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Statistics Standard Deviation

-is a branch of mathematics that deals with the

= ( )2 ()
theory and method of collecting, organizing,
presenting and interpreting data.
x- value of the random variable
-totality of objects, individuals or reactions
which have common observable characteristics. P(x)- probability of the random variable x

Sample - mean of the probability distribution

-finite number of objects chosen from The standard normal curve

population. -is a normal probability distribution that has a
Discrete Variables mean =0 and a standard deviation =1.

-can be obtained through counting. Formula for calculating 2 is:

Continuous Variables Z= (z-score for population data)

-have an infinite number of possible values.

Z= (z-score for sample data)

Probability is a mathematical way of calculating
the certainty or uncertainty of an event to occur. Where:

Outcome- the result of an experiment. X- given measurement

Event- the desired outcome of an - population mean
Sample Space- the total possible - population standard deviation
- sample mean
Simple Event- an event that includes
only one of the final outcomes. S- sample standard deviation
Compound Event- collection of more
than one outcome of the experiment. Probability Notations Under the Normal Curve
Random Variable- is a set of possible
P(a<z<b) denotes the probability that
values from a random experiment.
the z-score is between a and b
Formula for the variance and standard deviation P(z>a) denotes the probability that the z-
of a discrete probability distribution score is greater than a
P(z<a) denotes the probability that the z-
Variance score is less than a

2 = ( )2 () Where a and b are z-score values

Steps in constructing the sampling
distribution of the means

1. Determine the number of possible

samples that can be drawn from the
population using the formula:

Where N = size of the population

N = size of the sample
2. List all the possible samples and
compute the mean of each sample.
3. Construct a frequency distribution of the
sample means obtained in Step 2.

Example 1: Find the 95th percentile of a

normal curve.

Analysis: By definition of P95, this means

locating an area before (or below) the point.
We want to know what the z-value is at this


95% 0.9500
0.4495 1.65 z= = 1.645
Split: 0.9500 = .5000 + .4500 2

0.4505 1.64
Shade, .5000 of the sketch of the
normal curve

Locate z = 1.645 under the curve and

make a statement
Locate the area .4500 in the body of
table. It is between the values
The 95th percentile is z = 1.645
0.4495 and .4505.

Find z by interpolation
Shade the region to the left of z = 1.645
Find z-score correspond to .4505
and .4495
Describe the shaded region: The shaded
region is 95% of the distribution
Find the average of the two z-values