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ACAMEDIC WRITING (Task 1)

It is an irrefutable truth that guidance and counselling service in schools aimed to help
students to be more concerned about self needs and potentials, and to develop skills to resolve
their conflict themselves. Guidance and counselling services are twin concepts and one of the
most essential elements of every educational activity.

( ) Guidance is a process of helping every individual, through his own effort to discover
& develop his potentialities for his personal happiness & social usefulness. According to the
Oxford dictionary, guidance means to direct, to point out, to show the path. In other words,
guidance is the assistance or help rendered by a more experienced person to a less
experiences person to solve certain major problems of the individual (less experienced) for
instance educational, vocational or personal. Guidance is a concept as well as a process as it
help the individual to understand ones strengths, limitations, and in self-direction (ability to
solve problems, make choices and decision on ones own).

Carl Rogers (1990) stated that counselling is a series of direct contacts with the
individual which aims to offer him assistance in changing his attitudes and behaviours. On the
other hand, counselling at helping the clients understand and accept themselves as they are.
Counselling involves relationship between two persons in which one of them (counselor)
attempts to assist the other (counselee or client) is so organizing himself as to attain a particular
form of happiness, adjusting to a life situation or in short self-actualization. In short, Guidance is
often categorized as continues process and points the distinctive concerns. Furthermore, it is
the assistance to the individual in the process of development rather than a direction of that
development whereas counselling involves two individuals-one seeking help and the other a
professionally trained person who can help the first. Moreover, it has mutual respect between
the two individuals. Counselling is aimed at bringing about desired changes in the individual for
and providing sufficient assistance to solve problems through a good relationship.

The aim of the guidance and counselling services is to encourage students academic,
social, emotional and personal development. Through this, it creates an opportunity to know
them better and find effective solutions to their daily problems. This is because guidance and
counsellor services in schools help to provide necessary support namely helping them to
understand themselves and their needs, to solve their problems, to make realistic decisions, to
improve their abilities and skills. Besides the guidance and counseling services, gives utmost
priority to students need. Guidance and counselling services has its own purpose.
Firstly, the purpose of guidance and counselling in schools is providing the needed
information and assistance. Thorough guidance and counselling, teachers will be able to know
more about an individual and also the character traits. Secondly, guidance and counselling in
school help students to be wiser in making decisions or choices and at the same time they will
be able to understand themselves. Moreover, it helps in adapting to the changes or new
environment. Students will be able to adapt to the environment and be self-sufficient and
independent in life. In addition, guidance and counselling in school help students to use
capabilities and talent efficiently and promotes a platform for optimal personal and professional
development.

Furthermore, guidance and counselling cultivate individuals to adjust to themselves and


the society as they can adapt the environment easily. Besides, it also enables the changes in
the attitude and behavior of individuals. To help the students to overcome the period of turmoil
and confusions is also one of the objectives of guidance and counselling services. In addition,
through guidance and counselling services, students will be able to select career according to
their interest and abilities and also promotes vocational development. Lastly, guidance and
counselling services will be able to help students in tackling problems arising out of student
exploration and co-education.

In order to conduct effective guidance and counselling services, the role of counsellor is
significant. Counsellors play a vital role in the guidance and counselling services as they are the
backbone to it. A counsellor should follow the counsellor ethics and willing to be accountable for
the ethical basis of practice. Ethics is a systematized body of principles that guide or determine
counsellors behaviour in his relationship to the counselee. In other words, ethics are guidelines
that are based on the basic principles of the counsellor in the code of ethics. There are some of
the ethics that a counsellor should abide and strongly encouraged to aspire during the guidance
and counselling services in schools namely, empathy, non-judgmental, congruence and
confidentiality. Firstly, a counsellor should be empathetic. Empathy is the ability to
communicate understanding of another persons experience from that persons perspective. As
a counsellor, he/she should have the ability to communicate and understand another persons
situation from that persons point of view. Moreover, counsellor should be able to recognize and
relate to other peoples emotions and thoughts. For instance, if the student is having a problem,
the counsellor should be able to put his shoes in the students situation and try to understand
the problem that he/ she is facing in life. From this, the counsellor will be able to acknowledge
the students feeling and able to solve the core issue. Thus, it is one of the utmost ethics that a
counsellor should possess in the counselling services.

Secondly, a counsellor should be non-judgmental. Non-judgmental can be defined as


not judging on the basis of ones personal standards or opinions. As a counsellor, he should be
able to accept students unconditionally that provide non-judgmental support throughout the
counselling relationship. It is also known to be the core conditions in person-centered
counselling. All trained counsellors must therefore be able to demonstrate an understanding of
this attribute confidently. Moreover, counsellor should suspend any form of personal judgment,
and accepts the client, regardless of the content of any disclosure they may have made. This is
because a judgment is made in a very short amount of time, and overcoming this instant
reaction can be difficult for the counsellors. Thus, a counsellor should have undergone specific
counselling skills training and able to demonstrate at all times.

Thirdly, a counsellor should be confidential adviser. Confidentiality is important to


maintain privacy, security and trust in personal and professional relationships. Confidentiality is
also valued and expected in any situation where sensitive information is accessed or shared. As
a counsellor, it is his/her responsibility to ensure a student's confidentiality is not breached. This
is because, the students feel that it is safe to share their unwilling secrets to the counselor and
trust the counsellor. Through this, a counsellor can build a strong rapport with the students. It
also helps to have counselling service to be maximally effective as they feel secure in the
knowledge of what they tell the counselor is to be treated with a high degree of confidentiality.
Moreover, a counsellor should be aware of the precautions to ensure confidentiality when using
technologies such as computers, electronic mail, or voicemail.

In addition, a counsellor should be authentic and genuine. This condition is known as


congruence. This condition is important as it allows the students to build a trusting relationship
with the counsellor. Moreover, it can help defeat negative attitudes or conditions of worth that
others may have placed on the students. For instance, perhaps someone has said to them that
they are ugly, fat or stupid. The counsellors warm and genuine approach allows the client to
feel valued, which in turn builds self-esteem and trust in their own judgement. Furthermore, the
counsellor does not present an aloof professional facade, but is present and transparent to the
students. Together these four ethics of counsellor enable students to develop and grow in their
own way and at the same time strengthen and expand their own identity and to become the
person that they really are independently of the pressures of others to act or think in particular
ways.

Empathy

Non- Counselllor Congruence


judgmental ethics

Confidentiality

Figure 1 shows the counsellor ethics.

Besides counsellors, school teachers also contributes to the students realization of self
needs and potentials and also help to develop skills to resolve their own conflicts. A teacher's
role involves more than simply standing in front of a classroom. Beyond that, teachers serve
many other roles in the classroom. There are a few criteria that a good teacher should possess
to help students to be more concerned about self needs and resolve conflicts. Firstly, a teacher
should act as guidance in the school. Rohaty Mohd. Majzub (1998), stated that besides parents
teachers spend more time with the students in the school and also will be able to share their
insights and experience to individual students who want to solve the problem. Ee Ah Meng
(1995) quoted that all the teachers including counselling teachers play a fundamental role in the
students personal growth and develop their skill to solve their own conflicts.
One of the roles of an ordinary teacher is to gather information of students. Teacher
needs to conduct the activity of the guidance include managing student files, keep records,
correspondence, establishment and management of the clubs or club career guidance and
counseling activities reported to the administrator. It is in a way to help the counsellor teachers
to collect information and personal details of the students. For instance, the ordinary teacher
can perform tests such as achievement tests, aptitude tests and other records and can be given
to the teacher guidance and counseling for the next follow-up action.

Moreover, the role of an ordinary teacher is to control and manage classroom


discipline. Efficient teacher will be able to create a positive and conducive atmosphere as it will
increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning. Teacher also acts as a manager in
organizing the learning space and makes sure everything in the classroom is running normally
and smoothly. Teacher also sets up rules and routines for behaviour and interaction in the
classroom. Besides, teacher also manages the students in carrying out their duties with the
scheduled attached to, abide the rules that are outlined in the classroom and take care of the
physical classroom. Through this, ordinary teachers help the counsellor teachers indirectly to
promote positive behaviour of students and decrease the chances of disruptive behaviour in the
classroom.

In addition, teacher also acts as a diagnostician. Teacher should be able to work out
and tackle with the causes of learners difficulties and learning problems. Teacher is also
responsible for addressing weakness through a number of plans and programs. For instance,
teacher can in-cooperate program I-think in the subjects taught as a technique to strengthen the
power of mind of students. Moreover, teacher can also organize programs such as motivational
camps, reading programs and tutoring programs in order to enhance pupils learning difficulties
and problems. From this, teacher can help counsellor teachers to promote positive behaviour
among students and creates opportunity for the students to achieve goals.

Furthermore, teacher is also a negotiator the school administrators and parents.


Teachers must establish a good cooperation and relationship with parents regarding students
progress both in terms of student achievement, curriculum or curriculum. According to Mohd
Fuad (2007), the embodiment of the PTA's efforts is to build consensus in education. Therefore,
regular teachers as guidance teacher association PTA can take as a channel to discuss their
needs and problems faced by students to parents or superiors schools. Through this, teachers
can help counsellor teachers to solve the issues in the school and will be able to overcome any
problem.

In conclusion, guidance and counselling services play an important role in shaping the
students to be more concerned about self needs and potentials to develop skills to resolve their
conflicts. Moreover, development of students should be prioritized as they act as a catalyst that
will help to shape the nation's progress and setbacks.
Academic Writing (ii)

According to the oxford dictionary, career is defined as an occupation undertaken for a


significant period of a person's life and with opportunities for progress. There are thousands of
careers, ranging from those that require extensive education to others. Examples are engineer,
carpenter, veterinary assistant, cashier, teacher, and hairstylist. In other words, career can be
defined as an individual's journey through learning, work and other aspects of life. There are a
number of ways to define a career and the term is used in a variety of ways. In short, career is
essential as students need to know their right career to make a progress in life. J. Holland
Theory helps students to choose the right career according to their personality. Choosing a
career or education program that fits ones Holland personality is a vital step toward career well-
being. The Holland theory is the best known and most widely researched theory on this topic. It
most widely researched and applied theories of career development. J. Holland has outlined
modal occupational environments correspond to the six modal personality types: Realistic (R),
Investigative (I), Artistic (A), Social (S), Enterprising (E), and Conventional (C). Each
environment is dominated by a given type of personality and is typified by physical settings
posing special circumstances. These personality types are known by the acronym RIASEC.

Figure 1.0 The Holland Hexagon

The hexagon model identifies the six model RIASEC types and occupational environments.
Career inventory workshop is a major task of every school guidance and counselling
teacher to provide significant information to students in determining their future career direction
through their interest and talents. I have carried out career inventory workshop among year 6
students (6 Malligai) in my teaching practice school, SJK (T) Ladang Seremban. I have
prepared questions related to the inventory and evaluation forms to conduct the workshop. I
have carried out the workshop with my practicum partner Ms. Lalitha Raj Rajandren and with
the help of school counsellor teacher, Mrs. Padmini Arumugam. Questionnaire that I have
prepared consists of three parts, namely part A to know students interest part B to know the
efficiency and part C is the name of the careers. Each section consists of 60 questions and the
c contains 72 questions. The number of questions in the questionnaire is 192.

I have analyzed the results of career inventory workshop and the careers of students
according to Holland's theory that covers the six aspects mentioned earlier. Career interest
inventory results of the workshop as follows.

Num Respondents R I A S E K

16 15 8 14 13 8
1. Student 1

12 11 17 14 13 12
2. Student 2

16 17 12 18 12 14
3. Student 3

14 15 16 17 11 10
4. Student 4

15 16 12 18 14 17
5. Student 5

16 17 15 10 18 14
6. Student 6

9 16 17 18 12 13
7. Student 7

10 12 14 17 8 10
8. Student 8

18 12 11 16 15 17
9. Student 9

12 11 18 16 17 12
10. Student 10

11 17 16 12 10 9
11. Student 11
12 13 16 17 14 15
12. Student 12

12 16 14 18 17 16
13. Student 13

17 16 14 19 12 20
14. Student 14

12 18 17 16 14 13
15. Student 15

Highest Second highest Third highest

i) Realistic
- There are two students who got highest score in the realistic category. The table shows
the scores of the two students.

Student 1
16 15 8 14 13 8

18 12 11 16 15 17
Student 9

Table 1 shows the highest score in the realistic personality category.

20
18
16
R
14
12 1

10 A
8 S
6 E
4
C
2
0
Student 1 Student 9

Graph 1 shows the highest score in the realistic personality category.

Student 1 and student 9 scored the highest in realistic personality category. This shows
that both students fall under realistic personality. Realistic work requires skill and masculinity.
Realistic individual usually will choose a career that will allow them to express all of their
features, namely mechanics, technicians, carpenters and many more. The characteristic of
realistic personality are they are precise, honest, pure, stubborn, materialistic, self-willed, and
not aloof. Moreover, they also have the skills in the mechanical field. They are very fond of and
interested in the work that associates with the skills and practical. All students who choose this
career will usually involve themselves in expressing some characteristics of that individual. They
are people who like to work with tools, animals, plants and objects. They will be practical,
mechanical and realistic. They do not like to be in a place a long time. They prefer to work
outside of the office. Furthermore, Realistic people deal with the environment in an objective,
concrete and physically manipulative manner as they are materialistic, masculine, unsociable
and emotionally stable. The suitable career for the students will be athlete, engineer, policeman,
mechanic, diver and forest ranger.

ii) Investigative
- There are two students who got highest score in the realistic category. The table shows
the scores of the two students.

Student 11
11 17 16 12 10 9

12 18 17 16 14 13
Student 15

Table 2 shows the highest score in the investigative personality category.

20
18
16
R
14
I
12
10 A
8 S
6 E
4
C
2
0
Student 11 Student 15

Graph 2 shows the highest score in the investigative personality category.

Student 11 and student 15 scored the highest in the investigative category. This shows
that both students fall under investigative personality. Investigative individuals deal with the
environment by using intelligence, manipulating ideas, words, and symbols. These kinds of
people are scientific and technical. They are classified in this aspect is a person who loves to
work to investigate, observe, analyze and solve problems. They are also people who like to
enjoy the things that are closely related to mathematics and methods of scientific equipment.
They always see themselves as a highly accurate, and intelligent. Individual investigative (the
investigator) has the characteristics of analytical, cautious, introverted, critical, complex, curious
and rational. They like changes and do not like to do the same thing. This personality fits better
job that requires thinking of acts such as chemists, doctors and others. Suitable career for
investigative personality is mathematicians, chemists, dentists, surveyor, geologist,
meteorologists, biologist, researcher, sculptor and astronomer,

iii) Artistic
- There are two students who got highest score in the artistic category. The table shows
the scores of the two students.

Student 2 12 11 17 14 13 12

12 11 18 16 17 12
Student 10

Table 3 shows the highest score in the artistic personality category.

20
18
16
14 R

12 I

10 A
8 S
6 E
4 C
2
0
Student 2 Student 10

Graph 3 shows the highest score in the investigative personality category.

Student 2 and student 10 scored the highest in the artistic category. This shows that
both students fall under artistic personality. Students who scored the highest have artistic spirit
whether in music, art, drama, crafts, dance, music, or creative writing; generally avoids highly
ordered or repetitive activities. Moreover, they have good artistic abilities in creative writing,
drama, crafts, music or art. They also see themselves as expressive, original and independent.
They rely on subjective impressions, are unsociable, feminine, submissive, sensitive, impulsive
and introspective. They dislike masculine activities and roles with physical manipulation.
Moreover, they like to work in free, unstructured and creative environment. Suitable career for
artistic personality are artist, musician, actor and photographer.

iv) Social
- There are seven students who got highest score in the social category. The table shows
the scores of the six students.

Student 3 16 17 12 18 12 14

Student 4 14 15 16 17 11 10

Student 5 15 16 12 18 14 17

9 16 17 18 12 13
Student 7

10 12 14 17 8 10
Student 8

12 13 16 17 14 15
Student 12

12 16 14 18 17 16
Student 13

Table 4 shows the highest score in the social personality category.

20
18
16
14 R

12 I

10 A
8 S
6 E
4 C
2
0
Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 7 Student 8 Student 12 Student 13

Graph 4 shows the highest score in the social personality category.


Student 3, student 4, student 5, student 7, student 8, and student 13 scored the highest
in social personality category. This shows that six students fall under social personality
category. Social personality individuals prefer handling and dealing with others. They see
themselves as sociable, nurturing, cheerful, responsible, achiever and self-accepting. Moreover,
they are rational and wise in making choices and decisions. They prefer social interaction and
have high concern for human welfare. These students are the type who likes to work with
people. They like to work in educational, therapeutic and religious environments. Career fields
that correspond to their nature are counselors, teachers, nurses, social workers, librarians,
social workers, public relations and sports coaches.

v) Enterprising
- Only one student got highest score in the enterprising category. The table shows the
scores of the student.

Student 6 16 17 15 10 18 14

Table 5 shows the highest score in the enterprising personality category.

20
18
16
R
14
12 I

10 A
8 S
6 E
4 C
2
0
Student 6

Graph 5 shows the highest score in the enterprising personality category.

Student 6 scored the highest in enterprising personality category. Enterprising people


are persuasive, verbally expressive, adventurous, dominant, impulsive, extroverted, confident,
and aggressive and exhibitionists. They prefer sales and managerial jobs where they can lead
and dominate others. Furthermore, they need recognition and power. They like to work in a
Business, leadership and profit making environment. Suitable career for enterprising
personalities are lawyer, businessman or politician.

iv) Conventional

- Only one student got highest score in the enterprising category. The table shows the
scores of the student.
Student 14 17 16 14 19 12 20

Table 6 shows the highest score in the conventional personality category.

20
18
16
R
14
12 I

10 A
8 S
6 E
4
C
2
0
Student 14

Graph 6 shows the highest score in the conventional personality category.

Student 14 scored the highest in conventional personality category. Conventional people


strive for social approval. They create a good impression by being neat, sociable, correct and
unoriginal. They put high value on economic matters and see themselves as masculine,
dominant, rigid and stable. In addition, they have more mathematical than verbal skills. They
prefer to work in a clerical, well defined and stable business or an organizational environment.
Suitable career for conventional personalities are clerks, banker, editor, librarian or accountant.

In conclusion

- Out of 15 students 2 students scored highest in Realistic personality, 2 students scored


highest in Investigative personality, 2 students scored highest in Artistic personality, 7
students scored highest in Social personality, 1 student scored highest in Enterprising
personality and 1 student scored highest in Conventional personality.

R I A S E C
Number of 2 2 2 7 1 1
students

Table 7 shows the number of students scored in each personality.


8
7
6 R

5 I

4 A

3 S

2 E

1 C

0
Number of students

Graph 7 shows the number of students scored in each personality.

Based on the bar graph above, most pupils scored in the social personality category. It is
clearly shown that most pupils in year 6 Malligai portrayed social personality. I agree with the
findings because most students in this class are always shown with regard to social aspects.
Pupils are very sociable with their classmates. They always want to help the teacher in all things
in and out of the school. Moreover, they are cheerful and sociable in the classroom. They also
like to engage in all social activities.

The second highest personalities are realistic, investigative and artistic. These show that
a few students falls under these categories. They truly portray characteristics of realistic,
investigative and artistic in the classroom. It is true that some pupils avoid tasks that need to be
intellectual, artistic or social abilities in the classroom as they are more interested to work
involving motor skills, working with machines, nature and physical activity. Some of the students
portray investigative personality as they always ask question that attempts to analyze the
teacher. In addition, some of them love to explore new things. Moreover, some of the students
like to deal with the environment by using intelligence, manipulating ideas, words, and symbols.
For instance, they are interested in creative activities such as such as sculpting, painting and
music. Furthermore, some of the students prefer musical, artistic, dramatic jobs and dislike
masculine activities and roles with physical manipulation.

Besides, enterprising and conventional are the third highest personalities among year 6
students. The students in the classroom portray the characteristics of enterprising and
conventional respectively. Two students from year 6 Malligai portrayed the characteristics of
enterprising. For instance, they like to hang out with friends and become the head of the class.
In addition, conventional characteristics students like to do work related to mathematical
calculations. In conclusion, most of the students portray social personality.
CONCLUSION

In short, the Career Inventory Workshop is a major task of every school guidance and
counselling teacher to create a platform for students in determining their future career and
direction through their interests and talents. This is because Career Inventory Workshop creates
an opportunity for the students to get a sense of importance of career planning. Moreover,
systematic career planning can help a person make the most of life with more meaning as they
know the suitable career according to their personality. Lock (1996), pointed out that career
planning is a necessity that cannot be denied based on some rationale explained. Careers itself
explain oneself, affect lifestyle and physical and emotional well-being interconnected