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Homework 1

Solution 2.2

d d min d max
DR =
d max d min d

DR = relative density which is usually defined in terms of min, max and current void ratio (emin, emax, e,
respectively).

The corresponding dry densities are:

Gs w G G
d min = ; d max = s w ; d = s w
1 + e max 1 + e min 1+ e

Relative density in terms of void ratios is:

e max e
DR =
e max e min

Solving for the appropriate void ratios and substituting into :

G s w G s w G s w
e max = 1; e min = 1; e = 1
d min d max d
Gsw G 1 1 d 1 d 1 d d min
1 s w +1 min
d min d d min d d d min d min d d d min d d min d max d min
= = = =
Gsw G 1 1 d max 1 d min 1 d max d min d d min d max d min
1 s w +1
d min d max d min d max d max d max d min d max d max d min

d d min d max
=
d max d min
d

Solution 2.3
(solution generated by Scott Merry, UA)

Given Gs = 2.70, w = 0.65, and e = 1.96, Plot S vs w.

Use S = (w Gs) / e and realize that S will equal 1 at about 71.6% water content. Assume that up to this point, the

void ratio will remain constant. After this point, the void ratio will increase and the saturation will remain at 1.0.

Hence, you come up with the following graph. The relationship is linear up to saturation. Notice that there are no

data points shown as this is generated data, not observed data.


1.2

1.0
S, saturation

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0 20 40 60 80 100
w, water content (%)

Solution 2.6
Given: S = 1.0, MT = 520g, Ms = 405 g

(a) Water Content (w)

M w M T M s (520 405)
w= = = = 0.28
Ms Ms 405

(b) Void Ratio (e)


Assume: Gs = 2.7 w = 1 gm/ cm 3 (mass density of water)
Ms 405
Vs = = = 150 cm 3
G s s 2 .7 1

Because S = 1, Vv = Vw

M w (520 405)
Vw = Vv = = = 115 cm 3
w 1
Vv 115 cm 3
e = = = 0.77
Vs 150 cm 3

Alternatively: e = s = 2.7(0.28) = 0.76


G w
S

(c) Saturated Unit Weight (sat)

G + e 2.7 + 0.77
sat = s w = 9.8 = 19.2 kN/ m 3
1 + e 1 + 0. 77
(d) Effective Unit Weight ( )
= sat w = 19.2 9.8 = 9.4 kN/ m 3
Solution 2.8
Se = WG s ; e = 2.7 0.23 = 0.62
Gsw 2.7 9.8
d = = = 16.3 kN / m 3
1+ e 1.62
= d (1 + w ) = 16.3 (1 + 0.23) = 20.1 kN/ m 3
e 0.62
n= = = 0.38 or 38%
1 + e 1.62

Solution 2.10

Given: w = 0.275, =19.5 kN/ m 3 , Gs = 2.7, emax = 0.87 (least dense state), emin = 0.51 (densest state)

(a) Relative Density (DR)

e max e
DR = x 100
e max e min

Determine e by first calculating d

19.5
d = = = 15.3 kN / m 3
1 + w 1.275

Gs w G
d = e = s w 1 e = 0.73
1+ e d

Calculate DR:

0.87 0.73
DR = 100 = 39%
0.87 0.51

(b) Degree of Saturation

wG s 0.275 2.7
S = = = 1.0
e 0.73
Homework -2
Solution 2.14

(a) Determine w LL
w LL = 40%
Water content (%)

60
55
50
45
40
35
30
1 10 25 100
Number of blows

(b) Liquidity Index (LI)

I p = 0.40 0.23 = 0.17


w w pl 0.38 0.23
IL = = = 0.88
Ip 0.17

(b) Since I L is within the range 0 < I L < 1, the soil is place and brittle failure is unlikely.

Solution 2.15
Water content (%)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
1 10 100
Penetration (mm)

w LL = 57% (80g cone at 20 mm penetration)

w PL = w LL 4.2 w; w = separation (vertical) distance between the flow lines of the 80g & 240 g cones.

w pL = w LL - 4.2 w = 57 4.2 8 = 23%