingisIPAddressing.They'renotfixedtoanetworkcard.YoucanapplyanIPtoa
networkcard.Thefirstthreesetsofnumbersshowthenetworktheyareon(networkID):

Thelastsetofnumberistheuniqueidentifierofthedevice(s).
Arouterhas2connections.It'sbotharouterandaswitch.Therouter(triangle)ispluggedintothe
switch(boxwithhole):

Usetheotherconnectiontoconnecttheroutertoconnect2networkstogether.

1networkisinterconnectedto1othernetworkviaarouter.

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MACaddressdestination|MACaddresssource|data|CRC:

Addingalittleextrainformationtogetfrom1networktoanother.TheIPaddressofonecomputer
(destination ontheleft)andanothercomputer(source ontheright):

WithintheframeisanIPpacket:

Weneedtosendthepackettothecorrectparty.Whenthecomputersendingitrealizesthattheother
computerisnotonitsnetwork,itknowsitneedstouseaDefaultGateway.TheDefaultGatewayisthe
connectiontoyourrouteritself.SoyourcomputerwillputthedestinationMACaddressoftherouter
(leftpurpleblock)aswellasthesourceMACaddressofthecomputeritself(rightpurpleblock).

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Sothisbigframegetssentthroughthenetwork,totheswitch,totherouter,thentherouterstripsaway
alloftheframestuff,leavingjusttheIPpacket:

Builtintoeveryrouterintheuniverseisaroutingtable.Theroutingtabletells,basedonwhateverthe
networkinformationis,wheretosenddata.

Inordertosendtheframetothecomputerontheothernetwork,therouterwillputthereceivingMAC
address(leftpurpleblock)andtherouter'sMACaddress(rightpurpleblock)togetherasaframeand
sendtothecomputerontheothernetwork

Packetsdonottravelbythemselves.They'realwaysencapsulatedinsometypeofframe.Thethingto
appreciateisthatwhiletheframeitselfchangedanumberoftimes,theIPpacketneverchanged.

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6. PacketsandPorts
AddportnumberstotheIPpacket

Portnumbersareuniquetoapplicationsallovertheinternet.I.e.port80isusedtodefineawebpage.
Soanytimeyouseeport80youknowthatthispieceofconversationhassomethingtodowiththeworld
wideweb.Soitsendsittoawebserver.Thesecondnumberishowthedatagetsbacktomycomputer
afterthewebserverstartsresponding.

Thefirst1,024portnumbersare"wellknownports."Youcanhaveport#supto65,536.Butthefirst
1024arereserved.

Portsarethetoolsthatweusethatoncethedatagetsintothecomputeritmakessurethatitgetsto
therightapplication.Theyareonlypartoftheequation.

TransmissioncontrolProtocol(TCP)makessurethedatagetswhereitneedstogowhole,complete,and
inorder.Aconnectionorientedcommunicationbetweencomputers.Sequencingnumberand
acknowledgement.It'stheoverwhelmingprotocolweuseontheinternet.

UserDatagramProtocol(UDP)issimilartoTCPbutitisnotconnectionoriented.Acomputersendsdata
andhopesthatyou'rereadyforit.

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7. Whatisamodel?

Representation.Theserepresentafairlyidealizedideaoftherealmccoy.
Simplified.Allowsustorepresenttheformandfunctionoftherealmccoy.

OSI7layermodelandTCP/IPmodel.

8. OSIModelvs.TCP/IPModel
OSImodel=7distinctfunctionsthatanetworkmustdo.

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Physical whatkindsofcablesdoIuse?Etc.
DataLink anythingthatworkswithaMACaddressworksatthislayer.NICs,switches,etc.
Network logicaladdresses.IPaddresses.Routersworkatthislayer.
Transport assembly/disassemblyareafordatawhenitgetsbrokenintopackets.
Session connectionb/wtwosystems.TCP?Email?Sharingafolder?Whatistakingplaceintermsof
howthatconnectivityworks.
Presentation usedtoconvertdataintoaformatthatyourapplicationscanread.
Application thesmartsintheapplicationsthatmakethemnetworkaware.i.e.cangetadocument
fromthenetworkfromwithinWord.

TCP/IPmodel

NetworkInterface physicalcabling,NICs,routers(datalinkandphysical)
Internet IPaddresses,routers
Transport doesassembly/disassemblyandwhatittakestogettotheothersystem(TCPandUDP)

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Application (application,presentation,andsessionlayersofOSI)

KNOWFOREXAM:***Eachlayerhasadistinctfeature,name,andnumber!***

9. OSIandTCP/IPModelWalkthroughs
LowestlayerofOSIandTCP/IP

AnetworkcardtakesalookattheincomingMACaddress,andverifiesthatit'sforme.Itis!SoItakea
lookattheFrameCheckSequence(FCS)whichcheckstheentireethernetframetomakesureit'sin
goodshape.Itis,soIstripofftheMACaddressesandtheFCS.TheNICkeepstheMACaddressesin
memoryincaseitwantstosendaframebackouttothatcomputerlater!

AtthispointIhaveanIPpacket:

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AsaNICmyjobisprettymuchdone.IntheOSImodel,wecoveredLayer1andLayer2.IntheTCP
modelwecoveredLayer1.

TheNICthenpassestheIPpacketuptothenextlayer.TheNetworkandInternetlayers.IdealwithIP
addresses.

MakessuretheIPaddressisforme.KeepstheIPaddressthatitcamefromincasehewantstosendan
IPpacketoutinalittlebit.AfterthisheisleftwithaTCPsegment.

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Thechallengenowistogetittotherightapplicationsandintherightformatthatthoseapplicationscan
useit.TheTransportlayeractsastheassembler/disassemblerofdata.Usessequencingnumberto
assembledataordisassembleandaddsequencingnumber.

ToplayerisApplication

WeusedtohavetohaveadistinctSessionlayertoconnectbecauseyouhadapplicationsthatwerenot
networkaware(i.e.MicrosoftWordcouldn'tsavetoanythingbutadriveletter).Usedtoneedthisto
connecttoaremotesystem.

Presentationlayerisold!Wasdesignedbecauseyouwouldgetthedatatotheapplicationbutitwasn't
inaformthattheapplicationcoulduse.

Applicationlayerisnottalkingabouttheapplications.We'retalkingaboutthebuiltinsmartsthatallows
themtointerfacewithanetwork.Takesalookattheportnumbersandforexample,sendsittotheweb
browser(port80)andkeepsthereturnportnumberincaseitneedsitlater.

Let'sreversetheprocess!

Receivedataandsenditouttheethernetframe.

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Takestheportnumbersthatitgotfromtheincomingframesandreversesthem(sourceanddestination
ports).

Transportlayertakesallthesequencenumbersandbreaksitintoindividualchunks.MakesaTCP
segment.

GoesdowntotheNetwork/InternetlayerandtakestheIPaddressesandreversesthem.HehasanIP
packet.

Physical/DataLinklayer/NetworkInterfacelayerandaddstheMACaddresses,runsaFCS

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