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I.

GENERAL PRINCIPLES Donations of future property shall be


A. Definition and Concept of Succession governed by the provisions on
testamentary succession and the
Article. 712. Ownership is acquired by formalities of wills. (130a)
occupation and by intellectual creation.
Article. 130. The future spouses may
Ownership and other real rights over property give each other in their marriage
are acquired and transmitted by law, by settlements as much as one-fifth of
donation, by testate and intestate succession, their present property, and with
and in consequence of certain contracts, by respect to their future property, only in
tradition. the event of death, to the extent laid
They may also be acquired by means of down by the provisions of this Code
prescription. (609a) referring to testamentary succession.
(1331a)
Article. 774. Succession is a mode of
acquisition by virtue of which the property, Article. 752. The provisions of article
rights and obligations to the extent of the value 750 notwithstanding, no person may
of the inheritance, of a person are transmitted give or receive, by way of donation,
through his death to another or others either more than he may give or receive by
by his will or by operation of law. (n) will.

Article. 1311. Contracts take effect only The donation shall be inofficious in all
between the parties, their assigns and heirs, that it may exceed this limitation. (636)
except in case where the rights and obligations Article. 1347. All things which are not
arising from the contract are not transmissible outside the commerce of men,
by their nature, or by stipulation or by including future things, may be the
provision of law. The heir is not liable beyond object of a contract. All rights which are
the value of the property he received from the not intransmissible may also be the
decedent. object of contracts.
If a contract should contain some stipulation in No contract may be entered into upon
favor of a third person, he may demand its future inheritance except in cases
fulfillment provided he communicated his expressly authorized by law.
acceptance to the obligor before its revocation.
A mere incidental benefit or interest of a All services which are not contrary to
person is not sufficient. The contracting parties law, morals, good customs, public
must have clearly and deliberately conferred a order or public policy may likewise be
favor upon a third person. (1257a) the object of a contract. (1271a)

B. Kinds of Succession C. Opening of Succession

Article. 778. Succession may be: Article.777.Therightstothesuccessionare


transmittedfromthemomentofthedeathofthe
(1) Testamentary;
decedent.(657a)
(2) Legal or intestate; or
Inrelationto
(3) Mixed. (n)
Article.130.Thefuturespousesmaygive
Article. 779. Testamentary succession is that
eachotherintheirmarriagesettlements
which results from the designation of an heir,
asmuchasonefifthoftheirpresent
made in a will executed in the form prescribed
by law. (n) property,andwithrespecttotheirfuture
property,onlyintheeventofdeath,tothe
Article. 780. Mixed succession is that effected extentlaiddownbytheprovisionsofthis
partly by will and partly by operation of law. (n) Codereferringtotestamentarysuccession.
In relation to (1331a)

Article. 84, FC. If the future spouses Article.132.Adonationbyreasonof


agree upon a regime other than the marriageisnotrevocable,saveinthe
absolute community of property, they followingcases:
cannot donate to each other in their
marriage settlements more than one- (1)Ifitisconditionalandtheconditionis
fifth of their present property. Any notcompliedwith;
excess shall be considered void.
(2)Ifthemarriageisnotcelebrated;
(3)Whenthemarriagetakesplacewithout contract.Allrightswhicharenot
theconsentoftheparentsorguardian,as intransmissiblemayalsobetheobjectof
requiredbylaw; contracts.

(4)Whenthemarriageisannulled,andthe Nocontractmaybeenteredintoupon
doneeactedinbadfaith; futureinheritanceexceptincases
expresslyauthorizedbylaw.
(5)Uponlegalseparation,thedoneebeing
theguiltyspouse; Allserviceswhicharenotcontrarytolaw,
morals,goodcustoms,publicorderor
(6)Whenthedoneehascommittedanact publicpolicymaylikewisebetheobjectof
ofingratitudeasspecifiedbythe
acontract.(1271a)
provisionsofthisCodeondonationsin
general.(1333a) Article.1461.Thingshavingapotential
existencemaybetheobjectofthecontract
Article.390.Afteranabsenceofseven ofsale.
years,itbeingunknownwhetherornot
theabsenteestilllives,heshallbe Theefficacyofthesaleofamerehopeor
presumeddeadforallpurposes,exceptfor expectancyisdeemedsubjecttothe
thoseofsuccession. conditionthatthethingwillcomeinto
existence.
Theabsenteeshallnotbepresumeddead
forthepurposeofopeninghissuccession Thesaleofavainhopeorexpectancyis
tillafteranabsenceoftenyears.Ifhe void.(n)
disappearedaftertheageofseventyfive
Article.2253.TheCivilCodeof1889and
years,anabsenceoffiveyearsshallbe
otherpreviouslawsshallgovernrights
sufficientinorderthathissuccessionmay
originating,undersaidlaws,fromacts
beopened.(n)
doneoreventswhichtookplaceunder
Article.391.Thefollowingshallbe theirregime,eventhoughthisCodemay
presumeddeadforallpurposes,including regulatetheminadifferentmanner,or
thedivisionoftheestateamongtheheirs: maynotrecognizethem.Butifaright
shouldbedeclaredforthefirsttimeinthis
(1)Apersononboardavessellostduringa
Code,itshallbeeffectiveatonce,even
seavoyage,oranaeroplanewhichis thoughtheactoreventwhichgivesrise
missing,whohasnotbeenheardofforfour
theretomayhavebeendoneormayhave
yearssincethelossofthevesselor occurredunderpriorlegislation,provided
aeroplane;
saidnewrightdoesnotprejudiceorimpair
(2)Apersoninthearmedforceswhohas anyvestedoracquiredright,ofthesame
takenpartinwar,andhasbeenmissing origin.(Rule1)
forfouryears;

(3)Apersonwhohasbeenindangerof
deathunderothercircumstancesandhis
existencehasnotbeenknownforfour
years.(n)

Article.533.Thepossessionofhereditary
propertyisdeemedtransmittedtotheheir
withoutinterruptionandfromthemoment
ofthedeathofthedecedent,incasethe
inheritanceisaccepted.

Onewhovalidlyrenouncesaninheritance
isdeemednevertohavepossessedthe
same.(440)

Article.1347.Allthingswhicharenot
outsidethecommerceofmen,including
futurethings,maybetheobjectofa
Article.2263.Rightstotheinheritanceofa Article782.Anheirisapersoncalledtothe
personwhodied,withorwithoutawill, successioneitherbytheprovisionofawillorby
beforetheeffectivityofthisCode,shallbe operationoflaw.
governedbytheCivilCodeof1889,by
otherpreviouslaws,andbytheRulesof Deviseesandlegateesarepersonstowhomgiftsof
Court.Theinheritanceofthosewho,with realandpersonalpropertyarerespectivelygiven
orwithoutawill,dieafterthebeginningof byvirtueofawill.(n)
theeffectivityofthisCode,shallbe
adjudicatedanddistributedinaccordance Article887.Thefollowingarecompulsoryheirs:
withthisnewbodyoflawsandbythe
RulesofCourt;butthetestamentary (1)Legitimatechildrenanddescendants,with
provisionsshallbecarriedoutinsofaras respecttotheirlegitimateparentsandascendants;
theymaybepermittedbythisCode.
Therefore,legitimes,betterments,legacies (2)Indefaultoftheforegoing,legitimateparents
andbequestsshallberespected;however, andascendants,withrespecttotheirlegitimate
theiramountshallbereducedifinno childrenanddescendants;
othermannercaneverycompulsoryheir
begivenhisfullshareaccordingtothis (3)Thewidoworwidower;
Code.(Rule12a)
(4)Acknowledgednaturalchildren,andnatural
D. Subject and Object of Succession childrenbylegalfiction;

Article775.InthisTitle,"decedent"isthegeneral (5)Otherillegitimatechildrenreferredtoinarticle
termappliedtothepersonwhosepropertyis 287.
transmittedthroughsuccession,whetherornothe
leftawill.Ifheleftawill,heisalsocalledthe CompulsoryheirsmentionedinNos.3,4,and5are
testator.(n) notexcludedbythoseinNos.1and2;neitherdo
theyexcludeoneanother.
Article776.Theinheritanceincludesallthe
property,rightsandobligationsofapersonwhich Inallcasesofillegitimatechildren,theirfiliation
arenotextinguishedbyhisdeath.(659) mustbedulyproved.

Article777.Therightstothesuccessionare Thefatherormotherofillegitimatechildrenofthe
transmittedfromthemomentofthedeathofthe threeclassesmentioned,shallinheritfromthemin
decedent.(657a) themannerandtotheextentestablishedbythis
Code.(807a)
Article778.Successionmaybe:
Article963.Proximityofrelationshipis
(1)Testamentary; determinedbythenumberofgenerations.Each
generationformsadegree.(915)
(2)Legalorintestate;or
Article964.Aseriesofdegreesformsaline,which
(3)Mixed.(n) maybeeitherdirectorcollateral.

Article779.Testamentarysuccessionisthat Adirectlineisthatconstitutedbytheseriesof
whichresultsfromthedesignationofanheir,made degreesamongascendantsanddescendants.
inawillexecutedintheformprescribedbylaw.(n)
Acollaterallineisthatconstitutedbytheseriesof
Article780.Mixedsuccessionisthateffected degreesamongpersonswhoarenotascendantsand
partlybywillandpartlybyoperationoflaw.(n) descendants,butwhocomefromacommon
ancestor.(916a)
Article781.Theinheritanceofapersonincludes
notonlythepropertyandthetransmissiblerights Article965.Thedirectlineiseitherdescendingor
andobligationsexistingatthetimeofhisdeath, ascending.
butalsothosewhichhaveaccruedtheretosincethe
openingofthesuccession.(n) Theformerunitestheheadofthefamilywiththose
whodescendfromhim.
Thelatterbindsapersonwiththosefromwhomhe Article1024.Personsnotincapacitatedbylaw
descends.(917) maysucceedbywillorabintestato.

Article966.Intheline,asmanydegreesare Theprovisionsrelatingtoincapacitybywillare
countedastherearegenerationsorpersons, equallyapplicabletointestatesuccession.(744,
excludingtheprogenitor. 914)

Inthedirectline,ascentismadetothecommon Article1025.Inordertobecapacitatedtoinherit,
ancestor.Thus,thechildisonedegreeremoved theheir,deviseeorlegateemustbelivingatthe
fromtheparent,twofromthegrandfather,and momentthesuccessionopens,exceptincaseof
threefromthegreatgrandparent. representation,whenitisproper.

Inthecollateralline,ascentismadetothecommon Achildalreadyconceivedatthetimeofthedeathof
ancestorandthendescentismadetotheperson thedecedentiscapableofsucceedingprovideditbe
withwhomthecomputationistobemade.Thus,a bornlaterundertheconditionsprescribedinarticle
personistwodegreesremovedfromhisbrother, 41.(n)
threefromhisuncle,whoisthebrotherofhis
father,fourfromhisfirstcousin,andsoforth. Article1026.Atestamentarydispositionmaybe
(918a) madetotheState,provinces,municipal
corporations,privatecorporations,organizations,or
Article967.Fullbloodrelationshipisthatexisting associationsforreligious,scientific,cultural,
betweenpersonswhohavethesamefatherandthe educational,orcharitablepurposes.
samemother.
Allothercorporationsorentitiesmaysucceed
Halfbloodrelationshipisthatexistingbetween underawill,unlessthereisaprovisiontothe
personswhohavethesamefather,butnotthe contraryintheircharterorthelawsoftheir
samemother,orthesamemother,butnotthesame creation,andalwayssubjecttothesame.(746a)
father.(920a)
Article1027.Thefollowingareincapableof
Article968.Ifthereareseveralrelativesofthe succeeding:
samedegree,andoneorsomeofthemare
unwillingorincapacitatedtosucceed,hisportion (1)Thepriestwhoheardtheconfessionof
shallaccruetotheothersofthesamedegree,save thetestatorduringhislastillness,orthe
therightofrepresentationwhenitshouldtake ministerofthegospelwhoextended
place.(922) spiritualaidtohimduringthesame
period;
Article969.Iftheinheritanceshouldbe
repudiatedbythenearestrelative,shouldtherebe (2)Therelativesofsuchpriestorminister
oneonly,orbyallthenearestrelativescalledby ofthegospelwithinthefourthdegree,the
lawtosucceed,shouldtherebeseveral,thoseofthe church,order,chapter,community,
followingdegreeshallinheritintheirownright organization,orinstitutiontowhichsuch
andcannotrepresentthepersonorpersons priestorministermaybelong;
repudiatingtheinheritance.(923)
(3)Aguardianwithrespectto
Article1003.Iftherearenodescendants, testamentarydispositionsgivenbyaward
ascendants,illegitimatechildren,orasurviving inhisfavorbeforethefinalaccountsofthe
spouse,thecollateralrelativesshallsucceedtothe guardianshiphavebeenapproved,evenif
entireestateofthedeceasedinaccordancewiththe thetestatorshoulddieaftertheapproval
followingarticles.(946a) thereof;nevertheless,anyprovisionmade
bythewardinfavoroftheguardianwhen
thelatterishisascendant,descendant,
Article1014.Ifapersonlegallyentitledtothe
brother,sister,orspouse,shallbevalid;
estateofthedeceasedappearsandfilesaclaim
theretowiththecourtwithinfiveyearsfromthe
datethepropertywasdeliveredtotheState,such (4)Anyattestingwitnesstotheexecution
personshallbeentitledtothepossessionofthe ofawill,thespouse,parents,orchildren,
same,orifsold,themunicipalityorcityshallbe oranyoneclaimingundersuchwitness,
accountabletohimforsuchpartoftheproceedsas spouse,parents,orchildren;
maynothavebeenlawfullyspent.(n)
(5)Anyphysician,surgeon,nurse,health (2)Anypersonwhohasbeenconvictedof
officerordruggistwhotookcareofthe anattemptagainstthelifeofthetestator,
testatorduringhislastillness; hisorherspouse,descendants,or
ascendants;
(6)Individuals,associationsand
corporationsnotpermittedbylawto (3)Anypersonwhohasaccusedthe
inherit.(745,752,753,754a) testatorofacrimeforwhichthelaw
prescribesimprisonmentforsixyearsor
Article1028.Theprohibitionsmentionedinarticle more,iftheaccusationhasbeenfound
739,concerningdonationsintervivosshallapplyto groundless;
testamentaryprovisions.(n)
(4)Anyheiroffullagewho,having
Article1029.Shouldthetestatordisposeofthe knowledgeoftheviolentdeathofthe
wholeorpartofhispropertyforprayersandpious testator,shouldfailtoreportittoan
worksforthebenefitofhissoul,ingeneralterms officerofthelawwithinamonth,unless
andwithoutspecifyingitsapplication,theexecutor, theauthoritieshavealreadytakenaction;
withthecourt'sapprovalshalldeliveronehalf thisprohibitionshallnotapplytocases
thereoforitsproceedstothechurchor wherein,accordingtolaw,thereisno
denominationtowhichthetestatormaybelong,to obligationtomakeanaccusation;
beusedforsuchprayersandpiousworks,andthe
otherhalftotheState,forthepurposesmentioned (5)Anypersonconvictedofadulteryor
inarticle1013.(747a) concubinagewiththespouseofthe
testator;
Article1030.Testamentaryprovisionsinfavorof
thepooringeneral,withoutdesignationof (6)Anypersonwhobyfraud,violence,
particularpersonsorofanycommunity,shallbe intimidation,orundueinfluenceshould
deemedlimitedtothepoorlivinginthedomicileof causethetestatortomakeawillorto
thetestatoratthetimeofhisdeath,unlessit changeonealreadymade;
shouldclearlyappearthathisintentionwas
otherwise. (7)Anypersonwhobythesamemeans
preventsanotherfrommakingawill,or
Thedesignationofthepersonswhoaretobe fromrevokingonealreadymade,orwho
consideredaspoorandthedistributionofthe supplants,conceals,oraltersthelatter's
propertyshallbemadebythepersonappointedby will;
thetestatorforthepurpose;indefaultofsuch
person,bytheexecutor,andshouldtherebeno (8)Anypersonwhofalsifiesorforgesa
executor,bythejusticeofthepeace,themayor,and supposedwillofthedecedent.(756,673,
themunicipaltreasurer,whoshalldecidebya 674a)
majorityofvotesallquestionsthatmayarise.Inall
thesecases,theapprovaloftheCourtofFirst Article1033.Thecauseofunworthinessshallbe
Instanceshallbenecessary. withouteffectifthetestatorhadknowledgethereof
atthetimehemadethewill,orif,havingknownof
Theprecedingparagraphshallapplywhenthe themsubsequently,heshouldcondonethemin
testatorhasdisposedofhispropertyinfavorofthe writing.(757a)
poorofadefinitelocality.(749a)
Article1034.Inordertojudgethecapacityofthe
Article1031.Atestamentaryprovisioninfavorof heir,deviseeorlegatee,hisqualificationatthe
adisqualifiedperson,eventhoughmadeunderthe timeofthedeathofthedecedentshallbethe
guiseofanonerouscontract,ormadethroughan criterion.
intermediary,shallbevoid.(755)
IncasesfallingunderNos.2,3,or5ofarticle1032,
Article1032.Thefollowingareincapableof itshallbenecessarytowaituntilfinaljudgmentis
succeedingbyreasonofunworthiness: rendered,andinthecasefallingunderNo.4,the
expirationofthemonthallowedforthereport.
(1)Parentswhohaveabandonedtheir
childrenorinducedtheirdaughterstolead Iftheinstitution,deviseorlegacyshouldbe
acorruptorimmorallife,orattempted conditional,thetimeofthecompliancewiththe
againsttheirvirtue; conditionshallalsobeconsidered.(758a)
Article1035.Ifthepersonexcludedfromthe Article1043.Nopersonmayacceptorrepudiate
inheritancebyreasonofincapacityshouldbea aninheritanceunlessheiscertainofthedeathof
childordescendantofthedecedentandshould thepersonfromwhomheistoinherit,andofhis
havechildrenordescendants,thelattershall righttotheinheritance.(991)
acquirehisrighttothelegitime.
Article1044.Anypersonhavingthefreedisposal
Thepersonsoexcludedshallnotenjoytheusufruct ofhispropertymayacceptorrepudiatean
andadministrationofthepropertythusinherited inheritance.
byhischildren.(761a)
Anyinheritancelefttominorsorincapacitated
Article1036.Alienationsofhereditaryproperty, personsmaybeacceptedbytheirparentsor
andactsofadministrationperformedbythe guardians.Parentsorguardiansmayrepudiatethe
excludedheir,beforethejudicialorderofexclusion, inheritancelefttotheirwardsonlybyjudicial
arevalidastothethirdpersonswhoactedingood authorization.
faith;butthecoheirsshallhavearighttorecover
damagesfromthedisqualifiedheir.(n) Therighttoacceptaninheritancelefttothepoor
shallbelongtothepersonsdesignatedbythe
Article1037.Theunworthyheirwhoisexcluded testatortodeterminethebeneficiariesand
fromthesuccessionhasarighttodemand distributetheproperty,orintheirdefault,tothose
indemnityoranyexpensesincurredinthe mentionedinarticle1030.(992a)
preservationofthehereditaryproperty,andto
enforcesuchcreditsashemayhaveagainstthe Article1045.Thelawfulrepresentativesof
estate.(n) corporations,associations,institutionsandentities
qualifiedtoacquirepropertymayacceptany
Article1038.Anypersonincapableofsuccession, inheritancelefttothelatter,butinorderto
who,disregardingtheprohibitionstatedinthe repudiateit,theapprovalofthecourtshallbe
precedingarticles,enteredintothepossessionof necessary.(993a)
thehereditaryproperty,shallbeobligedtoreturn
ittogetherititsaccessions. Article1046.Publicofficialestablishmentscan
neitheracceptnorrepudiateaninheritance
Heshallbeliableforallthefruitsandrentshe withouttheapprovalofthegovernment.(994)
mayhavereceived,orcouldhavereceivedthrough
theexerciseofduediligence.(760a) Article1047.Amarriedwomanofagemay
repudiateaninheritancewithouttheconsentofher
Article1039.Capacitytosucceedisgovernedby husband.(995a)
thelawofthenationofthedecedent.(n)
Article1048.Deafmuteswhocanreadandwrite
Article1040.Theactionforadeclarationof mayacceptorrepudiatetheinheritancepersonally
incapacityandfortherecoveryoftheinheritance, orthroughanagent.Shouldtheynotbeableto
deviseorlegacyshallbebroughtwithinfiveyears readandwrite,theinheritanceshallbeacceptedby
fromthetimethedisqualifiedpersontook theirguardians.Theseguardiansmayrepudiate
possessionthereof.Itmaybebroughtbyanyone thesamewithjudicialapproval.(996a)
whomayhaveaninterestinthesuccession.(762a)
Article1049.Acceptancemaybeexpressortacit.

Anexpressacceptancemustbemadeinapublicor
SECTION3 privatedocument.
AcceptanceandRepudiationofthe
Inheritance Atacitacceptanceisoneresultingfromactsby
whichtheintentiontoacceptisnecessarilyimplied,
Article1041.Theacceptanceorrepudiationofthe orwhichonewouldhavenorighttodoexceptin
inheritanceisanactwhichispurelyvoluntaryand thecapacityofanheir.
free.(988)
Actsofmerepreservationorprovisional
Article1042.Theeffectsoftheacceptanceor administrationdonotimplyanacceptanceofthe
repudiationshallalwaysretroacttothemomentof inheritanceif,throughsuchacts,thetitleor
thedeathofthedecedent.(989) capacityofanheirhasnotbeenassumed.(999a)
Article1050.Aninheritanceisdeemedaccepted: anyofthecausesthatvitiateconsent,orwhenan
unknownwillappears.(997)
(1)Iftheheirssells,donates,orassignshis
righttoastranger,ortohiscoheirs,orto Article1057.Withinthirtydaysafterthecourt
anyofthem; hasissuedanorderforthedistributionofthe
estateinaccordancewiththeRulesofCourt,the
(2)Iftheheirrenouncesthesame,even heirs,deviseesandlegateesshallsignifytothe
thoughgratuitously,forthebenefitofone courthavingjurisdictionwhethertheyacceptor
ormoreofhiscoheirs; repudiatetheinheritance.

(3)Ifherenouncesitforapriceinfavorof Iftheydonotdosowithinthattime,theyare
allhiscoheirsindiscriminately;butifthis deemedtohaveacceptedtheinheritance.(n)
renunciationshouldbegratuitous,andthe
coheirsinwhosefavoritismadearethose Inrelationto
uponwhomtheportionrenouncedshould
devolvebyvirtueofaccretion,the Article1178.Subjecttothelaws,allrights
inheritanceshallnotbedeemedas
acquiredinvirtueofanobligationare
accepted.(1000)
transmissible,iftherehasbeenno
stipulationtothecontrary.(1112)
Article1051.Therepudiationofaninheritance
shallbemadeinapublicorauthenticinstrument, Article1311.Contractstakeeffectonly
orbypetitionpresentedtothecourthaving betweentheparties,theirassignsand
jurisdictionoverthetestamentaryorintestate heirs,exceptincasewheretherightsand
proceedings.(1008) obligationsarisingfromthecontractare
nottransmissiblebytheirnature,orby
Article1052.Iftheheirrepudiatestheinheritance stipulationorbyprovisionoflaw.Theheir
totheprejudiceofhisowncreditors,thelattermay isnotliablebeyondthevalueofthe
petitionthecourttoauthorizethemtoacceptitin propertyhereceivedfromthedecedent.
thenameoftheheir.

Ifacontractshouldcontainsome
Theacceptanceshallbenefitthecreditorsonlyto
stipulationinfavorofathirdperson,he
anextentsufficienttocovertheamountoftheir
maydemanditsfulfillmentprovidedhe
credits.Theexcess,shouldtherebeany,shallinno
communicatedhisacceptancetothe
casepertaintotherenouncer,butshallbe
obligorbeforeitsrevocation.Amere
adjudicatedtothepersonstowhom,inaccordance
incidentalbenefitorinterestofapersonis
withtherulesestablishedinthisCode,itmay
notsufficient.Thecontractingparties
belong.(1001)
musthaveclearlyanddeliberately
conferredafavoruponathirdperson.
Article1053.Iftheheirshoulddiewithouthaving (1257a)
acceptedorrepudiatedtheinheritancehisright
shallbetransmittedtohisheirs.(1006) Article1347.Allthingswhicharenot
outsidethecommerceofmen,including
Article1054.Shouldtherebeseveralheirscalled futurethings,maybetheobjectofa
totheinheritance,someofthemmayacceptand contract.Allrightswhicharenot
theothersmayrepudiateit.(1007a)
intransmissiblemayalsobetheobjectof
contracts.
Article1055.Ifaperson,whoiscalledtothesame
inheritanceasanheirbywillandabintestato,
Nocontractmaybeenteredintoupon
repudiatestheinheritanceinhiscapacityasa
futureinheritanceexceptincases
testamentaryheir,heisunderstoodtohave
expresslyauthorizedbylaw.
repudiateditinbothcapacities.

Allserviceswhicharenotcontrarytolaw,
Shouldherepudiateitasanintestateheir,without
morals,goodcustoms,publicorderor
knowledgeofhisbeingatestamentaryheir,hemay
publicpolicymaylikewisebetheobjectof
stillacceptitinthelattercapacity.(1009)
acontract.(1271a)

Article1056.Theacceptanceorrepudiationofan
Article1429.Whenatestateorintestate
inheritance,oncemade,isirrevocable,andcannot
heirvoluntarilypaysadebtofthe
beimpugned,exceptwhenitwasmadethrough
decedentexceedingthevalueofthe formalitiesprescribedbythelawoftheplacein
propertywhichhereceivedbywillorby whichheresides,oraccordingtotheformalities
thelawofintestacyfromtheestateofthe observedinhiscountry,orinconformitywiththose
deceased,thepaymentisvalidandcannot whichthisCodeprescribes.(n)
berescindedbythepayer.
Article817.AwillmadeinthePhilippinesbya
E. Lawgoverningformandcontent citizenorsubjectofanothercountry,whichis
executedinaccordancewiththelawofthecountry
Article16.Realpropertyaswellaspersonal ofwhichheisacitizenorsubject,andwhichmight
propertyissubjecttothelawofthecountrywhere beprovedandallowedbythelawofhisown
itisstipulated. country,shallhavethesameeffectasifexecuted
accordingtothelawsofthePhilippines.(n)
However,intestateandtestamentarysuccessions,
bothwithrespecttotheorderofsuccessionandto Article818.Twoormorepersonscannotmakea
theamountofsuccessionalrightsandtothe willjointly,orinthesameinstrument,eitherfor
intrinsicvalidityoftestamentaryprovisions,shall theirreciprocalbenefitorforthebenefitofathird
beregulatedbythenationallawoftheperson person.(669)
whosesuccessionisunderconsideration,whatever
maybethenatureofthepropertyandregardlessof Article819.Wills,prohibitedbythepreceding
thecountrywhereinsaidpropertymaybefound. article,executedbyFilipinosinaforeigncountry
(10a) shallnotbevalidinthePhilippines,eventhough
authorizedbythelawsofthecountrywherethey
Article17.Theformsandsolemnitiesofcontracts, mayhavebeenexecuted.(733a)
wills,andotherpublicinstrumentsshallbe
governedbythelawsofthecountryinwhichthey Article2263.Rightstotheinheritanceofaperson
areexecuted. whodied,withorwithoutawill,beforethe
effectivityofthisCode,shallbegovernedbythe
Whentheactsreferredtoareexecutedbeforethe CivilCodeof1889,byotherpreviouslaws,andby
diplomaticorconsularofficialsoftheRepublicof theRulesofCourt.Theinheritanceofthosewho,
thePhilippinesinaforeigncountry,thesolemnities withorwithoutawill,dieafterthebeginningofthe
establishedbyPhilippinelawsshallbeobservedin
effectivityofthisCode,shallbeadjudicatedand
theirexecution.
distributedinaccordancewiththisnewbodyof
lawsandbytheRulesofCourt;butthe
Prohibitivelawsconcerningpersons,theiractsor
testamentaryprovisionsshallbecarriedoutinsofar
property,andthosewhichhavefortheirobject
astheymaybepermittedbythisCode.Therefore,
publicorder,publicpolicyandgoodcustomsshall
notberenderedineffectivebylawsorjudgments legitimes,betterments,legaciesandbequestsshall
promulgated,orbydeterminationsorconventions berespected;however,theiramountshallbe
agreeduponinaforeigncountry.(11a) reducedifinnoothermannercanevery
compulsoryheirbegivenhisfullshareaccordingto
Article795.Thevalidityofawillastoitsform thisCode.(Rule12a)
dependsupontheobservanceofthelawinforceat
II. TESTAMENTARY SUCCESSION
thetimeitismade.(n)

Article810.Apersonmayexecuteaholographic
willwhichmustbeentirelywritten,dated,and
signedbythehandofthetestatorhimself.Itis
subjecttonootherform,andmaybemadeinorout
ofthePhilippines,andneednotbewitnessed.(678,
688a)

Article815.WhenaFilipinoisinaforeign
country,heisauthorizedtomakeawillinanyof
theformsestablishedbythelawofthecountryin
whichhemaybe.Suchwillmaybeprobatedinthe
Philippines.(n)

Article816.Thewillofanalienwhoisabroad
produceseffectinthePhilippinesifmadewiththe