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Should Indian economy be privatized?

Should India that has a mixed economy go for privatization or continue with the current system,
is a burning discussion topic in view of the various steps taken in different sectors. Whether the
move will benefit the country or will not be feasible needs to be discussed.

B-schools in India have included this topic in their Group Discussion round. The key facts about
the topic and important points of discussion which can be presented during GD round are shared
below.

Key facts about Privatization of Economy


Generally speaking privatization is a way of altering the relationship between the state and the
private sector to enhance the role of the private sector in the functioning of the national economy
as a whole. Accordingly, privatization broadly means any process that reduces the states
dominant role in directly owning and running the economic activities of a nation.

Many countries like China with state controlled economies have gone far enough to open the
doors of economies to invite private players to achieve faster growth rate. The craze for
privatization has risen manifold after the ideological defeat and disintegration of the state
controlled economy of the socialist bloc.

In a country like India, Privatization in todays concept is seen as a means of increasing output,
improving quality, reducing unit costs, curbing public spending and raising cash to reduce public
debt.
Privatization is the need of the Hour
As the world economy tends to become one global village, privatization as a policy norm seems
to override political compulsions as an instrument for achieving competitive efficiency and
resource optimization.
Privatization is beneficial for the growth and sustainability of the state-owned enterprises.
Following the trend of privatization across the world, the Indian government in the 1990s also
introduced privatization amid hue and cry from many of the political and social groups.
To achieve an increase in the output of the country there is a need for privatization at a rapid
scale which will help in improving quality of the products by reducing unit costs, curbing public
spending and raising cash to reduce public debt.
Privatisation always helps in keeping the consumer needs uppermost, it helps the governments
pay their debts, it helps in increasing long-term jobs and promotes competitive efficiency and
open market economy. In a rapidly rising economy like India there is a need for the government
to realign its priorities in mobilizing the skills and resources of the private sector in the larger
task of the development.
Nowadays privatization is being seen as a solution towards the problems of public enterprises as
these enterprises on being transferred from the public to the private hands will become less
politicized which as a result will help in ceasing the administrative corruption. It will also help n
increasing the tax revenues from profits and strengthening the public treasury. The advantages
of privatization can be perceived from both microeconomic and macroeconomic impacts that
privatization exerts.
Indian economy has a tremendous potential for growth. The economy which used to rise at 3-4%
of GDP had steadily registered rising growth to 9.7% after introduction of reforms.
Privatization will give ample space for creative and innovative thinking as well as systematic and
strategic planning to realize the full potential of economy
Not everything is good with privatization
The concept of welfare state may get defeated with the Privatization of economy. Private sector
would not care about the society as its main objective is to earn profits.
Government or Public sector companies also keep doing social work simultaneously. In case
privatization happens, it will result in fewer funds for society because private companies have no
obligation to do social work.
Privatization will also result in retrenchment of employees. In private sector enterprises there is
emphasis on performance which indirectly results in work pressure and meeting deadlines or
targets and individuals who have been doing work for years without much pressure find it
difficult to adjust to new setting and many end up resigning from their service.
Risk of short term gains is prominent in private companies. There are decisions to start ventures
which result in short term benefits but may not be good for long term.

High interest rates and deficit financing cannot go together


Economy of a country is controlled by the Government as well as the Central Bank of the
country. Both have to formulate the policy which should be complimentary to each other.
There has been a large scale criticism in Indian context in regard to the coordination of these
policies formulated by the Government of India and the Reserve Bank of India. The lack of
coordination issue has remained a hot discussion topic. Since the topic is more related to
management of economic system, many B schools have included it in their GD round

Important fact
Ideally a countrys economy is controlled by two types of economic measures by the policy
makers Fiscal and Monetary. While Fiscal policy is framed and implemented by the
government with regulation of its spending and collection of revenue, the Monetary policy is
controlled by the Central Bank of the country. In India it is The Reserve Bank of India.
Deficit Financing by Government-measure to increase money
These policies may be designed and implemented for the expansion or contraction of the
economy.
Policy measures aimed to increase GDP and economic growth are called expansionary. The
measures taken to check the inflationary trends in the economy are the contractionary measures.
Conceptually, when demand is low in the economy, the government can step in and increase its
spending to stimulate demand. It may also lower taxes to increase disposable income for people
and corporations in the economy. It is the manipulation of the level of aggregate demand in the
economy to achieve economic objectives of price stability, full employment, and economic
growth.
Unsustainable fiscal deficits and public debt levels create the spectre of fiscal dominance,
leading to high and volatile inflation and elevated risk on government debt. If the Fiscal
Authority i.e. the Government during the period of inflationary trends brings out more budgetary
deficits, resorts to fortune of subsidies, more public spending and more public debt, resorts to
hefty deficit financing, it increases money supply in the economy and assists in increasing the
rate of inflation instead of checking it.
Interest rates, Reserve Ratio to be controlled by RBI
An unfavourable exchange rate dynamic linked to weak fiscal and monetary policy credibility
is the key factor in the destabilized capital outflows.
Accordingly Monetary policy is formulated to control the supply of money, by adopting different
Quantitative or qualitative measures like bringing suitable changes to Bank rate policy often
targeting correction in rate of interest, Cash Reserve Ratio and Statutory Liquidity Ratio to leave
more /less disposable funds with financial institutions to influence outcomes like economic
growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment.
Reserve Bank of India, the Monetary Authority, in order to curtail money supply resorts to
quantitative control measures like higher bank rate policy and higher CRR & SLR.
But Deficit financing nullifies the contractionary effect of monetary policy with the
implementation of expansionary fiscal policy.
In India Fiscal policy is more oriented to achieve the political gains than the economic ones.
Almost in every budget the fiscal deficit target is pegged at 5 to 5.5 per cent of the GDP, but the
government find it difficult to stick to the Budget estimates mainly because both the policies are
not supportive to each other.
India needs primary surplus
Indian economy that is on its path of growth requires Monetary and Fiscal policies following
each other in right perspective. RBI Dy. Governor H.R. Khan was of the view "As we have
articulated time and again, it (monetary policy) has to be in tandem with the fiscal policy. It has
to be a joint venture. It is not a solo play," It is important to focus on the primary deficit. The
indicator of understanding where we stand is the primary deficit, deficit net of interest payments.
Under normal circumstances, a country should always run primary surpluses.
In 1999, India had Kargil war, one or two years of primary deficit might be understood. In 2008-
09, there was a global crisis; one year of primary deficit would be enough to recover out of it.
But in every normal year, we should be running primary surpluses.
The Fiscal and Monetary policy therefore, have to be framed and implemented coherently to
attain a set of objectives, oriented towards the growth and stability of the economy. However, in
India for the past two decades, the mismatch between the fiscal and monetary policies has
remained a major concern in the emerging market economy.
When there is deficit financing, the high bank deposit and advance rates attract the customers to
keep their deposits in banks and due to high rates of loans fewer borrowers turn up for loan.
Whatever impact the fiscal policy wanted to create, is defeated by Monetary policy.
However, the Government has now taken some bold steps like doing away with subsidies, FDI in
retail, and it appears that the country is coming out of current account deficit and the balance of
payments is moving into surplus territory, appreciation in the rupee is expected, money markets
are expected to react positively to it with the greater confidence of foreign investors. To support
these growth prospects a well designed monetary policy is required.
After the demonetization 2016, the need is to restore the growth rate which has started falling
down to around 6% from 7%. To achieve the goal both fiscal and monetary policies need to
make available more loanable funds at low interest rate.

Is Aadhaar really useful for common people as claimed?


Aadhaar card now in India has become the topic of hot discussion. Government of India is
linking each and every aspect of life to Aadhaar. In this situation it is but natural to know why
and how Aadhaar number is so important and whether it is so much useful as claimed.

Many B-schools have included this topic as a part of their Group Discussion round in different
ways both in the negative and positive forms. Below are shared the key merit points of Aadhar
number and its utility alongwith the caution points raised by many about the Aadhaar card.

Key facts about Aadhar


The Aadhaar is a 12 digit unique identification number that every resident of India (regardless of
citizenship) is entitled to get after he furnishes his demographic and biometric information.
No Collection of information pertaining to race, religion, caste, language, income or health is
made to issue the Aadhaar number.
The Aadhaar number shall serve as proof of identity, subject to authentication. However, it
should not be construed as proof of citizenship or domicile. Aadhaar number shall be issued after
verification of information collected for the person. Such collected information shall be stored in
a database called the Central Identities Data Repository. This repository shall later be used to
provide authentication services to service providers.
Government of India set up an office of Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) in
2009 within the Planning Commission. In 2010, the government introduced the National
Identification Authority of India Bill in Parliament to give statutory status to this office.

Key benefits of Aadhar

- Identity of a citizen in the wake of infiltrations from neighbouring countries may be described
as the missing link in India's efforts to rise as a superpower. Aadhaar may be termed as the
technology linked identity drive in right direction.
The Demographic information in Aadhaar includes the name, age, gender and address while
Biometric information includes biological characteristics of the person e.g. fingerprints, eye scan
( iris scan).
The UID Aadhaarproject has two different dimensions. The first one is that it is linked to
national security and the other one is developmental concern. Both the factors are equally
important.
This unique number can be easily verified in an online process
Obtaining government or private services will be on a fast track basis without the need for any
supportive documents.
Aadhaar UID is totally free of cost
It will also act as a platform for micropayments and microfinance. All you have to do is just
connect with the existing bank account to avail this facility
Privacy protection is more
Using UID, you can instantly verify your proof and address cutting time and difficulties
Family genealogy may be traced
Unique number ID will eliminate the large number of duplicate and fake identities that are
available in government and private database
Aadhaar is a random number that is generated, devoid of any classification based on caste, creed,
religion and geography
So far the recipient of benefits under various government sponsored schemes has to establish his
identity and eligibility many times by producing multiple documents for verification. The
verification of such documents is done by multiple authorities. An Aadhaar enabled bank
account can be used by the beneficiary to receive multiple welfare payments as opposed to the
one scheme, one bank approach.
Aadhaar will reduce the involvement of middlemen who siphon off part of the subsidy. In the
new system, the cash shall be transferred directly to individual bank accounts and the
beneficiaries shall be identified through Aadhaar.
The government has firmly planned to transfer benefits under various schemes directly into the
bank accounts of individual beneficiaries. The MNREGS schemes, wages, scholarships,
pensions and health benefits will get direct cash transfer to beneficiary account after linking of
Aadhaar number.
So far the government subsidies contained products like food grains, fertilizers, water, electricity
and services education, healthcare by providing them at a lower than market price to the
beneficiaries. This has led to operational inefficiencies. An Aadhaar enabled DCT system will
improve the situation and would ensure timely payment directly to intended beneficiaries, reduce
transaction costs and leakages.
DCTs shall provide poor families the choice of using the cash as they wish. Having access to
cash will also relieve some of their financial constraints. State governments have also made it
mandatory to use Aadhaar cards to avail various kinds of services and schemes.
Aadhaar shall also help to eliminate the duplicate cards and fake cards for non-existent
beneficiaries in the schemes.

Aadhaar has many draw backs-Cons


Aadhaar is being criticized and questions raised on its implementation part as the procedures for
data collection and the potential errors therein to concerns over privacy appear ambiguous. The
project has been the subject of criticism from various quarterscabinet colleagues and
bureaucrats, policy experts and activists, even a few state governments.
The existence of an older exercise, the National Population Register (NPR), led by the home
ministry, is also posing a threat to the project. Most of the eminent ones accept the need for
creating a systematic database of our citizenry but the path to be taken for this has created a
vertical divide in the government and is leading to a turf war.
UIDAIs process of using multiple registrars and enrolment agencies to collect individual data as
well as its system of relying on secondary information via existing identification documents
has become a core debatable issue. The Registrar General of India (RGI) while compiling the
National Population Register push for a method of public scrutiny in which individual data is
collected directly and put up before the public to weed out any fraud.
The agencies say the Aadhaar numbers will be issued in about 90 days time but in most cases, it
takes between four to six months. Many agencies are asking for additional data but they are not
communicating to the people that everything is not mandatory and they dont have to fill up
everything in the form.
There are many issues with UIDs biometric data collection. Labourers and poor people, the
primary targets of the Aadhaar process, often do not have clearly defined fingerprints because of
excessive manual labour. Even old people with dry hands have faced difficulties. Weak iris
scans of people with cataract have also posed problems. In many cases, agencies have refused to
register them, defeating the very aim of inclusion of poor and marginalized people
The Public Distribution System will be worst affected. Going by the system of present fair price
shops (FPS), each of them has a specified number of households registered to it. The FPS stores
grains only for the registered households. The FPS owner would not know how many migrants,
and for what periods, would come in and demand their quota. Hence, for lack of stock, he would
turn away migrant workers who demand grains. Therefore, the FPS system is incompatible with
the UID-linked portability of PDS.

The Government is however sure that Aadhaar would qualitatively restructure the role of the
state in the social sector. The UID project is aimed to expand India's social security system and
to ensure targeting with precision. The UIDAI claims that UID would help the government shift
from a number of indirect benefits into direct benefits.
Merging the General & Railway Budget will save exchequer from unnecessary spending
Government of India has decided to stop presenting the Railway Budget and Union General
Budget separately from the financial year 2017-18. The decision has become a hot topic of
debate and discussion for all the quarters. B-schools also included it in their final admission
round as a topic for Group Discussion (GD).

Below are shared the key facts, merits and demerits regarding the merging of Railway budget to
General Budget. It depends upon the candidate which path he/she proposes to choose during GD
round whether to support the topic or oppose it. The suggestion is to choose only one track and
must not switch over to other side after getting influenced by other speakers as it may not go in
your favour.

Key facts
Till 1924, the Railway Budget was a part of Union General Budget. It was separated from Main
Budget afterwards as it constituted 84% part of the General Budget and a need was felt to present
it separately. But now Railway Budget is less than 15% of the Union General Budget.

Based on the recommendation of Acworth Committee report in 1924, presentation of separate


railway budget was implemented.

The committee cited number of countries where separate railway budget was presented.
However, now none of them separately presents the Railway Budget.

Railways Minister Suresh Prabhu wrote a letter to Finance Minister Arun Jaitley to merge the
Railway and General Budgets together.

After raising this issue in the Rajya Sabha, the Finance Ministry constituted a 5 member
committee to look into the matter and submit report by August 31, 2016. The recommendation
that presentation of Railway and Union Budget could be merged was accepted.

The separate Railway Budget has now ceased to exist after 92 years of its continuity with effect
from financial year 2017-18 and has been merged with Union General Budget.

Key points supporting the merger (Pros)


Resulting from this merger of budgets, the positive implications are as below:

There is no constitutional or legal requirement for separate railway budget. Union Budget is a
constitutional requirement. As such there is no need to present the Railway Budget separately
Railways should function with a commercial objective. Therefore the decisions should be left to
railway board. The decision cannot and should not be left to Parliament.
So far railway budget has remained an avenue for populism. MPs demanded new trains and stops
for existing ones. These decisions are supposed to be taken by railway board on a commercial
basis.
Lot of resources used to be wasted in the process of preparing the separate Railway Budget
which is not required. Simplification of the complicated relationship between Finance Ministry
and Railways is required.
By presenting the separate budget, Railways had to pay annual dividend for the budgetary
support it received from the government. Now there will be no such burden on Railways.
Merging the Rail Budget into the General Budget will result in a seamless transportation
policy. During the British Raj, Railway Budget made up for 85 percent of the countrys general
budget. Now, it accounts for only 15 percent.
The merger will keep the Rail Budget free of political pressures. It used to be a bargaining chip
by major political parties to enlist smaller parties into a coalition.
Indian Railways is suffering from huge revenue deficit. This merger will ease the burden as the
deficit will be transferred to the Union Ministry of Finance.
No the Railways will be able to concentrate on revenues and revenue generation mechanisms
Railways will now enjoy more functional autonomy without bothering about budgetary
constraints.
Now Railways does not have to reel under an additional burden of Rs 40,000 crore from higher
salaries following implementation of the 7th Pay Commission.
With Railways becoming a part of the overall Budget, the capital expenditure, revenue deficit
can be taken care of by the centre.
There have been mismanagement in Indian railways and if there are chances of seeing it
improve, merging it with the Union budget is just the solution that could help

Key points against the topic (CONS)


All railways related expenditures will also become part of the Union budget. A fall in revenue or
gross receipts in the general budget will mean that the finance ministry will be carrying
out similar cuts in expenditure allocated to railways, also.
The Railways may become just another government department losing its commercial culture. In
the process, it could lose its commercial character.
The Finance Ministry, to earn populism may not raise passenger fares. It in turn won't bring in
money for the railways and hurt modernisation plans. Without fare hike, salaries, fuel and
equipment costs will also suffer.
Railways is the most used mode of freight transport. Government's infrastructure expansion
plans also rely a lot on railways, the merger can actually cover cracks in the rail department.
The privatisation attempts in Railways may get affected adversely as after the merger, efforts to
bring in more investments from outside will suffer a blow.

However, it has been pointed out that there will be less wastage of time when a new policy is
initiated and implemented. Keeping both the budgets separate resulted in a lot of drawbacks and
hindrances that had to be faced by the railway ministry before it could decide upon a solution.

Will India remain way behind China?


An important component of final admission round for MBA in top B-schools is Group
Discussion (GD). It carries a good weightage and success in it can enable you to convert the call.

One of the recent hot topics under discussion at the National and International level is whether
India that used to be far ahead in economic development and progressed at a faster pace after
independence than China, would now remain behind the dragon which has been leaping forward
in all spheres of growth and development in almost all the sectors.
This topic is now placed in the GD round for MBA admission in number of B-schools.
Candidates are advised to take clues from the undernoted pros and cons on the topic and present
their view effectively taking more entries during Group Discussion round

Dont deny the facts


The report that Chinese dragon is way ahead of Indian elephant in terms of the respective
future growth is not a myth since the statistics and the impact of China on Global economy can
be very well observed. In order to match the growth of China, the Indian elephant needs wings to
fly else it will remain way behind.

Points supporting the topic (Pros)


1. China although reeled under the agonizing rule of Monarchs and feudalism became a unitary
state and began its growth march as a closed economy till Maozedong ruled China. India became
a federal state which had to amalgamate the princely and other states for future growth
environment.

2. Reunification of China resulted in state controlled pure communist economy which pushed the
growth at a faster pace. India although also a socialist economy adopted the path of mixed
economy having the co-existence of public and private sectors seemed to grow fast but did not
match that of China.

3. Since 1978, when Deng came to power, China adopted the policy of one child and has changed
its mammoth population as an asset and devoted work force. India due to its structure has not
been able to match China and its population is more a liability than an asset.

4. In the severe global slow down and recessionary trends Chinas GDP growth is 9% where as
India is estimated to grow at less than 7%. China has more than 200 billionaires as compare to
70+ of India. They spend more than $190 billion in public health, where as India spends around
$65 billion. Life expectancy is 75 years in China as against India which is around 65 only. The
gap is now widening even in values of most social indicators like living standards, such as life
expectancy, infant mortality rate, years of schooling among others.

5. China is sending astronauts to the moon and sending a well designed space station. This
announcement has surprised the world. China has become more competitive than any other
country during the last 15 years and since it opened up the economy. Now the investors and
companies wish to enter China. It has become more business and education oriented.

6. Various estimates visualize that China will take over USA by 2018 as the worlds largest
economy.

7. China, after 1978 under the influence of Deng accelerated leaving India far behind. Chinas
income is almost double that of India. China adopted a road that India could always have
adopted; indeed right after independence. No one, not even the Indian capitalists, were
advocating greater import of foreign capital. Natural resources like minerals were exported from
India while finished goods were imported. Precious and scarce foreign currency went on flying
from India.

8. Since 1949, China has been devoting its resources to the all round development like
infrastructure development, exports at low prices, internal and external security, defence
mechanism in 1962 India was a victim to strong defence forces of China to which Indian forces
were no match.

9. The comparison between the two pairs of countries is revealing. In 1950 India had much higher
per capita income than China. This situation reversed in 1999 when India had almost half of the
per capita income than that of China.

10. China is less exposed to foreign and institutional debt while India has not been able to reduce its
foreign debt substantially.

China and India both suffered a lot but India has not been able to manage its growth map in a
sustained and planned manner while China has surpassed all the estimates and is ready to emerge
as second to none in near future.

Against the Topic (Cons)


1. The democratic structure of Indian polity and the concept of Public Private Partnership,
competition between public and private sector in healthcare, economic activities, food
provisions, housing shelters etc. were aimed to give a boost to Indian economy which began to
grow with enthusiasm.

2. India has jumped 16 ranks to settle at the 39th spot on the global competitiveness index 2016-17
prepared by the World Economic Forum, that lists 138 countries. This is the second year in a row
that India has jumped 16 spots. In the year 2015-16, India was ranked at the 55th place. China
which was at 28th position has remained at the same position. Now there is less gap and
hopefully India will cover that one also. India is also the second most competitive country
among BRICS nations.

3. In its report WEF says China, on 28, remains top among the BRICS grouping although another
surge by India which climbs 16 places to 39 means there is now less of a gap between it and
its peers. With both Russia and South Africa moving up two places to 43 and 47, respectively,
only Brazil is declining, falling six places to 81.

4. With the freedom of mobility all over the country for all, skilled and professionally equipped
find better employment opportunities in various upcoming industries. Establishment of industrial
houses, infrastructural developments like roads, rails, water management with the help of
construction of dams etc. have become the catalysts of growth in agriculture and industry alike.
Natural resources in India are abundant like minerals, water resources, human resources, etc.

5. India has all the socially well knit requirement for growth of a civilized society. It is an example
of unity in diversity where thousands of tribes, castes following different religions co-exist. India
is an example of one of the greatest democracies in the world.

6. China, however, with all the abundance of natural resources began its march on growth in all the
sectors initially like a closed economy for the world. It couldnt even get the U.N. Membership
with its new name. No freedom of trade and commerce, press etc. was allowed till Maozedong
held the reins of power. The growth in Indian polity is evident as in 1952 India had a per capita
income of $60 as against China whose per capita income was $50

7. India despite the long foreign rule and diversity in caste, creed, language and customs have never
been so hostile to foreigners as China has been. Till 1978 China despite a growing economy
remained a closed economy from the world.
8. China and India both are the victims of corruption although it is more rampant in India. But
people will tolerate corruption, although with reluctance since they can throw the corrupt out of
office. Democracies coexist with all sorts of imperfections and can indeed withstand a lot of
misery unlike authoritarian regimes. India unlike China embarked on the path of growth and
development on the strong grounds of democratic federalism with the thrust on participation
from all walks of society.

9. An estimated economic growth of 7% in the severe global recession is encouraging since even
the fastest growing economies dont expect a growth rate of more than 5%. China, despite
achieving faster pace of growth in the authoritarian regime, will be forced to make a political
transition as profound as the Eastern European states did with their economies.

10. The world has great faith and trust in the vibrant growth model of democratic India, where the
growth is achieved by negligible use of force. India, with a given freedom of choice to its
citizens managed to control the population growth whereas China made the one child policy a
compulsion.

11. Indian IT and other professionals are most sought after in the world. India is working hard and
its major population is an asset now. Even the rag pickers ward are getting education in good
schools. Such factors make India a freedom and self driven country.

12. Unlike China, for India any hope of growing faster depends on harnessing the private sector
entrepreneurial talent which has always been there but was stifled for a long time. This requires a
less interventionist government but a better regulatory regime. India will remain a soft state, a
consensual polity. Although it has not been able of keeping sustained growth at the sort of rates
which China has attained, India is the country that has been able to provide current account
convertibility to its currency whereas China has so far been afraid of doing so. To stay a stable
and peaceful society, India has all the ingredients. The elephant has capability to surpass the
dragon without wings.

India is a country that has open economy. It pushed the import liberalization policy harder, has
consistently been making efforts to strengthen the international relations. The period of early
1990s saw the liberalizing economic policies, increase in annual growth rates, the reform process
has been kept up, has maintained its territorial integrity. Unlike Pakistan, India has not had a
civil war, has survived as a democratic open society based on consensus and debate. Life is
about more than per capita income and its growth.
IT industry is going to create huge job opportunities in India.
After Mr Donald Trump got elected as U.S. President, a fear among IT professionals got set in
that as per his earlier announced policy of reducing the outsourcing, reduction in visas for non-
Americans and reduction in job opportunities in IT sector and others, whether this high job
creator sector would offer jobs to IT professionals and MBAs in future.

This became a hot discussion topic among the prospective IT professionals, MBAs as well as the
corporate sector and B-schools. Many MBA colleges have chosen this topic for their GD round
in MBA admission process. The facts, prospects and views from the Corporate sector on the
topic are shared below. This will help you prepare well on the topic.

Key facts
Information Technology (IT) sector of India has remained one of the high employment sectors in
the recent past.

IT Industry has contributed considerably to changing India's image from a slow developing
economy to a global player in providing world class technology solutions.

The key reasons for the companies opting India as IT destination and offering more employment
is the low salary structure of working staff and lower operational costs in India

IT Sector to remain high job creating sector: Projections


Industry experts and NASSCOM say the Indian IT workforce will touch 30 million by 2020,
becoming the highest sector employer.
It is expected that there will also be steady increase in salary structure in IT sector
The outsourcing industry is also exploring India to set up their base and is expected to be a $2.5
billion industry in the next 24 months.
According to the IBEF (India Brand Equity Foundation) figures, the Indian IT industry is set to
touch $225 billion by 2020.
Companies are looking to beef up operations, especially in areas like data sciences, algorithm
design and cloud computing.
Indian IT/ITeS sector is poised to grow at a cumulative growth rate of 9%, according to figures
from recruitment and staffing company Randstad.
The Teamlease Employment Outlook report predicted an increase in hiring from October 2016 to
March 2017 compared with the previous six months.
Moorthy Uppaluri, CEO, Randstad India predicts We foresee at least 75% of the Indian IT/ITeS
companies increasing their headcount in the next six months. The industry is expected to remain
competitive, but would do well to remember that value proposition is necessary in order to
maintain that edge
Most companies have good hiring plans. Tech Mahindra Vice Chairman Vineet Nayyar says that
its headcount will cross the 1-lakh level in about a year, from close to 85,000 at present.

Why India a preferred destination for IT recruitment


India is among the world's lowest paying employers in IT sector. The mid to senior level staff in
IT sector in India gets an average salary of $36,120 (about Rs 18.5 lakh) per annum - less than
one-fourth of the IT pay package at globally top-paying Swiss companies.
The IT sector salaries are highest in the world in Switzerland at an average of $167,890 (about
Rs 87 lakh) per annum, as per a study titled 'World wide IT Salary 2011'.
India therefore, continues to be amongst the leading destinations for IT development, given its
cost advantage.
Lower-level roles in IT sector are being moved to regions like India where talent is cheaper
This is the reason that more IT development companies operate from India and this will continue
to grow even after increase in salary structure as huge gap exists in European and U.S. salaries as
compared to salary structure in India.
Word of caution
IT professionals and institutes offering IT education need to note that consistent improvement
could sustain and push the IT sector to grow
Since higher number of IT professionals would be required in near future, the talent shortage
could impact adversely on the decision of the IT companies to operate from India
Salary inflation in near future could also check the expansion and growth perspective of IT
sector
India's journey on the path of economic reforms has transformed it to one of the world's fastest
growing economies. Indias large population is its biggest asset. It can put India in the league of
developed economies in next decade.

The services sector needs many million knowledge workers. Jobs continue to be created, needing
an educated workforce. The need is to recognise new opportunities and prepare the supply side.
IT sector is likely to hold us in good stead in the future in terms of employment generation and
business growth.

Is FDI in retail good or bad for India?


One of the key policy decisions at the apex level and now in the process of approval in the retail
business sector, is the foreign direct investment (FDI). Since a lot will open up for MBAs in this
area, the topic has become one of the favourites in GD round in B-schools for admission to MBA
courses.

Shared below is the real GD round on the topic in a top B-school. The GD round had a time
duration of 20 minutes for 8 participants. The shortlisted candidates who participated in the GD
round had scored between 85 to 91 percentile in CAT 2016. The names of the candidates
participating in the GD round have been changed to protect their identity.

Moderator - Good morning friends. The topic for todays Group Discussion is Is FDI in retail
good or bad for India. You have one minute to think before starting the discussion. The
observers will neither interfere nor participate in the discussion.

( Immediately after the moderator stops speaking, murmurings begin for a few seconds and
before the completion of one minute A candidates voice brings about silence all round)

Prashant (Appears as if shouting) Friends, I am up against the FDI in retail. This FDI is
nothing but entry of multiple East India Companies in our country. They aim to kill our small
farmers, traders and retailers. In fact, Foreign capital will penetrate in the country and will seek
ways to multiply itself with unthinkable application for profit. In long run, given out socio-
economic structure, may cast doom and widen the gap between the rich and the poor.

Akhshay-(Smiles and begins to speak in a clear but firm voice) Friends, in my view it is
always imperative to understand the topic before placing my views on it. FDI or Foreign Direct
Investment refers to capital inflows from abroad that is invested to enhance the production
capacity of the economy. However, FDI in retail is different from the investment in corporate,
manufacturing, or infrastructure sectors. Retail can be single or multi brand and may be
described as a sale to the ultimate consumer at a margin of profit. In a nutshell it is a retail store
with a foreign direct Investment selling multiple brands under one roof. So it is the link between
the producer/manufacturer and the individual consumer.

(clears his throat and begins again no one interferes) As we all know that Indian retail
sector is highly fragmented with around 97 percent of its business being run by the unorganized
retailers. The organized retail is in its infancy. With the entry of FDI the retail sector will become
organized. Foreign investment in food based retailing would ensure adequate flow of capital
into the country and its productive use, multiplying the same. I visualize that It will promote the
welfare of farmers by agriculture growth and thereby increasing their income level instead of any
harm caused to them.

Shilpi ( Flashes a sign that she would like to speak) Well, It is immature to remain confined to
the local area during the era of globalization. We are talking about the world economy but wish
to oppose the FDI. It is irony of the situation. In fact, Foreign Direct Investment in retail sector
will spur competition as the current scenario is of low competition and poor productivity. India
will flourish in terms of quality standards and consumer expectations.

SriKant ( has a sort of rough voice) I do not agree and oppose the FDI. Country like
America wants its citizens to be American and buy American, the President of USA Mr. Barack
Obama has made his policy clear that he doesnt favour outsourcing and would make all out
efforts to stop outsourcing. When such developed countries are afraid of slowdown in their
economy, why shouldnt we? Are we more developed than America? Do we have higher GDP
growth, higher per capita income or have abolished poverty from the country? None of it. Why
then are we thinking on such lines that we cant afford? The foreign big guns like WalMart
coming with huge investment, may not procure material from the domestic producers and might
import the same from international market. This will add to the woes of already crumbling
Indian producers.

Rachna - I agree with Srikant. FDI is not the solution to all the problems. The fear is rampant
on the existence of small Enterprises with the introduction of FDI in India. They will lose their
existence. India needs more time for such ventures. Those sitting in the Government do not
understand the plight of common people.

Vikram (grabbing the opportunity) - India lives in villages. The rural India is the true
reflection of its diversity. Low Income group and Rural people depend on Public Distribution
system for their foodgrain needs. The present PDS (Public Distribution System) on which a
larger urban and rural population depends will receive a set back and it will be difficult to
procure and redistribute the material, once the dependence on FDI increases. I do not favour it.

Akshay - (Making second entry) Friends if we go by the experience, whichever sector got
competition, it improved not only in quality but also in prices whether it is in Airline services,
banks, Insurance, automobiles etc. On the contrary, role of Intermediariaris, known with
different names in different parts of the country, will be minimized. They flout the business
ethics. Prices lack transparency, due share of farmer is not paid to him. Despite the development
of Regulated markets in key areas like Delhi Vegetable, fruit growers have to face the
monopolistic character of such markets. Indian farmers at present realize only 1/3rd of the final
price paid by the consumer as against the 2/3rd price realized by the farmers in the countries with
a greater share of organized retail. FDI will assist in reducing the dominance of value chain by
the intermediaries.

Shilpi - (also catching the clue) FDI will improve the investment in logistics of the retail chain
leading to an efficient market mechanism. India is one of the biggest producers of fruits and
vegetables (More than 180 million MT), it does not have a strong integrated cold-chain
infrastructure with only around 5400 cold storages which have total capacity of about 24 million
MT. The irony is that 80% of the capacity is used only for preservation of potatoes. The
perishable horticultural commodities find it difficult to link to distant markets, including
overseas market. FDI will become catalyst in avoiding this distress sale and erosion & wastage
in quality and quantity of the produce.

Manoj (Making a hurried entry) Yes Shilpi, I have read that in accordance to the provisions
made, any company going for 51% partnership in retail, shall have to tie up with a local partner.
This will improve the income levels of all concerned and will make economy flourish with
quality branded products at a lower price.

Vikas FDI will improve the overall economic scenario. It will serve as an antidote to inflation.
The producer will get direct payment from the retailer and the same will be higher than what he
was getting earlier due to the foul play by the intermediaries.

Srikant (making second entry) It is a myth. In fact, The unorganized retail sector, which is
being criticized so much over here, is the largest source of employment after agriculture and has
deep penetration in rural India. It generates more than 10% GDP of India. There is all probability
that there will be a great job loss in this sector. The worst affected would be the rural youth.

Akshay (Making third entry despite knowing very less time is left) We have to view it in the
light of one fact and that is which is more beneficial. Since the FDI in retail will make the
consumer happy as well as the small manufacurer. In the absence of intermediaries the consumer
will end up paying less price for a better product and the farmer/manufacturer will also get better
value for his product. Besides in the organized sector, consumer has to argue and fight a lot in
case he has to return some faulty product to the retailer. This process will be standardized.

So friends, allowing FDI in multi brand retail would bring about supply chain improvement,
investment in technology, manpower and skill development, upgradation in agriculture sector,
benefits to government through greater GDP, tax income. The organized sector would also
emphasise to produce more and thus shall generate more employment in production as well as
retail industry.
(Stops and takes a long breath with a smile a reflection of achievement)
Expert Feedback The discussion was held in a healthy environment without much
intervention and irrelevant talks. This enabled the candidates to have more time for discussion.
1. Prashant - Began to speak taking the lead but didnt show much of the knowledge or could
express in a coherent manner. Not recommended.
2. Akshay - Presented well organized thoughts made three entries, have good knowledge.
Recommended with top ranking.
3. Shilpi - Has good knowledge and grasp on the topic, flow of ideas is also good and can express
effectively. Made two entries following Akshay but with different ideas. Rated 3rd in the group,
if more than one or two are to be selected, she can be third.
4. Srikant - Although has a rough voice but has the quality to penetrate and the expression of ideas
make practical approach. Emphasised against the topic with logical arguments. Rated 2nd in the
group.
5. Rachna - Although presented some logical thought but appeared only as a follower. No clear
understanding of the topic is observed. Not recommended
6. Vikram - It seems the candidate has some knowledge but could present very little and spoke for
the sake of speaking. However, a logical point in regard to Public Distribution System was made
by him. Could do better. Not recommended
7. Manoj - Happened to read somewhere something but no grasp on the topic, nor he is able to
present any concrete views. Trying to hit beside the point. Not recommended.
8. Vikas - He couldnt contribute anything to the discussion and has repeated something that has
already been said. Not recommended.

Goods & Services Tax (GST) will propel the business & economic growth
Impact of fiscal and monetary policy changes on economy is more relevant to understand
whether it would bring with it a wheel of growth or could prove against the economic and
business interests of the country, an MBA student is supposed to know and must be able to speak
about it in the GD round after gathering thought and analyzing the pros and cons of the same.

Present nationwide debate on Goods and Service Tax (GST) bill is one of such hot topics and an
MBA aspirant should be able to present the facts on the same along with his/her views
coherently. Experts at MBAUniverse.com bring forth key facts on this hot GD topic to help an
MBA aspirant to take his/her view point while speaking in the GD round of a top MBA college.

What is the GST


Goods and Services Tax (GST) Bill 2014 proposes to introduce 122nd amendment in the
Constitution of India. The Theme of the bill is to replace Central, state/regional level taxation
system and implement national level destination based instead of origin based Value Added Tax
(VAT) with effect from April 2016. Honble Finance Minister Government of India, Mr Arun
Jaitley introduced the bill in Lok Sabha on December 19, 2014. The Bill was passed by the
Lower House on May 6, 2015, receiving 352 votes for and 37 against. The Bill is pending in
Rajya Sabha and is yet to be passed by the upper house as opposition members are stalling the
process and no debate on the bill could be initiated.

Key Facts
GST will be in a form of comprehensive indirect tax on manufacturing, sales and consumption of
goods and services within the country
Once implemented, GST would be based on the input tax method. The tax will be levied and
collected at each stage of sale or purchase of goods or services.

Pros: Benefits of GST


GST is a right step to move forward with the Make in India vision. Implementation of GST
will get rid of multi tier and multiple taxation system in the country
GST-registered businesses will be able to claim tax credit to the value of GST they paid on
purchase of goods or services as part of their normal commercial activity.
GST would be a destination based tax as against the present concept of origin based tax. The tax
structure is expected to be much simpler and easier to understand.
According to a report by the National Council of Applied Economic Research, GST is expected
to increase economic growth by between 0.9 per cent and 1.7 per cent.
Taxable goods and services are not distinguished from one another and are taxed at a single rate
in a supply chain till the goods or services reach the consumer.
Reducing production costs will make exporters more competitive. The reduced cost of locally
manufactured goods and services will increase the competitiveness of Indian goods and services
in the international market
GST when enforced would eliminate complexities in the present taxation structure and
consequently prevent the loss of nearly 50% of the advantage of lower manufacturing costs that
India has over the western nations
Single authority will have the administrative responsibility to levy tax on goods and services
Implementation of GST assures a single taxation system in the entire country for all goods and
services making tax compliance easier and more effective

Cons: Riders could affect adversely


May prove detrimental to the growth of small scale industries. Basic exemption limit in excise of
Rs. 1.5 Crores will be taken away in GST, which will affect the Small Scale Industries. Lakhs of
industries in India are surviving only for one reason that they are not required to pay excise if
their turnover does not exceed 1.5 crores.
Services which hitherto were charged on receipt basis will be charged on accrual basis.
GST would be required to be paid, once invoice is raised even if there is no certainty of receiving
the payments for the services rendered
In case implementation is not meticulous, losses may be more than earlier.

Should business lobbying be made legal in India?


MBAUniverse.com has started a new expert series of GD PI WAT preparation for MBA
Admission 2014. This series of articles will help aspirants prepare for their GD PI WAT by
providing them valid contents, probable topics and experts advice to help you succeed during
admission process at various B schools. This article is based on the GD Topics Should business
lobbying be made legal in India? to help you provide inputs for your group discussion rounds.

Background
The country is passing through the fierce debates on Business Lobbying. Lobbying in fact are the
attempts made by certain Corporate Groups to influence the direction of legislative policy of a
country/state in such a manner so as to bring benefits to them and safeguard their interests.

Key Points
The objective of the lobbyist is to achieve the goal of maximizing their interests. It can be done
by influencing the legislators, members of Parliament and create a lobby to bring forth and get
the legislation passed in favour of the Corporate Group.
Lobbyist may be an individual or a group of individuals working for their employer or as an
agent to them.

Such people can be leaders of labour Unions, Corporate representatives, even legislators,
bureaucrats, leading advocates exercising influence in legislative circles, or other private interest
groups. India does not have any clear regulation for or against lobbying, especially when it
comes by the name of lobbying.

Arguments for the topic


Whether it was Enron Dabhol power project in Maharshtra, Foreign Investment in corporate
sector, big defence purchases, Infrastructure development and now Foreign Direct Investment in
multi brand retail- all have been shadowed by the issue of lobbying. The person or the company
lobbying for certain favour can not lobby till our government, legislative body- Parliament or the
state legislature have not considered some path to move on. Lobbying would only smoothen the
process.
Various Industry and commerce associations, bodies and some private firms such as Federation
of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI), Confederation of Indian Industry (CII),
National Association of Software and Services Companies, Vaishnavi Corporate
Communications owned by Niira Radia, DTA Associates managed by Deepak Talwar, are
among the top lobby groups.
When so much of lobbying is done by the registered and legal firms and companies in the guise
of some or other name and it is a well known fact, making lobbying legal will add to the
governments income by levying good amount of fee and charges on the same. Where does the
amount, being paid now on lobbying, go is anybodys guess. A transparent legislation will
definitely solve this ambiguity and loss of income.
Many countries like USA, Germany other European countries have made the lobbying legal with
specific conditions like quarterly disclosures on amount spent and the manner in which the same
has been spent or so. This provides vital information and transparency to lobbying practices.
With the potential growth more and more companies will engage lobbyists who can directly
interface with politicians and bureaucrats and push their agenda. Lobbying, whether legal or
illegal, will continue to remain integral to Indian businesses and politics. Doing away with it or
making it illegal is not an option. It will be better for our legislators to make the Business
Lobbying legal, of course with certain specific clauses to have transparency, at least to the extent
the national interests are watched.
Making lobbying legal will bring forward open debates and discussions on all the forums. It will
become possible to understand for one and all which option might be better. These lobbyists and
representatives of their companies will openly participate in such debates with the pros and cons
on the performance and product.
Think of the money, spent on lobbying in a single year, if made legal, at least a major part of it
will find its way to treasury. At present it forms a part of unaccounted money going into the
pockets of politicians, bureaucrats and other influential lot, the cost of which will eventually be
recovered from the common people in the country.
Apart from saving the millions of dollars the country may see the rampant corruption in the
name of lobbying fading away.
The Indian government itself has a lobby firm presenting its case with the American lawmakers,
while a number of Indian companies and entities also indulge in lobbying activities in the US
through their respective lobbyists. At various platforms like in U.N., World economic summits,
in sports, in organizing Olympics, commonwealth games etc. countries lobby their stake.
Lobbying in fact brings more competitiveness and improvement in quality as the things are to be
explained and highlighted in comparison to any other stake holder. India would gain a lot by
making lobbying legal.
Arguments against the topic
1. The common man of India, who is otherwise reeling under the pressure of corruption and
unemployment, will be left penniless once lobbying is made legal. All the majors will lobby for
their interests in the economy, will facilitate the entry riding the common man who hardly earns
his bread and butter. Those who have more power and pelf will become greater lobbyist and will
watch their interest while the common one will stand nowhere.
2. National interests will be cornered as the lobbyists will have one line motto of watching their
own interest and will not at all be concerned with the countrys interest as they will not be from
this country.
3. Lobbyists will make the corruption legal. The politicians, influential people, will still garner their
share from the lobbyists at the National cost.
4. Legislators-who are the law makers of the country and are responsible for framing laws that
should bring all round development in the country- if influenced by the lobbyists, may get
inclined towards lobbyists interests.
5. Lobbying in defence production and purchases might put national security at stake.
6. India has lot of complexities and problems scattered over the entire country. One part has
different problem than that of other part. The lobbying company has no penetration of it. The
government might simply gamble on the tactics of lobbyist and that might become harmful in
future.
7. There is no mechanism in India to bring accountability to lobbying, and publicly reveal the
lobbying positions of companies and the money spent. Self-regulation in lieu of legislation is
often proposed by Indian industry. In India, nobody knows the lobbying position of companies,
leave alone looking for consistencies in lobbying positions and their impact on issues on
sustainable development. Making it legal will add to the woes of Indian business.
Concluding remarks -The efforts made so far in India
The Planning Commission has set up an expert group to look into the processes that comprise
lobbying. However, given the political exigencies of framing policies and complex nature of
polity, this task will require the consummate skills of great statesman.

Lobbying has now become a well established service industry although known by different
names like Public Relations, External Affairs Managers, Environment Management Experts,
etc. Various established Associations, Federations, Confederations of Industry and commerce
etc. function as lobbyists to get the policies framed in favour of Corporates. Lobbying industry
has been placing its demand for clear and transparent laws in countries like India where no
clarity on the issue is available. So it is high time that India should decide to make the lobbying
either legal or illegal by framing detailed and clear policy.

Corruption is the root cause for Indian Economy slowdown


MBAUniverse.com has started a new expert series of GD PI WAT preparation for MBA
Admission 2014. This series of articles will help aspirants prepare for their GD PI WAT by
providing them valid contents, probable topics and experts advice to help you succeed during
admission process at various B schools. This article is based on the GD Topics Corruption is the
root cause for Indian Economy slowdown to help you provide inputs for your group discussion
rounds.
Background
The topic has two parts A. The rampant corruption in India and B. Its adverse impact on
growth of economy. MBAUniverse now takes you a step further with certain hot and specific
view points to sharpen your penetration on this contemporary discussion.

Arguments for the topic


Lot of material is available supporting the topic in the form of newspapers, periodicals, books,
electronic media etc. The aspirant is suggested to read the same, form systematic pattern to
present the same instead of putting forward scattered presentation.
1. Transparency International in its study on index of corrupt countries in 2012 placed India at 94th
rank out of 176 countries while Somalia tops the list. Corruption in all walks of life in India is
making it weak and has adverse impact on its growth. As per an estimate 80% of the public
servants in India are corrupt because of which the wheel of growth is being pulled down.

2. The Constitution of India describes the country as Sovereign Socialist Democratic Republic
leading to socialist-inspired policies for an entire generation from the 1950s until the late 1980s.
Extensive protectionism in Industry, license Raj had contemporary policies vulnerable to
pervasive corruption and slow economic growth, Rajagopalachari"Chakravarthi Rajagopalachari
always stated that the system of License Raj would remain at the core of corruption and would
pull back the economic growth in the country.

3. How does the growth is adversely affected due to rampant corruption - the former Indian Union
Home Secretary, N.N. Vohra, in October 1993, submitted a report on corruption in politics and
its criminalization. Politicians have the nexus with criminals. This criminal network is running a
parallel government and satisfying the selfish ends of vested interests. More than 100 Members
of Parliament are facing charges of corruption or related criminal charges. Public money which
has otherwise been utilized for the growth of economy and for welfare of the public was misused
to satisfy the greed of such networks.

4. The people have to pay bribe to get a job done in a public office. Taxes and bribes are common
between state borders. As per an estimate more than Rs. 24,000 crores is paid in bribes.
Government regulators and police share in bribe money, Transporters have to pay bribes to cross
the state borders within the country and this phenomenon can be witnessed at any state border
including the capital. These stoppages including those at checkpoints and entry-points take up to
10-12 hours in a day. This is despite the fact that many of the sates have done away with many
taxes or the same have been made centralized. About 60 percent of these (forced) stoppages on
road by concerned authorities such as government regulators, police, forest, sales and excise,
octroi, weighing and measuring department are for extorting money. The loss in productivity due
to these stoppages is an important national concern. The number of truck trips could increase by
30 to 40%, if forced delays are avoided. According to a World Bank report, the travel time for a
Delhi-Mumbai trip can be reduced by about 2 days per trip if the corruption and associated
regulatory stoppages to extract bribes was eliminated.

5. Various government officials, politicians in connivance with Criminals tend to grab the public
property illegally. This land and property is meant for infrastructural or community
development. These activities hamper the growth of economy.

6. Corrupt construction contractors in association with corrupt politicians and Public Works
Department officers get the contracts and deliver poorly constructed roads, buildings, bridges.
News of building, bridge collapse, are very common.

7. Corruption caused problems in government funded projects are rampant almost in all the states.
Only 40% of grain handed out for the poor reaches its intended target. The World Bank study
finds that the public distribution programs and social spending contracts have proven to be a
waste due to corruption. MGNREGA, (Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee
Act), NRHM (National Rural Health Mission), and other such programmes have become
controversial as poor quality of infrastructure is built, Poor is still poor to the same level, Funds
assigned for rural health care and Medicines are misappropriated. Corruption, waste and fraud-
related losses from this government program has been alleged to be around Rs.10, 000 crores.

8. Mineral resources are the back bone to the prosperity of the country. The corrupt Ministers and
government officials of such states go for awarding illegal mining of such rich resources. They
illegally help transport the minerals like coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, etc. to other places for
their personal benefits. The economic growth is severely affected by such corrupt activities.

9. According to a report corrupt officials in India may be making the country poorer by more than
Rs.90, 000 crores every year, (More than 1% of the GDP, through corruption) These politicians,
corrupt officials and business associates have black money in Swiss banks to the tune of Rs.
10,000 crores or more depriving the Indian Economy of its path on sustained growth.

10. Such corruption leads to further bureaucratic delay and inefficiency. Corrupt politicians and
bureaucrats may introduce ways and means to extract more money affecting institutional
efficiency. This would affect growth indirectly. Corruption also results in lower economic
growth for a given level of income. With the reduction in Corruption level in India the growth
rate of GDP might increase by 5 to 7%. As per an estimate the rampant corruption in India
causes loss of growth in terms of investment and employment by Rs.25000 crores.
Arguments against the topic
Please remember we can find more core points and arguments for the topic. You cannot say that
India is a corruption free or very less corrupt country nor you can deny the facts placed with the
support of reports and data. Hence you must present the things like causes, remedies, and other
favorable making it a point that the things are not flimsy or should not contradict your own
points.

1. The history of corruption in India is not new. Even during the regime of East India Company in
17th Century it was a serious issue. The economy has been running infected since then. To make
India corruption free it is important to explore the root causes of corruption in India which
includes excessive regulations, complicated taxes and licensing systems, numerous government
departments infested with bureaucracy and discretionary powers, monopoly by government
controlled institutions. These features cater to the corruption on one hand and the lack of
transparent laws and processes put the public at the receiving end. However, corruption varies
from state to state and place to place, from man to man. Those who have the knowledge of rules
and regulations find it easier to keep the corrupt away from indulging in corruption while for
others it is difficult.

2. India has wide spread illiteracy. To weed out the corruption and to put the wheel of growth on
right track, Education is the basic requirement. Suitable law requires to be passed to make it a
fundamental right as well as fundamental duty of the state to impart education to each and every
person in the state.
3. The fight against corruption to accelerate the growth has time and again been taken up by
eminent social workers, activists like Anna Hazare, NGOs etc. Various stringent bills to rein in
the corruption are already present in the country like Indian Penal Code 1860, The Prevention of
Corruption Act 1988, Prevention of Money Laundering Act 2002, and the proposed Jan LokPal
Bill etc. Various Departments and organizations exist in the country to prevent corrupt practices
e.g. Central Vigilance Commission, CBI, Lokayukta, etc.

4. Although it is a fact that corruption should be curbed, at times it speeds up the processes also.
People find it difficult to get their jobs done in the countries where no corruption exists. It takes
many days to get the Visa to many countries and years to get the green card in USA.
Professionals, their relatives complain that the process takes a very long time and since no one
takes bribe in USA the process goes on its pace. How would it be, if the same processes were in
India? One could get it processed faster by spending some extra money.

5. There are thousands of public servants and other officials who have never taken any bribes in
their life. They worked for the betterment of their organization and the country. They have never
been corrupt but always remained at the receiving end of their corrupt seniors and juniors and
were trapped in one or other way. The punishment went to the honest while corrupt remained
free. Such good officials need to be protected to avoid further spread of corruption.

6. India has co-existence of private and public sector. While private sector is surging ahead and has
been providing low cost products and services e.g. transport, travel, courier, communication,
consumer goods etc., the public sector, controlled by the government has been moving slowly.
This is despite the fact that private sector has to face all the red tapism, has to bribe the officials
and politicians still can work faster and contributes more to the economy.

Make a positive approach to conclude P S Bawa, Chair of Transparency International India,


stated Corruption is a hydra-headed monster and governments have to make efforts to tackle it
from all sides. This can only happen if all stakeholders work together," the efforts being taken by
the watchdog to create awareness about corruption among people and steps being implemented
to curb the menace have to be intensified to achieve a higher growth rate and improve the image
of the country creating a better environment for investment and employment. India requires a
transparent and effective policy implementation with more employment and business
opportunities to curb corruption and move fast on the path of growth.

Make in India the idea will make India a manufacturing hub


Make in India the idea will make India a manufacturing hub The debate on the success of
Make in India campaign attracted not only the economists, bureaucrats and politicians to weigh
its pros and cons, but the top MBA colleges in India have also been fascinated with the project.
Many MBA colleges have included Make in India as one of the hot topics in their GD round in
different forms in final admission round to test the ability of prospective students to analyse it
from different perspective.

MBAUniverse.com shares below the key points on the topic


Topic background
With a vision and mission to put Indian Economy on the wheel of high growth, Indian Prime
Minister Narendra Modis Government launched the Make in India campaign. The project
aims to attract businesses from around the world to invest and manufacture in India.
The vision of the campaign is to make India a global hub for the manufacturing of goods ranging
from cars to software, satellites to submarines, paper to power and a lot more.

Make in India-key facts


Make in India is a realistic project which aims to increase the contribution of manufacturing in
GDP to 25% from 16% as of now.
With the launch of Make in India campaign, India has already marked its presence as one of
the fastest growing economies of the world.
India is having the favourable demographic dividends for the next 2-3 decades and the cost of
the manpower is less as compared to the other developed countries.
India is a house of strong and responsible business houses operating with credibility and
professionalism. These business houses have big contribution into the development of the Indian
economy.
India has a strong consumer market and is going to expand in the coming years.
The strong technical and engineering capabilities backed by top-notch scientific and technical
institutes are an added advantage to boost this campaign.

Comparison with China


China is far ahead in manufacturing but it is projected that India is going to give a straight fight
to China in the manufacturing sector.
The labour cost in China is increasing continuously and this may lead to the increased cost of the
goods manufactured.
This will open a way to India to increase the manufacturing capabilities to serve the cheap
manufactured goods to world.
China may lose its dominant position as the 'factory of the world' in near future because of its
diluting quality of goods despite good manufacturing facilities.
RBI Governor Raghuram Rajan made statement that world cannot accommodate two Chinas but
cannot stop India from becoming a successful exporter.
Although China exports 12 per cent of the Worlds merchandise while India is having less than 2
per cent but given its massive labour force and considerably lower wages, India can snatch
another two percentage points from China in the next 4 years. That alone could give a huge boost
to the 'Make in India for the global economy' campaign.
Till 1978 China remained a closed door economy and way behind India. China marched on the
path of steep economic growth only after it opened its doors to world market.
Indian Economy has been on the path of consistent growth but earlier couldnt take off well as it
focused on exporting more of raw material and less of finished goods.
India can become a manufacturing hub with growth in exports.
Since Make in India is focused on attracting the foreign investors to set up their units in India,
manufacture here and export to rest of the world Make in India is going to be realistic to a
great extent although it will take time to surpass the growth of China.

Make in India to awaken India


India is the 3rd largest growing economy of the world.
India has an immense pool of opportunities with cheap labour and abundant resources.
The export led manufacturing is definitely going to raise the economy of India and will benefit
the country by exploring more job opportunities.
Make in India campaign is a strong campaign that favours the growth of India if continued on
the right track with the strong and transparent system.

Concerns
Poor infrastructure, roads, electricity are deferring the foreign investors to invest in India.
India should focus more on development of energy resources and development of infrastructure.
To fulfil the vision of Make in India the investment could be invited in these sectors.
The necessity will be to do away with red-tapism and operational glitches to make the Make in
India campaign successful one.

Demonetization 2016 in India will adversely impact Indian Economy


Group Discussion round in some of the top B-schools has started while in others it is going to
begin shortly. Number of participating candidates in each GD round could go from 8 to 12. The
time allotted for GD is around 15 to 20 minutes. The GD round winner is usually the candidate
who knows well the topic, its pros & cons and does not criss-cross his own ideas. Besides one
who make 2-3 entries in the round is considered as a good candidate.

Understanding the topic - Demonetization 2016


On November 8, 2016, the Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi announced the
demonetization of all Rs.500 and Rs. 1,000 denomination banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi
Series. The demonetization announcement made the use of Rs.500 and Rs.1000 banknotes
invalid past midnight of November 8. It was announced that the new Rs.500 and Rs.2000
banknotes of the Mahatma Gandhi new series would be introduced in exchange for the old
banknotes.

The objective of demonetization as claimed by Government of India was to curtail the black
money running as shadow economy and to stop the use of counterfeit cash to fund illegal activity
and terrorism. The sudden nature of the announcementand the prolonged cash shortages in the
weeks that followedcreated significant disruption throughout the economy, threatening
economic output. The demonetization move was heavily criticized as poorly planned and unfair,
and was met with protests, litigation, and strikes.

The announcement was sudden and unscheduled. It was a live television address at 8PM on
November 8, 2016. In the days following the demonetisation, the country faced severe cash
shortages with severe detrimental effects across the economy. People seeking to exchange their
bank notes had to stand in lengthy queues, and several deaths were linked to the inconveniences
caused due to the rush to exchange cash. As the cash shortages grew in the weeks following the
move, the demonetization was heavily criticised by prominent economists and by world media.

Choose a clear path- merits or demerits of demonetization


You may get not more than 1 minute while speaking for or against or taking a balanced view on
demonetization and its impact on economy. The only thing is that you should be well aware
about the topic and only this can lead you to speak the way you think is right. Besides, once
someone else is speaking you may carefully listen to him and later try to get in and speak out
your view point. Please remember do not criss-cross your own stand.

Merits-Demonetization favours Economy


Demonetization policy of the Government has been termed as the greatest financial reform that
aims to curb the black money, corruption and counterfeit currency notes.
All the people who are not involved in malpractices welcomed the demonetization as the right
move.
Demonetization will help India to become corruption-free as it will be difficult now to keep the
unaccounted cash.
Demonetization will help the government to track the black money and the unaccounted cash
will now flow no more and the amount collected by means of tax can be better utilized for the
public welfare and development schemes.
One of the biggest achievements of demonetization has been seen in the drastic curb of terrorist
activities as it has stopped the funding the terrorism which used to get a boost due to inflow of
unaccounted cash and fake currency in large volume.
Money laundering will eventually come to halt as the activity can easily be tracked and the
money can be seized by the authorities.
Demonetization will stop the running of parallel economy due to circulation of fake currency as
the banning of Rs.500 and Rs. 1000 notes will eliminate their circulation.
The unaccounted cash can be deposited in the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana after paying
50% tax. The money will remain deposited for 4 years with the bank without incurring any
interest. However, after 4 years the amount will be returned. This amount can be utilized for
social welfare schemes and making the life of low income groups better.
The Public Sector Banks which were reeling under deposit crunch and were running short of
funds have suddenly swelled with lot of money which can be used for future finances and loans
after keeping a certain amount of reserve as per RBI guidelines.
The people who opened the Jan Dhan accounts will now use their accounts and become familiar
with banking activitiy. The money deposited in these accounts can be used for the developmental
activity of the country.
The tax collected due to launch of demonetization policy will be put to developmental activities
in the country.
Demonetization has driven the country towards a cashless society. Lakhs of the people even in
remote rural areas have started resorting to use the cashless transactions. The move has promoted
banking activities. Now even the small transactions have started going through banking channels
and the small savings have turned into a huge national asset.
The high rising price pattern and inflationary trends which the Indian economy was facing are
taking a down turn making the living possible within low income group reach.

Demerits-Blow to economic growth and inconvenience all around


The very next day of announcing the demonetization, the BSE Sensex and NIFTY 50 stock
indices fell over 6%. The severe cash shortages brought detrimental impact on the economy.
People trying to exchange their bank notes had to stand in lengthy queues causing many deaths
due to inconvenience and rush.
The sudden announcement has made adverse impact on business and economy. Instead of a
growing economy India has become a standstill and no growth economy. It is fearedthat a fall of
2-3% in the GDP growth will be recorded coming year.
India is an agriculture based economy. Due to the cash crunch, the farmers especially small and
marginal who largely depend on cash to buy seeds, fertilizers and to pay for sowing, borrowing
water for irrigation and for other related agriculture equipments remained worst affected and
could not complete the crop related activity.
Since small branches of the banks were also not supplied with adequate cash within time of
sowing season of the crop, farmers could not get their crop loans disbursed. This added to the
woes of the farmers leading to a weak agriculture production the coming year.
Real Estate sector came to a stand still and is still gasping for buyers of the constructed and half
constructed inventory without buyers. This has resulted in poor cash flow leading to a poor
demand.
Demonetization has made the situation become chaotic. Tempers are running high among the
masses as there is a delay in the circulation of new currency.
Due to the inability to pay cash to poor daily wage workers, the small employers have stopped
their business activity.
The poor planning on the part of the government has also added to the woes of the common
people with low incomes. The Rs.2000 currency note does not find many takers as it is difficult
to get the balance back when you are buying daily needs like vegetables, milk, bread or paying
for petty expenses like bus fare. While rs.100 currency notes were not available in sufficient
number, Rs.500 note arrived in the market very late.
Demonetization is the 2 way sword in regard to incurring the public expenditure. On the one
hand huge cost is to be incurred on printing the new currency and on the other hand managing
the lakhs of crores of old currency volume has also become a big expenditure incurring item.
Many Economists are of the view that Rs.2000 currency note will be much easier to hide and can
be used to store black money in shorter space.
Entire opposition has stood against demonetization and has called this decision a draconian law.
Although the Government thinks that the demonetization will have favourable impact in future,
the present condition of uncertainty and chaos speaks otherwise.
No subsidy regime would propel the wheel of growth
Quite recently the Government decided not to sell the petroleum and petroleum products on
subsidised rates. However, since cooking gas needs to reach in each household of the country,
the subsidy on it has not been withdrawn but the appeal not to avail subsidy on LPG was issued
by none other than the Prime Minister of India, Mr Narendra Modi. Thousands have given up the
subsidy on cooking gas and this will help to redistribute such saved money to get the cooking gas
to poor.

Subsidy elimination is one of the hot topics of discussion in GD round at B-schools. It is


important to understand the facts behind it, how it will help to improve economic growth and
what hurdles it would face.

Key facts
Populist government finds it difficult to do away with the subsidies for fear of losing its
popularity. Although subsidies are commonly believed to help the poorest, most of the benefit
actually accrues to the highest income households. The benefits of Petroleum subsidies including
diesel are the most regressive, with over 80 percent of total benefits going to the richest 40
percent of households.

Subsidy elimination can make up the deficits


Eliminating the subsidies can help reduce the large budget deficits India has so far accumulated.
Budgetary savings can be redirected to programs to mitigate any adverse impact on the poor.

India has been incurring a loss of around Rs.140,000 crores every year on account of subsidies
and under recoveries(Difference between the cost and regulated price at which retailers get these
products) on petroleum products.

Elimination of LPG subsidy: May lead to more energy resources


Pricing of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) becomes the hot debatable topic whenever there is
any subsidy cut. Looking deeper into the facts we find that India is said to be living in rural areas
and most of this Rural population do not use LPG. Cow dung/farm waste/scattered wood and
Kerosene, if made available through PDS are used in rural areas. LPG in fact is the fuel of
middle and rich class residing in the urban area. It is proposed that LPG will now reach every
household in rural area also. The amount of revenue so received while scrapping the subsidy
may be used to provide LPG in rural areas, to develop solar, gobar gas, wind based renewable
energy plants, that may benefit more rural and poor population and will ultimately reduce
dependence on petroleum products.

Funds saved will add to growth


Withdrawal of subsidies in a planned manner will make the long stuck funds free for various
social welfare programmes and shall put the economy on the fast track of growth.

Neither the Reserve Bank of India nor the rating agencies shall have any adverse opinion to this
factor. With the curtailed supply of subsidized LPG cylinders and the petrol prices already at the
international market trend, the government has already freed around Rs.55000 crores which may
become instrumental to make the government more popular as it may effectively implement the
social welfare programmes.
While Indian economy has been reeling under the pressure of monetary as well as fiscal deficits,
no substantial gain for the benefit of the rural and the poor could be made given the high scale of
subsidies in petroleum products. The elimination may bring more competition in oil industry like
public v/s private sector. Reliance, Essar, Shell and the future joiners may have the price war in
petroleum retail. It is also possible that the government might reduce various taxes and duties
like excise, sales, trade, once the subsidy is withdrawn. This will also reduce the prices on these
products.

Subsidy elimination to create greener environment


The effect of petroleum subsidies on the environment cannot be overlooked. Limiting subsidies
shall have substantial benefits for the environment by reducing oil consumption and the
associated greenhouse gas emissions. A cleaner and greener environment for future generation
can be ensured with more use of alternate and renewable energy.

Need is to install more renewable energy plants


Almost 400 million people in India have no access to electricity, and kerosene is used by a large
number of them for lighting. Irony of situation is that the rural population does not get even one
litre of Kerosene from the Fair Price Shop despite making many rounds to it since the person
holding the license to the PDS shop prefers to black market the kerosene instead of providing it
to the entitled ones. All these woes can be redressed with the strong ground work of installing
renewable energy plants and bringing about awakening among the rural masses.

Need for implementation


If implemented judiciously neither the government nor the consumers are going to lose and
social welfare programmes shall get a shot in the arm. It will be a win-win situation. The
popularity of the government will get a boost and the society as well as economy will march
faster on the path of development.

India can hardly afford spending a fortune on projects like Mission to MARS
India made its maiden and successful attempt Mission to Mars to send Mars craft. World
community looked at Indias mission to Mars with awe and appreciation.

Number of B-schools found it a great topic for group discussion whether India was right to
launch this mission after spending a good fortune of amount and in view of the other pressing
needs of the country.

The Mission to Mars was announced shortly after China's attempt flopped in 2011 as it failed to
leave Earth's atmosphere. Japan also tried this mission in 2003 and failed. India had never before
attempted inter-planetary travel. This was the first attempt

Key Facts
The Mangalyaan (mars craft) was launched on 5.11.2013 from launchpad at ISRO, Sriharikota
with launchvehicle PSLV C25 at 2.38 P.M.
It was the 300 days journey of the Mangalyaan(mars craft) from the Earth to MARS
India became the first Asian Country to reach the Red Planet.
The cost of the project was Rs.450 Crore (Rs.4.5 bn), less than one sixth of US$455 million
earmarked for a Mars probe by NASA.
It had been carried into orbit by a rocket much smaller than US or Russian ones.
Small car sized Probe will detect methane in the Martian atmosphere.

Arguments for the Mission to MARS


1. On its successful completion, India will become the first Asian country to achieve this feat. Only
the United States, Europe, and Russia have been able to send probes that have orbited or landed
on Mars.
2. Indian superiority in the world in general and particularly among its ever threatening neighbours
will be established.
3. India has proved that indigenously it can achieve the unexpected at a very low cost as the cost is
less than one sixth of the estimated cost of US-NASA mission to be launched later this month.
4. India will become a role model for space programming and other countries may approach India
for launching of such crafts.
5. New knowledge and more innovative spheres in space programmes will open for the benefit of
human being in the fields of communication, identifying problem areas, solar existence. For
example, INSATs beamed pictures of approaching Phailin cyclone saved thousands of lives.

Arguments against the Mission


1. India is a poor country, it shouldnt waste such a huge amount of money which could have been
spent elsewhere on employment, health, education and infrastructural development projects that
would directly help to the growth of economy.
2. The gain is only satisfaction of ego and not other gain is seen. The country is not going to
establish a colony on MARS
3. The Mars Craft Mangalyaan has a long journey of 300 days to complete. It will take around a
month to go out of Earths orbit. If, during this period, it develops any grave technical snag, not
only the money spent on it will go down the drain but also it will pose a great threat to Earth as it
may crash at some populous area on this human rich planet.
India, in long run, will more than recoup the money, invested in space programmes. The
immediate benefits are difficult to predict. They may be intangible but vital for the country. This
mission has however, kindled the fire of imagination among the young minds to dream about the
possibilities of tomorrow.

E-commerce discounts are harmful in long run


There is a spurt in number of e-commerce companies that have come up in the retail market
offering various concessions and discounts. With a large and still growing base of internet users,
the market for e-commerce companies is huge. Whether the discounts they offer are healthy for
market practices has become the debatable issue.

Many B-schools have included this topic in their Group Discussion (GD) round for MBA
admission 2017-19. You need to know the key points of discussion on the issue.

Key facts
Electronic Commerce known as E-commerce means trading in products or services using
computer network like Internet. It is the on-line marketing system instead of physical
involvement of intermediaries like wholesalers, retailers before reaching the end user.

The number of Internet users in India is 450 million. This number was 432 million in December
2016, a report from the Internet and Mobile Association of India and market research firm IMRB
International has revealed.

Although penetration of e-commerce in India is low as compared to markets like the USA and
UK but is growing at a much faster rate with a large number of new entrants.

Indias e-commerce market is expected to touch USD 28 billion in 2019-20 due to rise in large
number online buyers. Buyer penetration is also expected to increase from present 12% to 18%
by 2020.

Overall e-commerce market is expected to reach Rs 150000 crores by the year 2020 with both
online travel and e-tailing contributing equally. Some of the prominent names in the Indian E-
commerce Industry are Flipkart, Jabong, Myntra, Snapdeal, Amazon, eBay, Homeshop18,
Tradus etc.

As the E-commerce market in India is small and good number of E-commerce companies
available, there is a tough competition among them. For this reason many of the e-tailers have to
close or have to change their business model for their survival.

Discount seems Beneficial now, harmful in long run


Recently, many of the E-commerce companies have adopted the unrealistic pricing to sell their
goods into the market and to attract a large customer base. Under this unrealistic pricing the e-
tailers are selling their goods at unexpected high discounts than in any retail store. This is
definitely hurting the sale of the retailers who are investing and not meeting their sales target.
Flipkart, an Indian E-commerce giant offered unrealistic discounts on the Flipkarts Big Billion
Day sale and claimed the business of Rs. 600 crores on that day.
Snapdeal also announced similar sale. These types of unrealistic offers at heavy discounts attract
a large mass of people and thereby contribute in the revenue generation of the company.
The unrealistic pricing is benefitting the organisation and the customers who get the products at a
very low price due to heavy discounts. But when the whole system is considered, it is eating up
the cash flow into the Indian physical market. With the kind of prices E-commerce Company is
offering, it is impossible for retailers to compete.

E-commerce discounts-the harmful effects

The economy set up of India is presently running on these physical market rather than E-
commerce market as of in USA and UK. Even after such tremendous growth of E-commerce in
India, nearly 95 percent of business is still generated by offline retailers. The unrealistic price not
only affects the small retailers but also hinders the growth of the Indian economy.
The other disadvantage of the unrealistic low price offered by E-commerce companies is
adversely affecting the Brand Name and Brand Image of the products in customers eyes. Since
the e-tailing companies are using the unrealistic pricing strategy many of the brands have
decided to be away from the e-commerce companies.
The issue that arises is the warranty and the guarantee on the purchase of the electronics goods
through e-tailing.
The e-commerce companies do not have any physical store as available with the normal retailers
where the customers can go and ask for the repair or replacement, the customers sometimes have
to face loss also.
Keeping in view the Indian market structure which has 95 per cent of the sales done through
physical retail, the unrealistic pricing will deteriorate the retailers and therefore needs to be
stopped for the better functioning of the Indian economy.

The excess of everything is harmful. Although there should be the growth of e-commerce sector
in India as the technology advancement is high, but this should be done in the umbrella of norms
and regulations. The controlled e-commerce market will prove a boon to the economy but an
uncontrolled market may go berserk and will prove to be a bane that will hinder the growth of
country.

War not dialogue will end Kashmir Crisis


For the last 60 years, since independence in 1947, the issue of Kashmir has been the bone of
contention in the Indo-Pak relations. Both India and Pakistan lay their claims that Kashmir which
includes the Pakistan Occupied Kashmir part, Jammu, Leh and Laddakh and Kashmir valley are
their territory.

In the name of religion terrorists in Kashmir have been spreading hatred, violence and are killing
innocent people in Kashmir to get it separated from India. Quite recently evidences that
separatist and terrorist leaders are being funded by Pakistan have been unearthed. India despite
maintaining restraint to a great extent now needs to resolve this issue once for all to end the
crisis.

How to resolve this issue of Kashmir? This has become the hot debatable topic for discussion at
every forum. In their GD round for final MBA/PGDM admission process, B-schools have also
included this topic to bring out the discussion skills of the candidates.

Key facts about Kashmir Issue


A good area of Jammu & Kashmir was invaded by Pakistan in 1948 and is still controlled by it.
Out of this illegally occupied area, Pakistan has gifted a part of it to China. Pakistans calls its
occupied area of Kashmir as Azad Kashmir while India terms it Pakistan Occupied Kashmir
(PoK). UNO intervened and asked Pakistan to withdraw all the invaders and forces from PoK
and conduct Plebiscite as the first step which Pakistan has not done so far.

In order to get control of full territory of Jammu and Kashmir including which is with India,
Pakistan has been training and sending the groups of terrorists to create unrest, terrorise
Kashmiri people, kill innocent people and instigate them against India. All this is funded through
various means by Pakistan.

Till 1989 things were not so bad. However when Mufti Mohd. Sayeed was the home Minister of
India, his daughter Rubaiya Sayeed was kidnapped by terrorists. She was released only after the
release of 5 dreaded terrorists. This incident spurred terrorist activities and violence in the
Kashmir valley and terrorists found the Indian Government, innocent people and families of the
VIPs a soft target to make them bow down to their demands.

Thousands of Non-Muslim families of Kashmiri people were tortured and were made to flee
Kashmir. The night of January 19, 1990 is still a nightmare for these people. The exiled
Kashmiris by their Muslim brethren are still in trauma and are living in make shift camps in
Jammu, Delhi and other parts of the country for the last 27 years.

India, despite lot of restraint and facing the treacherous Kargil war is still contemplating how to
end the crisis now. The present Home Minister of India Mr. Raj Nath Singh proposes to find the
permanent solution to Kashmir problem but does not reveal how it is proposed to be ended.
While the war could be the one way but its efficacy to become the permanent solution may be
doubtful. Besides, loss of lives, property, and the prime concern of building the progress path of
Kashmir would get severe setback.

Getting stuck to the path of dialogue and discussions to end Kashmir crisis has also not yielded
any fruitful result and terrorists from different quarters find it easy also to make quick money out
of their activities. They are offered money with the prime objective to create terror and fear in
Kashmir so that Kashmiris do not march on the path of progress.

For the topic (Pros)- Attack and finish


It has been more than 50 years since we have been talking to Pakistan on Kashmir Issue. We
have fought wars in 1948, 1965, 1971, 1999 with Pakistan and every time have observed
restraint. Indian may now warn Pakistan to stay away from Kashmir and then wage a full fledged
attack on it and also take back its claimed Pakistan Occupied Kashmir territory.
Pakistan is resorting to the systematic destruction of the historical culture of Kashmiriyat'. The
fact that Pakistan usurped a part of Kashmir and donated a chunk of it to China is undisputed.
Pakistan talks about freedom of Kashmiris in India, but shies away from the fact that in Pak
Occupied Kashmir, there is no semblance any freedom or rights of Kashmiris. India therefore
should press upon Pakistan to have referendum in its PoK area. If it does not fight it out to
resolve the issue permenantly without acceding to the Pak request to return the claimed Indian
area at any cost.
It is true that Pakistan takes undue benefit of Indias soft stand. Even after winning the wars,
India has returned the captured territory to Pakistan. This time it should be clarified to Pakistan
that the captured PoK would not be given back.
Kashmir is wanted by Pakistan as it can provide fertile for terrorist organisations and will be the
best way to infiltrate into India. Today Kashmir valley stands as a very strong wall that Pakistan
finds very difficult to break through into India. To protect its integrity India has already lost
many soldiers butchered by Pakistan in most cruel some way. There is no need to continue the
dialogue but claim the PoK back through War.
Kashmir is also an important and only link between Afghanistan and India. This not only helps
us build strong relations with Afghanistan but is seen as a threat by Pakistan who also has sour
relations with Afghanistan. The attack on Pakistan will clarify and convey the message to it to
keep away from sponsoring terrorism in India or Afghanistan.
Pakistan had even offered to give up East Pakistan in 1950s, in return for Jammu and Kashmir
on the sidelines of official discussions with India. The territory is needed by Pakistan not for
religion or Kashmiris. It is much deeper than that and may not be sorted out without war.
Pakistan sponsors terrorism to get Kashmir. It is not that simple. Pakistan kept the Kashmir
flame burning until the 1990s to meet their ends, when China conceived the CPEC and decided
to take over. China has a huge geographic handicap: no access to southern world oceans. On the
Karakoram highway, this is where it matters most for India. It connects China and Pakistan,
through India, through Jammu and Kashmir which legally acceded to India in 1947 October.
Gilgit Baltistan area of Jammu and Kashmir state, which legally belongs to India is illegally
occupied by Pakistan. China also occupies illegally the eastern and northern part of Jammu and
Kashmir - Shaksgam valley (gifted by Pakistan in 1960s) and Aksai Chin (occupied by China in
1950s when it annexed Tibet). Pakistan is trying to penetrate into India through China. In fact,
China is using Pakistan for its own benefit and is indirectly funding the terrorism through
Pakistan but Pakistan keeping its eyes closed is playing in the hands of China. The only way left
now is to kill and crush to end the crisis.

Dialogue not war is the solution-Cons


War could not be the permanent solution to Kashmir Crisis as it will result in loss of lives and
property to a great extent and will leave sour areas that would redevelop again in a few years.
Calling off the dialogue process with Pakistan could be an ill-advised decision. India may sooner
or later be forced to revive the dialogue process again. India should therefore redouble its efforts
at engaging the Pak Prime Minister but also explore the possibility of establishing backchannel
contacts with the Pakistan Army.
It is widely understood that India-Pakistan relations are severely crisis-ridden and that is why the
relationship between the two countries simply does not improve. The 2004-2008 dialogue
process was called off after the 26/11 attacks. Similarly, the renewed dialogue process was
interrupted after the LoC killings in January this year. Again, just as the stage was being set for a
resumption of the talks recent killings are threatening to derail it.
Therefore, occurrence of crises, be they terror attacks, ceasefire violations or terrorist infiltration,
can interrupt the dialogue process between the two countries at will. Both India and Pakistan are
well aware of it and also know it is impossible to rule out such crises. Therefore, it is important
for India to determine how to deal with them, when to continue the engagement and under what
circumstances it should withdraw from engagement.
In fact it is the Pakistan Army and its intelligence agency ISI and not the civil government which
attempt to frustrate the dialogue process with India. They want to keep control over the
Government and are the main culprit in creating obstacles in resolving the Kashmir crisis.
If Pakistans current civilian leadership, like the previous one, is keen on improving relations
with India which the countrys army does not want to see happening, India should also move
forward to strengthen its ties with Pakistan and put pressure on the Pak Prime Minister to isolate
the army.
By not talking to Pakistan, India would ultimately strengthen the hands of the Pakistan Army
which wants to damage the dialogue with India and discredit Islamabads political establishment
both of which are detrimental to Indias long-term interests and resolving Kashmir issue.
Terrorists wearing Pakistan army uniform carried out the attacks. If this is the case, then
Pakistan and New Delhi would be doing themselves a great disservice by not talking. India
should continue to engage Islamabad and make efforts to coordinate with the Pakistani Army to
explore ways and means to better target the terror groups. It should send a highly specialised
team of experts to Pakistan in order to explore ways to do precisely that.
Calling off the dialogue with Pakistan would not make New Delhi potentially gain anything
substantial. In fact the no talks option is not supported by any alternative as there is none. The
only other alternative, other than refusing to talk, is military action against Pakistan which if
carried out on Pakistani territory, under the existing balance of military power in the
subcontinent, is bound to end in disastrous results for both the countries.
Pakistans stubbornness has to be dealt with effectively. India has shown number of times the
kindness of big brother. Now the time has come to let Pak know that it will be taught a serious
lesson in case it does not mend its ways. It should be noted that as a tourist spot, the Kashmir
valley is a very strong income generator. If it is left on its own or is occupied by Pakistan, the
value that Kashmir holds today will be lost forever.

Preponing the General Budget presentation date is a good decision


Government of India has decided to pre-pone the date of presentation of Union Budget from
February 28 to February 1 every year. The Union Budget 2017-18 was therefore presented on
February 1, 2017 instead of February 28. The decision became a subject of national debate with
many politicians, economic experts and fiscal policy experts weighing pros & cons on the topic.

IIMs and other top B-schools included this topic in their final selection round. Below are shared
the key facts, pros and cons of pre-poning the date of presentation of Union Budget

Key facts
The legacy of presenting the Union Budget on last working day of February has been done away
with. Since the British period Union Budget has continued to be presented on February 28 or 29
in a leap year.

Government has found the preponed date of Budget presentation a better idea as it will solve
many issues like delay in start of implementing the budget proposals.

Earlier, during Atal Bihari Vajpayees NDA government, the then finance minister Yashwant
Sinha had also departed from the tradition of presenting the budget at 5PM and changed the time
of the presentation of the Union Budget at 11AM in 2001. Since then 11AM Budget presentation
time is followed.

The Finance Ministry had proposed that the Budget Session be convened before 25 January, a
month ahead of the current practice.

The Union Budget 2017-18 was therefore presented on February 1 instead of February 28, 2017
by the Union Finance Minister, Mr Arun Jaitley.

Benefits of early presentation of Union Budget-Pros

The budget includes Finance Bill. It also has changes in the tax policies and various schemes
which affect investors and business people. Since budget used to be passed in May, people had
to make adjustments for any changes affecting them. So, individuals and firms were unable to do
tax planning, investment and purchase decisions given the uncertainty over the provisions of the
Finance Act. The practice of presenting the budget in the last week of February, was therefore
going against the principle of ease of doing business.

Appropriation Bill was needed to be passed to take money from the Consolidated Fund of India
(CFI). However, it could not be passed till 1st April but government needs money till the
Appropriation Bill is passed. To accommodate this, Vote on Account, which allows the
government to take money out of CFI till Appropriation bill is passed had to be passed. Vote on
Account in turn has limitations and money for big projects cannot be procured with it. It allows
money to be drawn for small things like paying salaries, pensions. Even after passing of the
budget in May, it used to take the month of June for money to reach the implementing agencies
by which time monsoon set in. During monsoons, big projects like roads, construction cant be
taken up. Till late September, nothing happens on ground though the financial year starts from
April.

The aim is that all spending authorities within the system and those financially dependent on the
Centre be in a position to work out their activities with assured resources in the beginning of the
year itself. With annual financial resources approved and bestowed on April 1, a more planned
and regulated expenditure profile during the year is expected.

It is undeniable that early placing the funds at the disposal of the executive authorities entrusted
with Budgets and expenditure responsibilities, to the full extent of their annual requirement has
its positive attributes.

With the advancement of Budget session parliamentary approval of the final batch of
supplementary demands i.e. for additional budgeted funds and re-appropriation relating to the
current financial year, may be feasible a few weeks before the end of the financial year. This will
enable additional releases from the Centre to the States in February or early March.

The State governments will consequently get more time to actually utilise the funds which may
become available to them as a result of these approvals, in the year of release.

This is instead of receiving the last tranche from the Centre at the end of March and placing such
receipts perforce in a transitory accounting head or civil deposits, for utilisation in the next
financial year against financial principles.

The earlier practice of presenting the budget was a hangover of British Raj. It was wasting time
from March to June. Now the whole process will be completed by March end and the budget will
be operative right from the beginning of the new financial year.

Considerations & thoughts on Early Budget-(Cons)


The budget presentation could have been postponed to mid- or end-March so that Februarys
actual figures can also be taken into account.

Government has stated the reason for preponing the budget presentation date that it will give
more time to prepare for the implementation of the budget actions. However, with instantaneous,
always available communication and digital government, the time required should be far lesser
than the month from Feb 28 to March 31, available with the government since 1947.

Early budget presentation has political motive as there were state elections in Uttar Pradesh,
Punjab, Goa, Manipur starting from Feb 4th. In 2012, when there was a similar clash between
the budget date and multi-state polling, the government had postponed the budget date to avoid
conflict.

In the first early presented budget on February 1, 2017, it was more estimates than actual as the
figures and data from various quarters including states could not be received and compiled with
due diligence to arrive at correct budget allocations.
Is terrorism the price we have to pay for democracy?
For the topic (Pros)-
Recent spurt in terrorist activities across the globe in the name of religion has raised the question
mark on the efficiency on the governance, social connectivity, and doubt about the motives of
these terrorists. The terrorists impose their own rules, do not allow the society to live in peace
and grow, try to stop spread of education, earn money from outside sources just to create terror
in the otherwise peaceful society.

Not only at the different platforms in different countries has this issue been discussed, but the top
B-schools have also included it as one of the GD topics in their final admission round. A few key
points highlighting the pros and cons of tacking this socio-political menace are suggested below
to guide you to get through the GD round.

Key facts
Except a few, almost all the countries across the Globe have democratically elected governments
by the people, of the people and for the people. The peoples representatives get elected after
every 4-5 years to run the Government for the welfare of the people. This is largely the ideal
thought behind democracy.

But in the name of religion and to earn quick money without good and hard work, youth fall in
the net of certain terrorist outfits who brainwash them. These young people who could have
proved to be the asset for the society and could be the propelling growth engines, become the
killers of their own community and civilization at large without knowing the impact of their
misdeeds.

In their mind they think they are doing good as their faith has been misguided by the terrorists.
Despite knowing that it is a sing to kill innocent people who become victims of their fanaticism
without any fault of theirs, they continue doing the same acts till they fall prey to the bullet of
security forces or their own people.

India, USA, France, Afghanistan, Britain, Russia and almost half of the world is suffering from
the menace of terrorism. The terrorists who have no religion of their own terrorize the local
people to force them to support their acts due to which innocent people are either killed or have
to live their life terror struck throughout.

Rising terrorism-Cause & impact (Pros)-


1. Terrorism is the emerging issue across the globe at the moment. The rise of terrorism in the
recent years and more terrorist organizations coming in open arena has put the nations in shock.
Their glaring attacks on the countries and their major steps have warned the great nations of the
world

2. The main objective of terrorism is usually to gain publicity for some cause, although there can be
other motives, too, Jonathon R. White in his book Religion and Terror raises the question of why
religious people commit violent acts in the name of their god, taking the lives of innocent victims
and terrorizing entire populations? Many different kinds of events are labeled acts of terrorism
instigating from religious differences and frustrations. These kinds of attacks are an international
and worldwide phenomenon, and we find that places like India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq,
Israel, The United States of America etc. fall victim to such attacks all the time.

3. Terrorism and religious terrorism are viewed as victories and exultation in the eyes of the people
who are supportive of the religions and who advocate such acts. The act of the 'Holy War' is
something that occurs after much oppression or is caused by some elemental hatred that stems
from something far more disastrous. There are various terrorist groups operating in India,
Pakistan, Afghanistan and Israel and they have been targeting either the people of other
religions or the crowded public places where innocent people are their primary victims.

4. Terrorism is the use of illegitimate force to achieve political ends by targeting innocent
people. Public fear is the key to understand the psychology of terrorism.

5. The word terror implies fear, which the entire society suffers from, as this is the object of any
terrorist. The threat of harm to innocent people is what makes terrorism powerful. The glaring
examples are the 9/11 attack causing the fall of World Trade Centre in Newyork, 26/11 attack on
Mumbai where hundreds of innocent people died for no fault of theirs. Attack on the Parliament
in New Delhi where many innocent security personnel died. Nothing moved the terrorists. In
this sense, it is the same as what makes military operations powerful - striking terror in the hearts
of the enemy. Terrorists, however, are less concerned and continue inflicting harm on the victims
creating fear among others so that they cannot speak or identify these terrorists.

6. None of the top terrorists living in any country have allowed their children to move on the path
of terrorism. But they vomit vemon just to push the innocent young people to march on the path
of terrorism in the name of religion.

Get to the core to find solution - (Cons)


1. There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism. In fact, the nature of terrorism is always
changing. What is called terrorism one year may be called war, liberation, freedom fighting, or
revolutionary action another year. Freedom fighters and revolutionaries should not be labeled
terrorists. Unless the root cause is known, the treatment may not be done. It needs strong
political and social will power to get rid of terrorism.

2. Terrorism is an emotionally charged word that is frequently used to politically and socially
denigrate somebody or some group. One would have to delve deeper in order to understand why
so many men, women, and even children are driven into such acts of blatant violence and that
there must be some reason why they would resort to such extremities of violence. Has it become
a norm for these people? Is the war that they wage against the people of other religions or faith,
just? Perhaps no one can ever answer these questions. A person would have to be hurt a lot,
his/her family taken away and be really desperate before he/she attempts a suicide bombing.

3. The views upon the most widely used definitions in criminal justice are simple ones. All resting
upon our history which has provided us with many examples of great acts of violence that have
been conducted in the name of religion, or for other religious purposes. There have been great
acts of martyrdom, which are reflected in the psyche of the terrorism and suicide bomber of
today.

4. Many people seem to side with the terrorists as they think that they are freedom fighters, fighting
for their right. Acts of terrorism are a never-ending phenomenon. What gives rise to terrorism
required understanding the complex social factors. It may be important to note that the means
used by terrorists are illegitimate, not always their ends, which may be legitimate ends.
However, the term freedom fighting is often reserved to describe nonmilitary (illegitimate)
means to achieve legitimate ends. such as the desire to obtain concessions or bring about social
change.
Nip in the bud
Many people tend to think that terrorism and terrorist acts are caused by certain organizations
because of their destructive agenda. It is, however, important to realize that a lot of ideas
concerning social construction of deviances go behind why a person becomes a terrorist. Finding
quick socio-political and religious solutions to nip in the bud this menace must become the
priority of all concerned, if the society is supposed to be saved from this disease.

The shield of human rights, religion is applicable only when you are not violent and do not
indulge in criminal activities. It is not possible to kill, pelt stones just for petty money, set the
people on fire live, do all the bad things with women, drive your non supporters out of their
homes not to allow them come back and hope nothing would happen to you. In fact where reason
does not work, other harsh methods are used against terrorism to protect the democratic structure
of the society.

Accordingly, unless those who instigate young people on the path of terrorism, are reformed or
taken out of socio-political system, the process of rising terrorism might continue putting the
democratic fibre of the society in danger.

Making Aadhaar mandatory is not a good idea


Indian Democratic system is passing through a grave crisis of implementing the Aadhaar Card. It
is difficult to present the views without rightly knowing what the Aadhaar is. The Aadhaar in
fact is a 12 digit unique identification number that every resident of India (regardless of
citizenship) is entitled to get after he furnishes his demographic and biometric
information. Demographic information shall include the name, age, gender and address while
Biometric information shall include biological characteristics of the person e.g. fingerprints, eye
scan ( iris scan). No Collection of information pertaining to race, religion, caste, language,
income or health is made.

The Aadhaar number shall serve as proof of identity, subject to authentication. However, it
should not be construed as proof of citizenship or domicile. Aadhaar number shall be issued after
verification of information collected for the person. Such collected information shall be stored in
a database called the Central Identities Data Repository. This repository shall later be used to
provide authentication services to service providers.

Government of India set up an office of Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) in


2009 within the Planning Commission. In 2010, the government introduced the National
Identification Authority of India Bill in Parliament to give statutory status to this office.

For - Yes, Aadhaar is unnecessarily being made mandatory


Implementation of Aadhar has been the subject of a severe criticism from various quarters
cabinet colleagues and bureaucrats, policy experts and activists, even a few state governments.
Procedures for data collection and the potential errors therein to concerns over privacy, are being
questioned. Besides, the existence of an older exercise, the National Population Register (NPR),
led by the home ministry, is also posing a threat to the project. Most of the eminent ones accept
the need for creating a systematic database of our citizenry, the path to be taken for this has
created a vertical divide in the government and is leading to a turf war.
UIDAIs process of using multiple registrars and enrolment agencies to collect individual data as
well as its system of relying on secondary information via existing identification documents
has become a core debatable issue. The Registrar General of India (RGI) while compiling the
National Population Register push for a method of public scrutiny in which individual data is
collected directly and put up before the public to weed out any fraud. The method used in NPR
helped villagers in Gujarats border areas expose strangers (from Pakistan) on the rolls when
the data was put up for public scrutiny. This reinforced the belief that the NPR process, despite
being long and painstaking, is more foolproof. RGI and census commissioner Dr C.
Chandramouli found the data collection for Aadhaar faulty and stated Our objection is to the
data collection by other registrars who have a different orientation from ours. From a security
point of view, they are not acceptable. it was felt both programmes could pool their data and
share information. But the home ministry has refused to use UID data for NPR.

The agencies say the Aadhaar numbers will be issued in about 90 days time but in most cases, it
takes between four to six months. Many agencies are asking for additional data but they are not
communicating to the people that everything is not mandatory and they dont have to fill up
everything in the form.

There are many issues with UIDs biometric data collection. Labourers and poor people, the
primary targets of the Aadhar process, often do not have clearly defined fingerprints because of
excessive manual labour. Even old people with dry hands have faced difficulties. Weak iris
scans of people with cataract have also posed problems. In many cases, agencies have refused to
register them, defeating the very aim of inclusion of poor and marginalized people.

Activists also question UIDAIs authority to collect biometric data. Human rights and UID
activist Gopal Krishna,is critical about Aadhaar There is ambiguity about biometric data. It is
not clearly defined in the National Identification Bill. UIDAI also provides for storing biometric
data like fingerprints forever while even the Prisoners Act provides that this data should be
destroyed on acquittal. Usha Ramanathan activist and legal expert fumes The whole thing is so
illegal. Every statutory organisation can only act within a given mandate and citizens rules do
not provide for it. The Citizenship Act has nothing on biometric data. She further says The
whole emphasis is on enrolment with no planning on how this is going to be used. UIDAIs
system of using introducers to identify and provide numbers to the homeless and those without
documents is another grey area.

The Public Distribution System is getting worst affected. Going by the system of present fair
price shops (FPS), each of them has a specified number of households registered to it. The FPS
stores grains only for the registered households. The FPS owner would not know how many
migrants, and for what periods, would come in and demand their quota. Hence, for lack of stock,
he would turn away migrant workers who demand grains. Therefore, the FPS system
is incompatible with the UID-linked portability of PDS.

Aadhaar therefore, is engraved with the following risk factors - First, the project would
necessarily entail the violation of privacy and civil liberties of people. Second, it remains unclear
whether biometric technology the cornerstone of the project is capable of the gigantic task
of de-duplication. The Unique Identification Authority of India's (UIDAI) Biometrics Standards
Committee has noted that retaining biometric efficiency for a database of more than one billion
persons has not been adequately analysed and the problem of fingerprint quality in India has
not been studied in depth. Third, there has been no cost-benefit analysis or feasibility report for
the project . Finally, the so called benefits of the project in the social sector, such as in the Public
Distribution System (PDS), are not realistic.
Cons No, Making Aadhaar mandatory, is a good idea
Identity of a citizen in the wake of infiltrations from neighbouring countries may be described as
the missing link in India's efforts to rise as a superpower. Aadhaar may be termed as the
technology linked identity drive in right direction.

The UID Aadhaarproject has two different dimensions. The first one is that it is linked to
national security and the other one is developmental concern. Both the factors are equally
important.

So far the recipient of benefits under various government sponsored schemes has to establish his
identity and eligibility many times by producing multiple documents for verification. The
verification of such documents is done by multiple authorities. An Aadhaar enabled bank
account can be used by the beneficiary to receive multiple welfare payments as opposed to the
one scheme, one bank approach.

Aadhaar shall be able to reduce the involvement of middlemen who siphon off part of the
subsidy. In the new system, the cash shall be transferred directly to individual bank accounts
and the beneficiaries shall be identified through Aadhaar. The government has firmly planned to
transfer benefits under various schemes directly into the bank accounts of individual
beneficiaries.

The MNREGS, scholarships, pensions and health benefits in all districts are proposed. There are
around 34 schemes that have been identified to implement the DCT (Direct Cash
Transfer)programme. It can be termed as a good beginning.

So far the government subsidies contained products like food grains, fertilizers, water, electricity
and services education, healthcare by providing them at a lower than market price to the
beneficiaries. This has led to operational inefficiencies. An Aadhaar enabled DCT system will
improve the situation and would ensure timely payment directly to intended beneficiaries, reduce
transaction costs and leakages. DCTs shall provide poor families the choice of using the cash as
they wish. Having access to cash will also relieve some of their financial constraints.

Aadhaar number shall also help to eliminate the duplicate cards and fake cards for non-existent
beneficiaries in the schemes.

Aadhaar would qualitatively restructure the role of the state in the social sector. The UID project
is aimed to expand India's social security system and to ensure targeting with precision. The
UIDAI claims that UID would help the government shift from a number of indirect benefits into
direct benefits. Let us hope that Aadhaar will serve the well intended purpose. Millions are
supposed to be covered with Aadhaar
Law should be an instrument of Social Change
The recent debate on various customs and practices prevailing in the society look upon the Law
as an instrument of social change. There are many customs in a society especially in our part of
the world which are discriminatory and always play a part in oppressing the weaker sections of
the society.

The debate and discussion in different quarters have also reached the B-schools who have
included this topic in their Group Discussion round in final admission process.

Key facts
There always arises a need to reform the society so that it keeps track with the fast changing
world. The courts of law can play a powerful role in making the society more tolerant and
adjusting towards the people who always remain at its margins. Why should the women be left
on their own by uttering triple Talaq? How can women feel safe while going places in odd
hours? How Law could bring awareness on the issues on environment for the benefit of future
generation. All this can be done by not only passing an Act but also making it penetrate into the
social system as happened in past also.

Any judicial proceeding in connection with the dispensation of justice to activate the
instrument of Judicial Process in setting right the wrong done or eliminating injustice from the
society is regarded as Judicial Process for social ordering. In many cases judicial process or
law have acted as a means of social change. Justice P. N. Bhagwati and Justice V. R. Krishna
Iyer, both were of the opinion that law is an instrument of social change, social justice and social
ordering.

Evidence: Law has remained an instrument of social change


In 1795 infanticide was declared illegal
In December 1829, the practice of Sati was declared illegal
In 1856 Hindu widows remarriage act was passed
In 1870 registration of birth was made mandatory
Early marriages were declared illegal by the Sharda act 1930
Inter caste and inter religion marriages were made legal by Special Marriage Act 1954
Right of women to inherit property was recognized by Hindu Succession Act
Factory act; Industrial Dispute act; Trade Union Act made the life of working class better than
earlier

Enforcement of Fundamental rights: Key of social change


Deprivation of the fundamental rights often results into social disorder. Article 32 is an important
instrument of judicial process to enforce social ordering which empowers the Supreme Court to
issue directions or orders or writs for enforcement of any right conferred under the Constitution
for securing social justice.

The Supreme Court is a sentinel of all fundamental rights. In every area of social disorder the
apex court has taken recourse of judicial process effectively in every area of social disorder thus
granting great relief in cases of social injustice to the affected groups of the society under this
provision. This important article of the Indian constitution has accorded free hand to the
Supreme Court to take suitable action for the enforcement of social order. Article 32 empowers
the Supreme Court while Article 226 empowers the High Courts to issue writs against any
authority of the State in order to enforce the Fundamental rights.
Using the above mentioned provision the Supreme Court of India has many a times acted to
safeguard the social justice and rights of the citizens and has come out with remarkable
judgements in providing justice in cases related to the backward class of the society, Bigamy,
Bride Burning, issues of Bonded Labour, Caste System, Child labour, Child prostitution, Dowry
death, Female Foeticide, harassment of women, crime against women, and immoral trafficking.

Law to make society safer


Justice Rangnath Mishra, former Chief Justice of India had observed that 'Law is a means to an
end and justice is the end. Law cannot be effective if it does not take the recourse of judicial
process. Judiciary plays a remarkable role in making the society safer for the people and ensures
social order.

In a society as diverse as India Judiciary has indeed played a big role in trying to maintain the
social balance by providing justice and rights to the people who are living at the margins of our
society. In fact when every hope is lost its the judiciary only which comes to the rescue of down
trodden and disposed class.

Implementation of Law: All depends on execution


Making law and delivering justice for the betterment of society are completed by the legislative
and judicial system. Unless the law is enforced by the executive body or the law enforcing
agency police or the respective departments, it remains without teeth. If law is implemented
without discrimination and keeping all equal, the social change will not be dream and law could
play the most effective role in bringing about the social change

Browsing at Workplace affects productivity


Lot of debate is going on whether Browsing be allowed at the work place. Does it impact the
office productivity adversely or should has no adverse impact?

The issue has come up for discussion at many places and now B-schools have included this topic
in their Group Discussion (GD) round.

Key facts

There is no doubt that browsing at work place goes far enough and it affects the productivity
adversely.

There are many activities employees do that waste time at work. Excessive meetings, co-worker
interactions, office politics, and fixing mistakes are a few. one of the biggest culprits is surfing
the Internet.

For the topic


A majority of employees regularly spend time surfing the Internet on websites unrelated to work.
Because time is money, every hour wasted has a direct negative impact on the bottom line.
An important survey conducted on this activity revealed 64 percent of employees visit non-work
related websites every day at work. Of that group, 39 percent spend one hour or less per week,
29 percent spend 2 hours per week, 21 percent waste 5 hours per week, and only 3 percent said
they waste 10 hours or more doing unrelated activities. On the top of it, a CEO of a big company
finds that these figures are underestimated.
The has also been revealed which websites keep employees most off-task. Not surprisingly,
socializing on Facebook occupy 41 percent, while 37 percent use LinkedIn, and 25 percent are
shopping at Amazon. Other destinations include Yahoo and Google+ and to a lesser extent
Twitter and Pinterest.
The younger, more tech-savvy worker demographic appears to be the biggest group of
recreational Web surfers. Of employees between the ages of 18 and 35, approximately 73
percent reported spending time inappropriately at work on a daily basis.
The No. 1 reason for slacking at work is that the employees dont feel challenged enough in their
job. Other reasons include; they work too many hours, the company doesn't give sufficient
incentive to work harder, they are not satisfied with their career, and they are just bored.

How to get rid of Browsing menace

There are many ways companies can combat the effect of wasted employee time within their
organizations. For example short breaks throughout the day can help them achieve higher levels
of productivity.
As it relates to inappropriate web site browsing, companies can implement a web filtering tool
on company computers to block or track websites not related to work activities, and if you
suspect excessive wasted time, the IT group can install an activity-monitoring software to follow
all computer activity on a particular PC.
Technology savvy people know how to access their favourite websites through smart phones or
proxy websites. It needs to be tracked.

It will be good idea if the companies create, publish, and enforce policies on personal Internet
use. It will help the company to achieve higher levels of productivity. Establishing and enforcing
policies should improve productivity and can also increase the security of company information,
the security of company technical assets (computers). This will potentially reduce the liability
associated with issues related to employee job performance.

Social Activism is necessary for survival of democratic society


To make the Government work for the welfare of the people and keep the society safe, experts
have been debating on the issue of social activism that may function as catalyst to keep different
agencies working.

With the recent increase in incidents against common people, women while different
Government agencies remaining apathetic to their roles towards people and society, the need for
social activism has been felt more. The topic has found place in B-school GD round also.

Below is shared the excerpts of GD round in a B school which has recently conducted its final
admission round. There were 7 participants in the GD and the time allotted was 15 minutes.
Names of the candidates changed to protect the identity.

Moderator - Good morning friends. The topic for todays Group Discussion is Social activism
is necessary for survival of democratic society. You have one minute to think before starting the
discussion. The observers will neither interfere nor participate in the discussion.

(Immediately after the moderator leaves, murmurings begin for a few seconds and before
the completion of one minute a candidates voice brings about silence all round)
Rishab ( In a clear but sharp voice)- Friends Let us understand what Social or any activism is
before expressing our views. In my view, the activity that awakens the sleeping people about
something going wrong and enlightens them what remedies are to be taken to get the things in
order by themselves, by the arms of constitutional forces Parliament, Legislative assemblies,
executive bodies administration, government and the Judiciary, is the activism that would
protect the interests of our Democratic system of society.

SwarnaPrabha (With a smiling face but firm voice)- Aptly said, but what we need to know is
whether this activity is necessary all the time and whether it should turn violent at all- so number
of factors are there. Friends, there are three major words related to the topic - Activism, Survival,
Democracy. I emphasise that the activism is necessary all the time but it shouldnt ever take the
violent shape. Voilence brings about huge loss of life and public property which is a national loss
and must always be condemned. Constant vigil is the price to be paid for survival of democratic
society.

Rishabh (Taking a clue from her presentation, makes second effective entry) - Exactly, the
activists in a democratic society constitute the enlightened citizens of the society, print and
electronic media, social activists, reformers. More than 60 years have gone by, since we adopted
Democracy. Our constitution clearly mentions that every citizen- regardless of gender, caste,
creed- shall be equal before law and no discrimination shall be made on such grounds. But the
daunting realities have contradictory stories to unfold. India with its thousands of sub-castes
stands divided on the basis of social divisions at every nook and corner. People, children, women
are suppressed. The need of social uprising arises here. These are the social activists who raise a
voice against such atrocities and let the world know about the same.

Meenakshi (Intervening) Both of you mean to say that the law makers, implementation
agencies and judiciary- all are useless bodies and these are the activists who run the system? (A
few protesting voices are heard but Meenakshi raises her voice) Activism whether in print,
speech, electronic media, may instigate violence which is harmful for the society and economy.
It is very difficult to have a controlled activism when the passions run high on emotions. Swarna
Prabha herself doubts this methodology, so when this happens- many people get injured and
there is a loss of national property as well. This in fact is detrimental to the survival of society.
Democratic values are granted by the constitution and these are the government agencies who
should see to it that the same are duly implemented instead of creating obstacles in public life
and hampering the lawful process. All the Dharna, road blocks and gatherings hamper the
everyday life and cause problems to the society. So we have to be aware of it for our own
benefit. Any issue can be addressed through the laid down procedure.

Rajesh Well said Meenakshi, we cannot leave the house open and unlocked and expect safety
as well. Necessary precautions for our own security are required. Constant vigil in democracy
means to remain watchful and not to take to streets on all the issues. On the contrary, it would
mean that we have no trust on the system that we adopted for our well being.

Mridulaxman- (Shaking his head sideways) We now know very well- what the Activism is. In
fact these are the activists who educate the people, garner their support and try to get the wrong
doings rectified. With all this activism sometimes the things get better and sometimes the
activists are crushed to be replaced by more activists fighting for a just cause so that the promises
granted in the constitution are kept. (Taking a deep breath and giving a sign that he intends to
speak further, he begins again) Safety and empowerment of Women who are the catalysts of
economic growth and social justice in a great democracy like India go on lacking despite all the
rhetoric and formation of laws. While the constitution gives all the rights to women, their plight
is far from solved. Women folk do not feel safe while moving from one place to another. They
are not safe even in the big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Mangalore etc. where
thousands of women work shoulder to shoulder with men. Tragic incidents of gang rape,
kidnapping, chain snatching and even atrocities by the defenders of law to them take place.

Surendra Kumar- In a civilized democratic society ones right is others duty unless this
doctrine is meticulously followed the survival of society is difficult. There should be a stricter
law to enforce against those who think of their rights only and not of their duties. Any activity in
favour of one aspect may cause other confronting activity on other issue. This may flare up the
path of confrontation as sometimes happen in issues like reservation in jobs, religious issues
etc. It is better to nip in the bud before any activities on sensitive issues take place.

Divya- In my view without activism society cannot survive. In a a country that got freedom after
so much struggle and formed a great constitution for making the country a welfare state bringing
liberty, equality, fraternity with a view to make them feel free and safe, it has to be checked that
the said values are not dying and their growth and betterment are being ensured for the survival
of a free and vibrant society.

Mridulaxman (Making second entry) These are the social activists who cry foul, get the public
opinion formed, gather in thousands, make the government bow before the constructive activism
for the lapses committed by it. Story of Vasant Dhoble, a policeman of Mumbai who got women
paraded in front of Cameras calling them prostitutes, two girls who were caught by police simply
for awakening the society for unnecessarily paralyzing the city of Mumbai, ghastly bus gang
rape in Delhi that made the democracy veil its face in shame- got instant social activism sprung
up with such intensity where entire nation became united and demanded due justice to the
sufferers. This is the power of activism which infuses life in the dying democracy. The sleeping
leaders and lawmakers come to life and fierce debates and discussions for the survival of
democratic system begin all over the country.

SwarnaPrabha-(Making second entry) You cannot place a cop at every corner, these are the
people who have to watch the interests of their society. This is the fear of activists that
corruption and corrupt practices are catching the attention of people at large. The irregularities
committed are being highlighted. Those who are under the watchful eye of activism which can
be media, social networking, NGOs etc. now think twice to go for such corrupt practices.
Demand for Jan Lokpal Bill by Civil Society, agitations by Shri Anna Hazare, revelations by
Shri Arvind Kejriwal and his team and such other activities have revived the democracy in
India. One can now hope for a better future.

Rishabh-(Making third entry) - Democratic values should lead to the welfare of people which is
the spirit of Democracy. Since the choice is always between the means and the end, the end is
more important. The activism with its non-violent nature makes its voice heard consistently to
attain the end of preservation of democracy which works for the people. Democracy, that is in
danger now, is the form of government the visionaries and constitution makers of our country
adopted while declaring India a Sovereign, socialist, secular democratic Republic which shall
function as the government of the people, for the people and by the people. Is the government
functioning as per the guidelines or has deviated -has to be ensured with the active participation
of the people who are awakened by the Activists.

Moderator - Time is over, friends. Thank you for such a meaningful discussion.
Feedback Group Discussion did not enter fish market, candidates were well behaved-no one turned
Moderator - Time is over, friends. Thank you for such a meaningful discussion.
bully. Individual feedback is as follows
1. Rishabh- Took the lead although his 1st entry was not so effective, the second and third entry brought out
leader. Has a good knowledge and has a clear concept. Recommended and rated 2nd.

2. SwarnaPrabha- Has a commanding and sharp voice with logical presentation. Made two entries First en
the approach with violent and non violent activism- this went on to contradict her own presentation. She s
immediately and in her second entry made the things clear enough to convey how important is the activism
group

3. Meenakshi- Spoke against the topic has a logical expression but limited knowledge, went on speaking des
with her voice clearly audible. She caught a candidates slight deviation of thought and didnt forget to quo
presentation. Rated 4th in the group

4. Rajesh- A follower tried to speak on the lines of Meenakshi without any thing new contributed. Not reco

5. Mridulaxman- Spoke and presented the ideas skillfully for the topic. Has clear flow of thought with supp
substantiate his viewpoint. The participants heard him without any intervention in between. Recommende

6. Surendra Kumar- A little confused, trying to go for balanced approach didnt contribute much to the disc
couldnt understand the topic well or has insufficient knowledge to express himself with clarity of thought.
recommended

7. Divya- Favoured activism with a short presentation and tried to be balanced. Knowledge base is weak. Fin
express effectively given the opportunity. Not recommended

India needs a uniform civil code


The disparities and atrocities on women before or after marriage, the issue of triple Talaq
across the country has flared up the necessity of Uniform Civil code in the country to protect the
civilian rights.

It is mentioned in the Article 44 of the Indian Constitution that the state shall endeavor to secure
for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. In the light of the Indian
constitutions article 44 it is always asked whether it is not a high time that India adopted a
uniform civil code. Personal laws are civil laws which deal with matters such as marriage,
divorce, custody, adoption, inheritance etc. The article being one of the directive principles of
the state policy clearly be endeavored rather being forced upon any community or
communities. But there are many essential questions to be addressed before such a code can turn
into reality.

Need for a uniform civil code


Almost all the countries of the world have a common civil code for all their citizens. The basic
idea behind the formulation of a uniform civil code is to end discriminations based on religions.
Personal law of nearly all the religions have acted as a tool of oppression of the women through
which they are suppressed most of the times citing religious and social obligations. Personal laws
have always played a big role in causing the rise of gender discrimination. Uniform civil code
guaranteed by the constitution has also become a very sensitive and controversial issue which
has always been communalized by people having vested interests.

In a country like India where the principle of equality of all citizens is enshrined in the
constitution, different sets of personal laws for different religious communities go against this
very principle of the constitution.

Different rules of civil law go against the secular credentials of the republic and also challenge
the concept of unity in diversity. In a diverse society like India the laws needed to deal with the
disputes related to the issues of marriage, divorce, custody, adoption, inheritance need to be
same for all irrespective of religion, caste or sect. At a time when reforms for strengthening the
position of women in the society are being given the utmost significance and attention, there is
an urgent need for a new civil code to eliminate discrimination against women in the society.

A Uniform Civil Code administers the same set of secular civil laws to govern different people
belonging to different religions and regions. This does away with the right of citizens to be
governed under different personal laws based on their religion or ethnicity. Uniform Civil Code
will in the long run ensure equality.

It is necessary that law be divorced from religion. With the enactment of a uniform code,
secularism will be strengthened; much of the present day separation and divisiveness between
various religious groups in the country will disappear, and India will emerge as a much more
cohesive and integrated nation.

The crusade for the implementation of the uniform civil code should get the support of all
progressive and right thinking citizens of the country. It is the need of the hour. There is also
need for a political consensus to implement the uniform civil code. In a nutshell, uniform civil
code is necessary to effect an integration of a country as diversified as India by bringing all the
communities into a common platform which do not form the essence of a single particular
religion. A uniform civil code will also enforce the idea of secularism enshrined in the Indian
constitution more forcefully.

Too many obstacles in implementing the Climate Change Summit resolutions


One of the hot debatable global issues that called for debate and action plan to reduce global
warming and how to reduce the climate changes around the world in near future has emerged as
one of the most relevant topics of Group Discussion in GD round in many MBA colleges.3
You need to study, understand the various issues related to the Summit to put forth your ideas on
it in GD round.

Global Climate Change: Cause and effect


Global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. Physicists
have been theorising about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the
atmosphere. Several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of
these gases in the atmosphere.
During the past few decades scientists have been measuring and establishing a relationship
between current carbon levels and temperatures. It has consistently pointed in one direction that
rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to
higher temperatures.
Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the
threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible
Threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current
emissions trajectories we are heading for a rise about 5C. The temperature difference between
todays world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can
mean big differences for the Earth.
Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions would be over in 2020. Need was felt under
aegis of United nations to convene the Climate Change Summit involving more than 190
countries at Paris and arrive at the common formula to reduce the effect.

Paris Summit: Background


Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path much faster than earlier during past few
years.
In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and forged the United Nations framework
Convention on Climate Change. The Agreement bound governments to take action to avoid
emerging dangers of Climate change. Role of Developed and developing countries was not
specified.
In 1997 Kyoto Protocol happened. The pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%,
compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on
emissions reductions. Developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other
rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at
will.
In late 2004, Russia decided to pass the treaty as part of a move to have its application for World
TradeOrganisation membership accepted by the European Union. This made up the weight
needed, and theprotocol came into force.
In 2007 an action plan was agreed at Balin in 2007 after much drama. This set the world on the
courseto a new agreement taking over from Kyoto.
The next was the Copenhagen conference 2009. All of the worlds developed countries and the
biggest developing countries agreed for the first time to limits on their greenhouse gas
emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the worlds biggest emitters were united towards a
single goal.

Paris Summit on Climate Change: Key facts


To set a goal of limiting Global Warming to less than 2 degrees Celsius compared to pre-
industrial levels, the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was
held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015.
It was the 21st yearly session of the 1992 United nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties to 1997 Kyoto Protocol
The conference negotiated the global agreement on the reduction of Climate Change, the text of
which represented a consensus of the representatives of the 196 parties attending it.
The agreement becomes legally binding if joined by at least 55 countries which together
represent at least 55 percent of global greenhouse emissions. Such parties will need to sign the
agreement in New York between 22 April 2016 to 21 April 2017, and also adopt it within their
own legal systems.

Achievements at Paris Summit


The deal reached in Paris by more than 190 countries to limit the impact of climate change on
the world has been met with messages of excitement, optimism and relief from around the globe,
with a few notable exceptions.
Countries will also be legally required to reconvene every 5 years starting in 2023 to publicly
report on how they are doing in cutting emissions compared to their plans. The agreement
establishes a "global stocktake" which revisits the national goals to "update and enhance" them
every 5 years.
Prior to the conference, 146 national climate panels publicly presented draft national climate
contributions (called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions INDCs). These suggested
commitments were estimated to limit global warming to 2.7 degrees Celsius by 2100
The agreement calls for zero net anthropogenic Green house emissions to be reached during the
second half of the 21st century.
The parties will also "pursue efforts to" limit the temperature increase to 1.5C. The 1.5C goal
will require zero emissions sometime between 2030 and 2050.

Obstacles
Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to
invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure
to the likely damage from climate change
The declaration excludes the two key issues that India has been stressing on- a clear commitment
from developed nations to stick to their promise to contribute to the Green Climate Fund (as part
of their historical responsibility for the emissions that they added when they were developing)
and also a sharing of technology by rich nations (to help developing nations move to clean
energy).
The new deal will not, on its own, solve global warming. At best it will cut global greenhouse
gas emissions by about half enough as is necessary to stave off an increase in atmospheric
temperatures of 2 degrees Celsius or 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit

Indian Stand
Countries like India have been firm on the position that it is the developed countries who should
contribute to the Green Climate Fund. In 2011, they had pledged 100 billion dollars per year
after 2020 to the fund.
India has taken a tough stand at the Paris climate conference with Prime Minister Narendra Modi
saying any agreement without differentiation would be morally wrong and asked rich nations
to ratify the second commitment period of the existing climate treaty, Kyoto Protocol.
India's position is that it will make contribution to its neighbouring countries but under "south-
south solidarity" and nothing should serve as an excuse for developed nations to avoid their own
responsibility to add to the fund.
300 million in India are still without the supply of electricity and coal is among the prime
sources for the country to meet its growing energy needs.
India is among the developing nations who are looking to the developed nations to share the
latest clean coal technology.

Net Neutrality is essential to make India Digital


Post demonetization India proposes to march on digital transactions more than Cash transactions.
One of the hot GD topics in top MBA colleges Group Discussion round is Net Neutrality.

There is a lot of debate going on Net Neutrality in India and its pros and cons. Net Neutrality in
India is one of the current hot topics and in all probability one or other session on Group
Discussion may ask the shortlisted candidates to share their views on this topic. There are
arguments in favour and against the concept of Net Neutrality in India. While many advocate the
Net Neutrality and want strict regulation on it, others find that it may check the expanded access
in future and may not allow India to turn into a digital country which it aspires to grow into.

Net Neutrality: Know the concept & background


As telephone became the part of society from the beginning of 20th Century, the internet started
to take off in 1980s and 1990s.
Just like the telephone line where you can dial any number with any operator whether MTNL,
BSNL or others and get connected to it without any hindrance, when a web user connects to a
website or web service, he or she is supposed to get the same speed. Data rate for Youtube
videos and Facebook photos is theoretically same. Users can access any legal website or web
service without any interference from any internet service provider (ISP). This principle is
known as net neutrality. An ISP does not control the traffic that passes its servers.
Since internet is built around the idea of openness, it allows people to connect and exchange
information freely, if the information or service is not illegal.
Net neutrality implies that all Internet users be treated equally without discrimination on charges
of any type to access any legal site by user, content, site, platform, application, type of attached
equipment, or mode of communication.

Net Neutrality in India: No strict regulation creating problem


There have already been a few violations of net neutrality principles by some Indian service
providers.
In March 2015, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) released a formal consultation
paper on Regulatory Framework for Over-the-top (OTT) services, seeking comments from the
public. The consultation paper was criticised for being one sided and having confusing
statements. It received condemnation from various politicians and Indian Internet users. The last
date for submission of comment was 24 April 2015 and TRAI received over a million emails.
As of August 2015, there were no laws governing Net Neutrality in India. The government has
called in for comments and suggestions regarding net neutrality as of 14 August, and offered
people one day to post their views on the mygov forum. After this, the final decision regarding
the debate was to be made.
The debate on network neutrality in India gathered public attention after Airtel, a Mobile phone
service provider in India, announced in December 2014 additional charges for making voice
calls from its network using apps like WhatsApp, Skype among others.

Net Neutrality is Advantageous


Net neutrality will enable the web users to connect freely to whatever website or service they
want. ISPs do not bother with what kind of content is flowing from their servers. This has
allowed the internet to grow into a truly global network and has allowed people to freely express
themselves. For example, you can criticize your ISP on a blog post and the ISP will not restrict
access to that post for its other subscribers even though the post may harm its business.
Net neutrality will also enable a level playing field on the internet. If you wish to start a website
of yours, you don't need lot of money or connections. Just host your website and you are good to
go. If your service is good, it will find favour with web users. Unlike the cable TV where you
have to forge alliances with cable connection providers to make sure that your channel reaches
viewers, on internet you don't have to talk to ISPs to put your website online.
Top examples are the creations of Google, Facebook, Twitter and many other services. All had
very humble beginnings. They started as a basic websites with modest resources. But they
succeeded because net neutrality allowed web users to access these websites in an easy and
unhindered way.
In case there is no net neutrality, Internet Service Providers will have the power as well as would
like to regulate internet traffic the way they like to derive extra benefit from it. For example,
several ISPs believe that they should be allowed to charge companies for services like YouTube
and Netflix because these services consume more bandwidth compared to a normal website.
These ISPs in fact, want a share in the money that YouTube or Netflix make.
Internet free access that we have today will not exist without net neutrality. Instead of free
access, there could be "package plans" for consumers. For example, if you pay Rs 600, you will
only be able to access websites based in India. To access international websites, you may have to
pay much more. There may be different connection speed for different type of content,
depending on how much you are paying for the service and what "add-on package" you have
bought.
No innovation and creativity on the web would be seen without net neturality. It is possible that
ISPs may charge web companies to enable faster access to their websites. The website may begin
opening faster or slower according to the payment plan. It implies that bigger players like
Google will be able to pay more to make access to Youtube faster for web users but a startup that
wants to create a different and better video hosting site may not be able to do that.
We will have to pay more to ISPs without net neutrality to get a faster access. Instead of an open
and free internet, we are likely to get a web that has silos in it.

Net Neutrality may check future growth


Expanding Internet access is the top priority for India. This is the reason that most of the big
announcements during Modis visit to Silicon Valley were in this domain not just Facebook, but
also public commitments made by Microsoft and Google to connect villages and railway
stations. It will be possible by shifting costs to content providers who enter into exclusive
contracts with data providers.
Broadband infrastructure is weak in India. Spectrum is expensive. Power is still in short supply.
Digital access is now linked to the basics like Subsidies and rations, identification, financial
inclusion and political participation. Such an arrangement could expand internet use rapidly in a
country where some 80 per cent of the population does not have access, benefiting crores of
people.
Many believe that net neutrality is an elite idea like Zuckerbergs view that Its not an equal
internet if the majority of people cant participate.
There is a belief that net neutrality would require unnecessary government intervention, a
forcible levelling of the playing field. The Government should not prevent Facebook, Reliance
and certain websites from entering into exclusive arrangements, particularly if it helps to expand
access and deflect costs from consumers.
With the rise of incomes, consumers may gradually opt for data plans that give them greater
access, foregoing more restrictive but free data services.
There is a huge scarcity of power in India. We need to resolve this problem; install solar panels
in rural areas. This can be used to install routers. Information related to agriculture, irrigation,
cattle rearing and organic farming can be transmitted online and telecasted.

Smart City Project will give wings to growth


Smart City Project in India is one of the current hot topics and in all probability one or other
session on Group Discussion in MBA colleges may ask the shortlisted candidates to express their
ideas on this GD topic.

Smart City: Short definition in Indian context


A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure,
sustainable real estate, communications and market viability.
It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and is the basis for
providing essential services to residents.
In a smart city, economic development and activity is sustainable and rationally incremental by
virtue of being based on success-oriented market drivers such as supply and demand.
Smart city will benefit everybody, including citizens, businesses, the government and the
environment.
In smart cities a number of services such as an e-governance portal, an emergency helpline, e-
education, a smart-card enabling cashless retail transactions and recording of medical data for
better treatment are present that facilitates the proper functioning of the system.

Need of smart city in India


Across the world, the stride of migration from rural to urban areas is increasing. By 2050, about
70 per cent of the population will be living in cities, and India is no exception to this fact.
India will need about 500 new cities to accommodate the influx.
India proposes to have 100 Smart Cities to cope with the rush.
Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has announced setting up/upgrading of existing cities to 100
smart cities. If takes shape, it will pave way to tremendous growth of India.

How Advantageous
The 100 Smart cities in India are going to give a new shape and new recognition to India in the
coming future.
It will improve the pace of economic growth and can provide number of job opportunities to the
new talents in the country.
The Indian Prime Minister agenda of the Skill Development to the youths will gain success
when this project starts taking its shape.
The advancement towards new technology will drive more youths to learn and to earn their
livelihood.
The Make in India project will also boom when the Industrial Corridors such as DMIC,
BMEC, AKIC, and CBIC will come into real picture. The development of these corridors will
itself contribute a lot in the infrastructural and economical growth of the smart cities lying
nearby these belts.
Smart City plan is part of a larger agenda of creating Industrial Corridors between Indias big
metropolitan cities in India. These include the Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), the
Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor (CBIC) and the Bangalore-Mumbai Economic Corridor
(BMEC). It is hoped that many industrial and commercial centres will be recreated as Smart
Cities along these corridors.
The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor (DMIC), which is spread across six states, seeks to create
seven new smart cities as the nodes of the corridor in its first phase. There are several such smart
city projects being undertaken across the country in places such as Dholera in Gujarat, Kochi in
Kerala, Aurangabad in Maharashtra, Manesar in Delhi NCR, Khushkera in Rajasthan,
Krishnapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, Ponneri in Tamil Nadu and Tumkur in Karnataka.

No funding issues
Japan has offered a great volume of investment to the tune of $ 4.5 bn in India to develop smart
cities in the first phase of the DMIC project through lending from the Japan International
Cooperation Agency (JICA).
Japan is also working closely with the government for the development of other industrial
corridors.
Government has opened the doors for the foreign investors to invest in India and contributes in
the development of the smart cities in India.
IBM and Cisco are the technological partners in developing the smart cities. IBM and Cisco have
prepared the Integrated Communication Technology (ICT) Master Plan for the smart cities under
the DMIC project in the first phase.
Smart cities project will raise the living standard of the common people as well as it will
contribute in the development of the Indian economy. The smart city project will place India
among the top nations of the world. The Indian economy will then have great influence in the
Global economy.

Areas of concern
A large amount of Capital is required to develop the smart cities and therefore needs to attract
more and more foreign investment which is not an easy task.
The government has to liberalize the trade and the other Industry reforms to attract the foreign
investors.
The other biggest concern is over land acquisition. Most of these smart cities are being built
ground up, on land currently owned by villagers who may not be open to a change of ownership
or who may want a premium price.
The lack of the coordination between the various Government agencies and project execution are
the other areas of concern.
There is a need of change in the mindset and the segregation of the domain expertise and
authorities, such as police, Municipal Corporation etc, with their own agendas and structured
processes.

Gender bias in portraying Women in Advertisements

MBAUniverse.com has started a new expert series of GD PI WAT preparation for MBA
Admission 2014. This series of articles will help aspirants prepare for their GD PI WAT by
providing them valid contents, probable topics and experts advice to help you succeed during
admission process at various B schools. While the written exam tests the quantitative, reasoning
and verbal skills of an applicant, it is not all that a future manager is expected to excel in. In fact,
that is just the start! A successful manager should

not just be good with his quota of work, but he/she is expected to contribute as part of a team.
Ability to work and contribute in teams is a must to succeed in the corporate sector. And thats
what GDs aim to test. GD Topics for MBA are similar to any other GD rounds. GD Topics for
MBA can range from political, economical to even the very basic day-to-day circumstances. The
best way to perform well in any GD round is to be well aware of the current affairs. MBA
Aspirants must be prepared to put their views and any GD topics asked in their MBA admission
2014 selection process.

The GD PI stage is arguably the most crucial stage of the selection process. It is like the journey
from qualifying in the heats to the gold medal in a sports event. GD topics for MBA are based to
test managerial attributes like interpersonal skills, leadership, analytical and rational thinking,
knowledge and personality traits.

Group Discussion, Personal Interview and Written Ability Test or Essay Writing is the three
main tools through which the B schools will conduct their selection process for Admission 2014-
16.

Argument for the topic-(Pros)


Anthropological evidence has revealed that even the humans and the hominids of ancient times
had separate roles for men and women in their societies, and this relates to the concepts of
epistemology. There were certain things that women were forbidden to do and similarly men
could not partake in some of the activities that were traditionally reserved for women. This has
given birth to the gender role stereotypes that we find today. These differences have been passed
on to our current times.

We sometimes assign certain qualities to certain people without thinking. For example, many
men are blamed for undermining women and stereotyping them for traditional roles, and this
could be said to be the same for men; men are also stereotyped in many of their roles. This leads
to social constructionism since the reality is not always depicted by what we see by our eyes.
These ideas have also carried on in the world of advertising and the differences shown between
the males and the females are apparent in many advertisements we see today.

Gender differences and attractions have been a part of the normal lives of humans ever since
anyone can remember. Roles and debates on such differences and their portrayal have
established their appropriateness.

Advertisers have substantially reduced the stereotyping in ad pictures, and since the voice of
female is not so harsh it is used to convey the message although the amount of male speech
relative to female speech is gradually being increased.

One's normative interpretation of such advertisements depends on one's ideological perspective


and tolerance for the pace of change. It is encouraging to find that the advertising indicates the
use of gender-neutrality is commonplace. Advertisers prefer to speak to people in their own
language and this reflects the popular culture in advertisements.

The opinion and views are based more on the interpretation people conclude from their
understanding of roles in real life that they see than by their observations of the males and
females in advertisements.

Argument against the topic (Cons)


It has been noted by viewing various advertisements that women are shown as being more
concerned about their beauty and figure rather than being shown as authority figures in the ads;
they are usually shown as the product users. This has led to common belief that most of the
advertisements and their contents are sexist in nature.
There is a tendency in many countries, including the United States, to portray women as being
subordinate to men, as alluring sex objects, or as decorative objects. This is not right as it
portrays women as the weaker sex, being only good as objects.

Many of the ads do not show gender biases in the pictures or the graphics, but some bias does
turn up in the language of the advertisements. Within language, bias is more evident in songs and
dialogue than in formal speech or when popular culture is involved. For example, bias sneaks in
through the use of idiomatic expressions (man's best friend) and when the language refers to
characters that depict traditional sex roles. Advertisements are greatly responsible for eliciting
such views for the people of our society.

The children also see the advertisements portraying women and they are also the ones who create
stereotypes in their minds about the different roles of men and women. All these facts combine
to give result to the different public opinion that becomes fact for many of the members of the
society.

There has been a lot of attention given to the portrayal of gender in advertising by both
practitioners as well as academics and much of this has been done regarding the portrayal of
women in advertising which shows a gender bias.

Conclude this way


This continues in a vicious circle as the media tries to pick up and project what the society thinks
and the people in the society make their opinions based upon the images shown by the media.
People, therefore, should not base too much importance about how the media is trying to portray
the members of the society; rather they should base their opinions on their own observation of
how people interact together in the real world.

India needs a uniform civil code


The disparities and atrocities on women before or after marriage, the issue of triple Talaq
across the country has flared up the necessity of Uniform Civil code in the country to protect the
civilian rights.

It is mentioned in the Article 44 of the Indian Constitution that the state shall endeavor to secure
for the citizens a uniform civil code throughout the territory of India. In the light of the Indian
constitutions article 44 it is always asked whether it is not a high time that India adopted a
uniform civil code. Personal laws are civil laws which deal with matters such as marriage,
divorce, custody, adoption, inheritance etc. The article being one of the directive principles of
the state policy clearly be endeavored rather being forced upon any community or
communities. But there are many essential questions to be addressed before such a code can turn
into reality.

Need for a uniform civil code


Almost all the countries of the world have a common civil code for all their citizens. The basic
idea behind the formulation of a uniform civil code is to end discriminations based on religions.
Personal law of nearly all the religions have acted as a tool of oppression of the women through
which they are suppressed most of the times citing religious and social obligations. Personal laws
have always played a big role in causing the rise of gender discrimination. Uniform civil code
guaranteed by the constitution has also become a very sensitive and controversial issue which
has always been communalized by people having vested interests.

In a country like India where the principle of equality of all citizens is enshrined in the
constitution, different sets of personal laws for different religious communities go against this
very principle of the constitution.

Different rules of civil law go against the secular credentials of the republic and also challenge
the concept of unity in diversity. In a diverse society like India the laws needed to deal with the
disputes related to the issues of marriage, divorce, custody, adoption, inheritance need to be
same for all irrespective of religion, caste or sect. At a time when reforms for strengthening the
position of women in the society are being given the utmost significance and attention, there is
an urgent need for a new civil code to eliminate discrimination against women in the society.

A Uniform Civil Code administers the same set of secular civil laws to govern different people
belonging to different religions and regions. This does away with the right of citizens to be
governed under different personal laws based on their religion or ethnicity. Uniform Civil Code
will in the long run ensure equality.

It is necessary that law be divorced from religion. With the enactment of a uniform code,
secularism will be strengthened; much of the present day separation and divisiveness between
various religious groups in the country will disappear, and India will emerge as a much more
cohesive and integrated nation.

The crusade for the implementation of the uniform civil code should get the support of all
progressive and right thinking citizens of the country. It is the need of the hour. There is also
need for a political consensus to implement the uniform civil code. In a nutshell, uniform civil
code is necessary to effect an integration of a country as diversified as India by bringing all the
communities into a common platform which do not form the essence of a single particular
religion. A uniform civil code will also enforce the idea of secularism enshrined in the Indian
constitution more forcefully.

United States really need India as its friend


The Indo-US relationship has been transformed from a bilateral one to a strategic partnership. In
the issues related to its foreign policy vis a vis Asia-Pacific region United States of America
cannot undermine the growing influence of India and also its economic prowess.

Being a nuclear power and rising economic powerhouse of South Asia, the importance and
relevance of India cannot be ignored by the world powers. US have increasingly been looking
upon India and its growing influence as an alternative to Chinese hegemony in the region.
Currently India tops the US priority list for its regional designs. Newly elected President of
United States Mr Donald Trump recognizes this fact and has supported India in its fight against
terrorism.

It is believed that it takes growing influence of India to counter the rising influence of China
which is the only power in the present uni polar world which to some extent can stand near the
global influence of US. The disintegration of USSR has seen many shifts in US interest towards
India, as a result of which Indias proximity with US has raised many folds in the last couple of
decades. The US has emphasized time and again that it wants to see India as a great power.

As per former US Ambassador to India, David C Mulford, The US is in favor of a decisively


broader strategic relationship to help India achieve its goals as one of the world's great multi-
ethnic democracies. The vision embraces cooperation on a global strategy for peace, defence,
energy, and economic growth.

Americas Interest to see India as an Asia Pacific power


Time and again the United States has been emphasizing that it wants India to become a great
power in the near future. The reason behind is rising influence of China in the region which
America always looks upon as a threat to its global hegemony. US think that no country in the
region can act as a counter to Chinese influence as powerfully as India. India can act great player
in the balance of power in the unipolar world.

Americas interest in Indian market and economy


Since last two decades Indian economy and the market has always been attracting US and other
big economies. Recently the United Nations estimated that the Indian economy is expected to
rise with a growth rate of 5.3 per cent in 2014. Major US investors are willing to invest in India
due to its rising economic prowess post liberalization.

There has been a little basic shift in US relation towards India which cannot be missed while
talking about Indo-US relations.

Civilian Nuclear Technology


Since last three decades India was denied access to civil nuclear technology. But the Indo-US
Civil Nuclear Agreement which was signed in 2008 gave India access to the same. The signing
of the Indo-US Civil Nuclear Agreement has been regarded as a major step towards Next Step in
Strategic Partnership.

Indo US Defence Cooperation Agreement


In September 2013, the Obama administration in an unprecedented manner through a joint
declaration agreed to cut through American laws that have been inhibiting a full-fledged defence
partnership between the two countries. Such a provision is provided only to close allies of the US
like South Korea and Turkey. The joint declaration also took note of Indias acceptance of an
invite to participate in RIMPAC, a U.S.-organized naval exercise in which nearly two dozen
nations are expected to participate. India has already participated in the Malabar, Red Flag and
Yudh Abhyas joint military exercises with the U.S.

Not everything is good: India on caution


The Indo- US relations are not at all free from scrutiny based on past American record of strictly
adhering to its own interests when it comes to dealing with other countries. Some of the
intellectuals like Arundhati Roy are of the view that America doesnt have any permanent friend
or enemy, rather it only has permanent interests. They are of the view that India must not allow
itself to become a pawn in the USs China containment strategy. They also think that the US
attempts to enlist India in its new balancing strategy are essentially aimed at serving its own
interests.

With the absence of the "balancing factors" that existed earlier, with Russia, the European Union
and the United States losing their prominence in the world economy, to expect America to stand
up in Indias fight if it is at the receiving end will be erroneous. So, India needs to opt for a self
interest driven course and build the bilateral relationship on broader congruence of interests and
shared values without countering Americas regional ambitions.

There are some issues on which both US and India differ like climate change, outsourcing,
Nuclear Non- proliferation Treaty (NPT), Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and Indias
approach towards Iran which has been reeling under constant economic sanctions since last 34
years after the Islamic Revolution there.

With the growing American interest in India and its economy there is a need for India to adopt a
cautious and calculated policy posture vis a vis many issues of mutual concern for both the
countries.

Brevity is the soul of wit


The essence of a witty statement lies in its concise wording and delivery. You are supposed to
speak or write a well managed piece which must be to the point and should justify the topic. I
can opt to be brief in my speech or writing and to the point simultaneously only if I have the
clarity of thoughts and know how to present my view point. Otherwise, I will end up speaking or
writing lengthy and ambiguous sentences.

Shakespeares Hamlet: Sracastic use of the phrase


It is the real art of speaking and using the phrases as done by William Shakespeare in Hamlet.
This proverb is the based on the words of Polonius I Hamlet by William Shakespeare. Brevity
is the soul of wit is the phrase of the multiplicity of meanings. In the first sense, it means that a
good piece of writing or a good speech should be brief and concise. And in another sense, it
implies that the funny speech should be short. Otherwise, it tends to lose and decrease its flavour.
Wit here refers to knowledge, wisdom, Intelligence during the Shakespearean era.

Speech of Marc Antony: Turning the crowd in his favour


Most of us are aware of the famous sarcastic speech by Marc Antony in the tragedy drama
Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare. It had desired impact and turned the tables against
conspirators. The political extravaganza The Apple Cart by George Bernard Shaw is full of
sarcasm and witty brief speeches by the Monarch (The king/queen). It creates the intended effect
by remaining in readers memory.

Constitution of India: Impact of Preamble


Written constitution of India contains hundreds of pages despite that it is briefly written in a well
worded as well as explanatory language. For example, WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having
solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR
DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC

No time to listen to long speeches


If you happen to listen to a short speech with few meaningful words which are very sensible and
concise, you will listen to it attentively. But if we listen to long speeches, we do not show much
interest to hear such long and boring piece. This is the reason that those who make their
statements and sentences as short as possible emerge as winners than the ones who stretch them
long.
Brevity is the soul of wit implies the use of concise and exact use of the words in writing and
speeches. It is opposed to long and complicated sentence structures. The phrase is mostly used as
a sarcastic remark in response to endless nonsense chattering. The modern writers use this idea
in their essay, copywriting and fiction. Politicians use it in their speeches to keep their audience
glued to them.

Thus if I am talented, I would be able to select the right words so that the idea is clearly
understood by all. It is like a pond that is crystal-clear. We can see what is at the bottom. A long
speech or statement will quickly bore the listener or the reader. His mind shuts itself out. This
makes the speech or statement useless for its purpose. Therefore, if we want to express our ideas
clearly, we must learn to put them in the briefest and aptest way.

Witty remark can be concise


The hardest human activities that shouldn't be difficult is power of expression. A witty remark
need not be an elaborate one. It can be brief and at the same time striking. The most humorous
flashes of wit are often the shortest.

Just like wit, the ability to express ideas in the briefest manner requires much intelligence. A
person can go on speaking or writing without anything meaningful in it. There is no point at all
in doing so. What he should do is to condense it to a short but meaningful sentence such a
sentence can be highly striking. It enters the hearts of the people. It creates the intended effect by
remaining in their memory. Such a sentence is lasting and has a great effect upon the listeners.

Most people would have no problem walking up to a group of friends and entering into a
conversation. When surrounded by our clique we can prattle on for hours, many of us oblivious
to what we are actually saying from one moment to the next.

Every day, millions of words are put on paper. In newspapers, magazines, cereal boxes, etc.
Every day, millions of words are put on virtual paper. On blogs, chat rooms, message boards,
WikiAnswers, Twitter, emails. All of us are likely responsible for some of those words. We craft
them specific to our audience and ofcourse, we have to understand who our audience is and have
to make it interesting enough.

Gender bias in portraying Women in Advertisements


MBAUniverse.com has started a new expert series of GD PI WAT preparation for MBA
Admission 2014. This series of articles will help aspirants prepare for their GD PI WAT by
providing them valid contents, probable topics and experts advice to help you succeed during
admission process at various B schools. While the written exam tests the quantitative, reasoning
and verbal skills of an applicant, it is not all that a future manager is expected to excel in. In fact,
that is just the start! A successful manager should

not just be good with his quota of work, but he/she is expected to contribute as part of a team.
Ability to work and contribute in teams is a must to succeed in the corporate sector. And thats
what GDs aim to test. GD Topics for MBA are similar to any other GD rounds. GD Topics for
MBA can range from political, economical to even the very basic day-to-day circumstances. The
best way to perform well in any GD round is to be well aware of the current affairs. MBA
Aspirants must be prepared to put their views and any GD topics asked in their MBA admission
2014 selection process.

The GD PI stage is arguably the most crucial stage of the selection process. It is like the journey
from qualifying in the heats to the gold medal in a sports event. GD topics for MBA are based to
test managerial attributes like interpersonal skills, leadership, analytical and rational thinking,
knowledge and personality traits.

Group Discussion, Personal Interview and Written Ability Test or Essay Writing is the three
main tools through which the B schools will conduct their selection process for Admission 2014-
16.

Argument for the topic-(Pros)


Anthropological evidence has revealed that even the humans and the hominids of ancient times
had separate roles for men and women in their societies, and this relates to the concepts of
epistemology. There were certain things that women were forbidden to do and similarly men
could not partake in some of the activities that were traditionally reserved for women. This has
given birth to the gender role stereotypes that we find today. These differences have been passed
on to our current times.

We sometimes assign certain qualities to certain people without thinking. For example, many
men are blamed for undermining women and stereotyping them for traditional roles, and this
could be said to be the same for men; men are also stereotyped in many of their roles. This leads
to social constructionism since the reality is not always depicted by what we see by our eyes.
These ideas have also carried on in the world of advertising and the differences shown between
the males and the females are apparent in many advertisements we see today.

Gender differences and attractions have been a part of the normal lives of humans ever since
anyone can remember. Roles and debates on such differences and their portrayal have
established their appropriateness.

Advertisers have substantially reduced the stereotyping in ad pictures, and since the voice of
female is not so harsh it is used to convey the message although the amount of male speech
relative to female speech is gradually being increased.

One's normative interpretation of such advertisements depends on one's ideological perspective


and tolerance for the pace of change. It is encouraging to find that the advertising indicates the
use of gender-neutrality is commonplace. Advertisers prefer to speak to people in their own
language and this reflects the popular culture in advertisements.

The opinion and views are based more on the interpretation people conclude from their
understanding of roles in real life that they see than by their observations of the males and
females in advertisements.

Argument against the topic (Cons)


It has been noted by viewing various advertisements that women are shown as being more
concerned about their beauty and figure rather than being shown as authority figures in the ads;
they are usually shown as the product users. This has led to common belief that most of the
advertisements and their contents are sexist in nature.

There is a tendency in many countries, including the United States, to portray women as being
subordinate to men, as alluring sex objects, or as decorative objects. This is not right as it
portrays women as the weaker sex, being only good as objects.

Many of the ads do not show gender biases in the pictures or the graphics, but some bias does
turn up in the language of the advertisements. Within language, bias is more evident in songs and
dialogue than in formal speech or when popular culture is involved. For example, bias sneaks in
through the use of idiomatic expressions (man's best friend) and when the language refers to
characters that depict traditional sex roles. Advertisements are greatly responsible for eliciting
such views for the people of our society.

The children also see the advertisements portraying women and they are also the ones who create
stereotypes in their minds about the different roles of men and women. All these facts combine
to give result to the different public opinion that becomes fact for many of the members of the
society.

There has been a lot of attention given to the portrayal of gender in advertising by both
practitioners as well as academics and much of this has been done regarding the portrayal of
women in advertising which shows a gender bias.

Conclude this way


This continues in a vicious circle as the media tries to pick up and project what the society thinks
and the people in the society make their opinions based upon the images shown by the media.
People, therefore, should not base too much importance about how the media is trying to portray
the members of the society; rather they should base their opinions on their own observation of
how people interact together in the real world.

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