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# Chapter 6 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

## Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 1 Page 308

a)

b) i) Domain: x !R { }
ii) Range: { y !R, y > 0}
iii) y = 0

## Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 2 Page 308

a) P(0) = 300(2)0
= 300(1)
= 300

b) P(3) = 300(2)3
= 300(8)
= 2400

c) i) ii)

## Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 3 Page 308

a) x7 b) m3 c) k6 d) 8x12

2b 2 1
e) ! f) 2
g)
a x u

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 585

Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 4 Page 308

103
a) 22 = 4 b) = 10
102

! 1 \$6 36 ! 35 311
+1= +1
c) #" 3 &% ! 1 \$'3 d) 37 37
=
! 9 \$ #" 3 &% = 34 +1
1
# &
#3 & = 81+1
" % = 82
= 33
= 27

## Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 5 Page 308

a)

{ }
b) Domain: x !R, x " 0 , Range: { y !R, y " 0}
c) d)

## e) Yes. f 1 is a function since it passes the vertical line test.

{ }
f) Domain: x !R, x " 0 , Range: { y !R, y " 0}

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 586

Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 6 Page 308

a)

{ }
b) Domain: x !R , Range: { y !R, y " 4}
c)

d)

e) No. f 1 is not a function since it does not pass the vertical line test.

{ }
f) Domain: x !R, x " 4 , Range: { y !R}
Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 7 Page 308

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 587

Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 9 Page 309

## Chapter 6 Prerequisite Skills Question 10 Page 309

Apply a horizontal translation of 2 units to the right and a vertical translation of 7 units down.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 588

Chapter 6 Section 1 The Exponential Function and Its Inverse

## Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 1 Page 318

C, D
First Differences
A B

C D

If you look at the first differences, y is increasing at a rate proportional to the functions for C and
D so they are exponential.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 589

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 2 Page 318

C:
y = bx
1 = b0 This statement is true for any value of b.
1
3= b
b=3 The only valid value for b is 3.
Check:
9 = 32
Since b = 3, y = 3x.

D:
y = bx
1 = b0 This statement is true for any value of b.
1
= b1
3
1
b= The only valid value for b is 3.
3
Check:
'2
! 1\$
9=# &
" 3%
x
1 ! 1\$
Since b = , y = # & .
3 " 3%

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 590

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 3 Page 318

a)

## 1.52 ! 1.51 1.53 ! 1.52

b) i) m12 = 2 !1 ii) m23 = 3! 2
= 0.75 =& 1.13

## 1.54 ! 1.53 1.55 ! 1.54

iii) m34 = 4!3 iv) m45 = 5! 4
=& 1.69 =& 2.53

## 1.51 ! 1.50.999 1.52 ! 1.51.999

m =
c) 1
m2 =
1! 0.999 2 ! 1.999
=& 0.6 =& 0.9

## 1.53 ! 1.52.999 1.54 ! 1.53.999

m3 = m4 =
3 ! 2.999 4 ! 3.999
=& 1.4 =& 2.1

1.55 ! 1.54.999
m5 =
5 ! 4.999
=& 3.1

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 591

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 4 Page 319

a)

## 0.5!2 ! 0.5!3 0.5!1 ! 0.5!2

b) i) m!3!2 = !2 + 3 ii) m!2!1 = !1+ 2
= !4 = !2

## 0.50 ! 0.5!1 0.51 ! 0.50

iii) m!10 = 0 +1 iv) m01 = 1! 0
= !1 = !0.5

## 0.5!3 ! 0.5!2.999 0.5!2 ! 0.5!1.999

m =
c) !3
m!2 =
!3 + 2.999 !2 + 1.999
=& !5.5 =& !2.8

## 0.5!1 ! 0.5!0.999 0.50 ! 0.50.0001

m!1 = m0 =
!1+ 0.999 0 ! 0.0001
=& !1.4 =& !0.7

0.51 ! 0.50.999
m1 =
1! 0.999
=& !0.35

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 592

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 5 Page 319

a)

b) y = 3x

c), d)

a)

x
! 1\$
b) y = # &
" 3%
c), d)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 593

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 7 Page 319

## Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 8 Page 320

x
! 1\$
a) Graph is the inverse of 7d): y = # & b) Graph is the inverse of 7b): y = 5x
" 5%
x
! 1\$
c) Graph is the inverse of 7c): y = # & d) Graph is the inverse of 7a): y = 2x
" 2%

a)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 594

b)

c) All three functions have the same domain and are increasing.

d) h(x) = 3x is different than the other two functions for range, x-intercept, y-intercept,
y = 0 asymptote and positive/negative intervals.

## e) For f(x) = 3x, the instantaneous rate of change is constant.

For g(x) = x3, the instantaneous rate of change is decreasing then increasing.
For h(x) = 3x, the instantaneous rate of change is increasing.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 595

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 10 Page 320

= 10 = 20

## iii) N(2) = 10(2)2 iv) N(3) = 10(2)3

= 40 = 80

b) Yes, the function appears to be exponential since the rate of change is increasing.

10(2)2 ! 10(2)1
c) m12 = 2 !1
= 20

## 10(2)1 ! 10(2)0.999 10(2)2 ! 10(2)1.999

d) i)
m1 = m =
ii) 2
1! 0.999 2 ! 1.999
=& 13.9 =& 27.7

e) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown. c) is an average rate of change between two
points. d) is an instantaneous rate at one point. If you average the two instantaneous rates in d)
(20.8), it is close to the value in c) (20).

a) b), c)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 596

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 12 Page 320

{ }
a) Domain: x !R , Range: { y !R, y > 0}
b) No x-intercept.

c) The y-intercept is 1.

## d) The function is never negative.

The function is positive for all intervals.

## Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 13 Page 321

{ }
a) Domain: x !R, x > 0 , Range: { y !R}
b) The x-intercept is 1.

c) No y-intercept.

## d) For 0 < x < 1, the function is negative.

For x > 1, the function is positive.

a) b), c)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 597

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 15 Page 321

{ }
a) Domain: x !R , Range: { y !R, y > 0}
b) No x-intercept.

c) The y-intercept is 1.

## Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 16 Page 321

{ }
a) Domain: x !R, x > 0 , Range: { y !R}
b) The x-intercept is 1.

c) No y-intercept.

## d) For 0 < x < 1, the function is positive.

For x > 1, the function is negative.

## Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 17 Page 321

a) The domain, range, y-intercept, and the horizontal asymptote are the same. They are positive
for the same interval.

x
x ! 1\$
b) y = 4 increases and y = # & decreases.
" 2%

## Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 18 Page 321

a) The domain, range, x-intercept, and vertical asymptote are the same.

b) f 1 and g1 are positive and negative for different intervals. f 1 is increasing for all intervals
and g1 is decreasing for all intervals.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 598

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 19 Page 321

a) b), c)

d) y = 6x

x
! 1\$
y=# &
" 10 %

## Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 21 Page 321

a)
x y
0 1
1 2
2 4
3 8
4 16

b)

c) No, the points do not form a smooth curve, they form a v-shape.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 599

d) i) ii)

The values are undefined because they are not real (square root of a negative value).

## e) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

Exponential functions are defined only for functions with positive bases since they are real.
Exponential functions with negative bases are not real.

## 1.42 ! 1.41 1.44 ! 1.43

a) m12 = 2 !1
m34 =
4!3
= 0.56 =& 1.10
The ships average velocity between 1 s and 2 s is 56 km/s. The ships average velocity
between 3 s and 4 s is approximately 110 km/s.

## 1.43 ! 1.42.999 1.44 ! 1.43.999

m =
b) 3
m4 =
3 ! 2.999 4 ! 3.999
=& 0.92 =& 1.29
The ships instantaneous velocity is 92 km/s at 3 s and 129 km/s at 4 s.

## Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 23 Page 322

a) For 0 < b < 1, f and f 1 have equal x- and y-coordinates at the point where they intersect the
line y = x.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 600

Chapter 6 Section 1 Question 24 Page 322

a), b)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 601

Chapter 6 Section 2 Logarithms

## Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 1 Page 328

! 1\$
a) log 4 64 = 3 b) log 2 128 = 7 c) log5 # & = '2 d) log 1 0.25 = 2
" 25 % 2

! 1\$
e) log 6 y = x f) log10 100 000 = 5 g) log 3 # & = '3 h) log b v = u
" 27 %

## Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 2 Page 328

! 1\$ ! 1\$
a) y = log 2 64 b) y = log 3 27 c) y = log 2 # & d) y = log 4 # &
" 4% " 64 %
2 y = 64 3y = 27
1 1
2 y = 26 3y = 33 2y = 4y =
4 64
y=6 y=3 1 1
2y = 4y =
22 43
2 y = 2'2 4 y = 4'3
y = '2 y = '3

## e) y = log5 125 f) y = log 2 1024 g) y = log 6 363 h) y = log 3 81

5 y = 125 2 y = 1024 6 y = 363 3y = 81
5 y = 53 2 y = 210 6 y = 66 3y = 34
y=3 y = 10 y=6 y=4

## Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 3 Page 328

! 1\$
a) y = log10 1000 b) y = log10 # &
" 10 %
10 y = 1000
1
10 y = 103 10 y =
10
y=3 10 = 10'1
y

y = '1

## c) y = log10 1 d) y = log10 0.001

y
10 = 1 10 y = 0.001
10 y = 100 10 y = 10!3
y=0 y = !3

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 602

e) y = log10 10!4 f) y = log10 1 000 000
10 y = 10!4 10 y = 1 000 000
y = !4 10 y = 106
y=6

! 1 \$
g) y = log10 # h) y = log10 10 000
" 100 &%
10 y = 10 000
1
10 y = 10 y = 104
100
10 = 10'2
y y=4
y = '2

## Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 4 Page 328

a) 72 = 49 b) 25 = 32 c) 104 = 10 000 d) bw = z

1
e) 23 = 8 f) 54 = 625 g) 10!2 = h) 72y = x
100

## Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 5 Page 328

a) y = 2x x = 2y or y = log2 x

b) y = 4x x = 4y or y = log4 x

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 603

Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 6 Page 328

a) 2 x = 6; y1 = 2 x , y2 = 6 b) 4 x = 180; y1 = 4 x , y2 = 180

## Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

d) 9 x = 0.035
9 x ! 0.035 = 0
Solve by graphing y = 9 x ! 0.035 and finding the zero.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 604

Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 8 Page 328

Evaluate each expression using the log function on a calculator. An example is shown for part a).
a) 2.63

a) y = 10x

b)

## Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 10 Page 329

1
a) y = log 3 3 b) y = log 2 2 c) y = log12 12 d) y = log 1
2
2
3y = 3 2y = 2 12 y = 12 y
1 1
3y = 31 2 y = 21 12 y = 121 =
2 2
y =1 y =1 y =1 y 1
1 1
=
2 2
y =1

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 605

Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 11 Page 329

## b) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

log 0.1 0.1 = 1
1
log 1 =1
3
3

log11 11 = 1

c) log x x = 1, x > 0, x ! 1
L.S. R.S.
y = log x x y =1
xy = x
x y = x1
y =1
Since L.S. = R.S., log x x = 1, x > 0, x ! 1 is true.

## a) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

y = log x y = 10 x

The logarithmic function has decreasing slope (the rate of change is decreasing) and the
exponential function has increasing slope (the rate of change is increasing).

## b) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

The average rate of change of a logarithmic function is the reciprocal of the average rate of
change of its inverse, which is an exponential function.
log(100) ! log(10) 1 102 ! 101
= = 90
100 ! 10 90 2 !1

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 606

Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 13 Page 329

a)

It takes approximately 6.3 days for the number of visitors to the Web site to reach 1000.

b)

It takes approximately 12.6 days for the number of visitors to the Web site to reach
1 000 000.

a)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 607

b)

No, if the headlight intensity doubles the car is approximately 16.2 m away, which is closer
than half.

Drive slower.

a)

## The thickness of the hull needs to be at least 5.72 cm.

b)

The thickness of the hull needs to be at least 7.15 cm, so it needs to be increased by
approximately 1.43 cm.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 608

Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 16 Page 329

## a) Approximately 3 integer values can be viewed at one time.

b) It is difficult to view a broad range of this function since y is an integer when x is a power of
10. For example:
x y
10 1
100 2
1000 3

x y
0
10 0
101 1
102 2
3
10 3
104 4
105 5
106 6

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 609

b)

The graph is linear. The semi-log grid has turned each power into the exponent value.

a)
1 0
10 1
100 2
1000 3
10000 4
100000 5
1000000 6

b)

c)
1 0 0
10 1 1
100 2 2
1000 3 3
10000 4 4
100000 5 5
1000000 6 6

d)

## e) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

You can graph a greater range of values.

## Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 20 Page 330

D;
(
102006 1+102 ) = 1+100
2 !10 2007
2 !10
101
=
20
= 5.05

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 611

Chapter 6 Section 2 Question 21 Page 330

Method 1:
1 1
m! =1 n! = !1
m n
2
m ! m!1= 0 n2 + n ! 1 = 0
1 (!1)2 ! 4(1)(!1) !1 (1)2 ! 4(1)(!1)
m= n=
2(1) 2(1)
1+ 5 !1+ 5
m= n= m, n are positive
2 2
1+ 5 !1+ 5
m+ n = +
2 2
2 5
=
2
= 5

Method 2:
1
m! =1
m
m2 ! m ! 1 = 0
1 (!1)2 ! 4(1)(!1)
m=
2(1)
1+ 5
m=
2
1 1+ 5 2
m+ = +
m 2 1+ 5
(1+ 5)(1+ 5) + 2(2)
=
2(1+ 5)
1+ 2 5 + 5 + 4
=
2(1+ 5)
5+ 5
=
1+ 5
5+ 5 1! 5
= "
1+ 5 1! 5
5! 4 5 !5
=
1! 5
!4 5
=
!4
= 5

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 612

Chapter 6 Section 3 Transformations of Logarithmic Functions

## b) translate left 5 units and down 4 units

c) translate up 1 unit

## Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 3 Page 338

a)

{ }
Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R}
x-intercept, let y = 0 y-intercept, let x = 0
0 = log x + 2 y = log 0 + 2
2 = log x
102 = x
x = 0.01
The x-intercept is 0.01. Since log 0 is undefined, there is no y-intercept.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 613

b)

{ }
Domain: x !R, x > 3 ; Range: { y !R}
x-intercept, let y = 0 y-intercept, let x = 0
0 = log(x 3) y = log(0 3)
100 = x 3 y = log 3
x=1+3
x=4
The x-intercept is 4. Since log 3 is undefined, there is no y-intercept.

## The vertical asymptote occurs when x 3 = 0. The vertical asymptote is x = 3.

c)

{ }
Domain: x !R, x > 3 ; Range: { y !R}
x-intercept, let y = 0 y-intercept, let x = 0
0 = log(x 3) + 4 y = log(0 3) + 4
4 = log(x 3) y = log 3 + 4
104 = x 3
x = 0.0001 + 3
x = 3.0001
The x-intercept is 3.0001. Since log 3 is undefined, there is no y-intercept.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 614

d)

{ }
Domain: x !R, x > "5 ; Range: { y !R}
x-intercept, let y = 0 y-intercept, let x = 0
0 = log(x + 5) 1 y = log(0 + 5) 1
1 = log(x + 5) y = log 5 1
101 = x + 5 y =& 0.301
x = 10 5
x=5
The x-intercept is 5. The y-intercept is approximately 0.301.

## a) y = 2log x; vertical stretch by a factor of 2

1
b) y = log(2x); horizontal compression by a factor of
2
!1 \$
c) y = log # x & ; horizontal stretch by a factor of 2
"2 %

1 1
d) y = log x; vertical compression by a factor of
2 2

## Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 5 Page 339

1
a) vertical compression by a factor of
2

1
b) horizontal compression by a factor of and a reflection in the y-axis
5

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 615

Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 6 Page 339

a) b)

c) d)

a) b)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 616

Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 8 Page 339

## For y = log(x 4) For y = log(x) 3

{
a) Domain: x !R, x > 4 } {
a) Domain: x !R, x < 0 }
b) Range: { y !R} b) Range: { y !R}
c) x = 4 c) x = 0

a)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 617

Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 10 Page 339

## Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

The domain and range remain the same under a vertical reflection.
y = log x and y = log x y = log(x 2) and y = log(x 2)

{ }
Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R} { }
Domain: x !R, x > 2 ; Range: { y !R}
y = 3 log x and y = 3 log x y = log 4x and y = log 4x

{ }
Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R} { }
Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R}
y = log x 2 and y = log x 2

{ }
Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R}

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 618

Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 11 Page 339

## Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

No, the same thing does not happen under a horizontal reflection. The domains are different, but
the ranges are the same.

## y = log x and y = log(x)

{ }
y = log x; Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R}
y = log(x); Domain: { x !R, x < 0} ; Range: { y !R}

## y = 2 log x and y = 2 log(x)

{ }
y = 2 log x; Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R}
y = 2 log(x); Domain: { x !R, x < 0} ; Range: { y !R}

## y = log x 2 and y = log(x) 2

{
y = log x 2; Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: } { y !R}
y = log(x) 2; Domain: { x !R, x < 0} ; Range: { y !R}

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 619

Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 12 Page 340

Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown. The domains are different, but the ranges are the
same.

## y = log x and y = log(x)

{ }
y = log x; Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R}
y = log(x); Domain: { x !R, x < 0} ; Range: { y !R}

## y = 2 log(x) 1 and y = 2 log(x) 1

{ }
y = 2 log(x) 1; Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R}
y = 2 log(x) 1; Domain: { x !R, x < 0} ; Range: { y !R}

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 620

Chapter 6 Section 3 Questions 13 and 14 Page 340

a) b)

## vertical stretch by a factor of 2 reflection in the y-axis

1
horizontal compression by a factor of
3
translation 4 units to the left.
translation 2 units down

c) d)

## vertical stretch by a factor of 5 vertical stretch by a factor of 2

1
horizontal compression by a factor of reflection in the x-axis
2
translation 2 units to the right horizontal stretch by a factor of 2
translation 6 units down translation 6 units to the left
translation 3 units down

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 621

Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 15 Page 340

a)

b)

Vo = 6 Vo =& 6.3
For an input voltage of 10 V, the output is 6 V. For an input voltage of 20 V, the output is
approximately 6.3 V.

c)

Vi = 1020
The input voltage is 1020 V when the output is 25 V.

d) The domain is the input voltage, {Vi R, Vi > 0}; the range is the output voltage, Vo, which
can be any real number: {Vo R}.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 622

Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 17 Page 340

a) b)

c)

d) i) Domain: x !R { }
ii) Range: { y !R, y > 0}
iii) y = 0

e) y = 102x + 8

a) b)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 623

Chapter 6 Section 3 Question 19 Page 340

{ } {
a) Domain: t !R, 2n" < t < (2n + 1)" , n !Z ; Range: Vo !R, Vo " 5 }
Domain: The range of y = sin t is { y !R, "1 # y # 1} , but for y = log x, { x !R, x > 0} ,
so sin t > 0.
t > 0 or t > 2 or t > 4 or t > 2n, n Z
For 0 < sin t 1, look at the graph y = sin t.

## We can see from the graph that 0 < sin t 1 when

0 < t or 2 < t or 2n < t (2n + 1), n Z.
The range is found by substituting the largest value for sin t = 1, Vo = 5.

b)

## c) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

Because the pattern is a beat, like a pulse.

x = 64

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 624

Chapter 6 Section 4 Power Law of Logarithms

## a) log 2 (24 )3 = log 2 212 b) log 4 64 = 3

= 12

( ) 1 1
!4
c) log 102 = log10!8 d) log(10!1 ) = (!1)
2 2
= !8 1
=!
2

## Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 2 Page 347

1 1
3 2 1 1
a) log 2 (2 ) = log 2 23 b) log 3 5 2
(3 ) = (5)
2 2
1 5
= (3) =
2 2
3
=
2

6 15
! 1\$ ! 1\$
c) log 3 # (3 ) & = log 3 38
4 3 2 5
d) log 4 # (4 ) & = log 4 46
" % " %
=8 =6

## Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 3 Page 347

500
a) log10 = log 4t b) log5t = log 250 c) log 2 = log1.08t d) = 1.06t
100
1 = t log 4 t log5 = log 250 log 2 = t log1.08
log5 = log1.06t
1 log 250 log 2
=t t= =t log5 = t log1.06
log 4 log5 log1.08
log5
t =& 1.66 t =& 3.43 t =& 9.01 =t
log1.06
t =& 27.62

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 625

Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 4 Page 347

a) i) A(0) = 500(1.07)0
= 500
The value of the investment is initially \$500.

## ii) A(2) = 500(1.07)2

= 572.45
The value of the investment after 2 years is \$572.45.

## iii) A(4) = 500(1.07)4

=& 655.40
The value of the investment after 4 years is approximately \$655.40

b) i) 2 = 1.07 t
log 2 = t log1.07
log 2
=t
log1.07
t =& 10.2
It will take approximately 10.2 years for the investment to double in value.

ii) 3 = 1.07 t
log 3 = t log1.07
log 3
=t
log1.07
t =& 16.2
It will take approximately 16.2 years for the investment to triple in value.

## Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 5 Page 347

log 23 log 20
a) =& 2.854 b) =& 1.672
log 3 log 6

log 2 log 4
c) =& 0.356 d) ! =& !0.558
log 7 log12

log 30 log8
e) =& !4.907 f) =& !7.228
1 3
log log
2 4
Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 6 Page 347

## a) log5 8 b) log 9 17 c) log 2

1
2
( )
d) log( x !1) x + 1
3

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 626

Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 7 Page 347

a) b)

## 100 ! log15 \$ 12 ! log 3 \$

a) 2 = x log 3 b) = x log1000 c) 4 = x # & d) = x#
10 " log 3 % 2 " log5 &%
2
=x 10 = x(3) 4 6
log 3 x= x=
x =& 3.333 ! log15 \$ ! log 3 \$
x =& 4.192 #" log 3 &% #" log5 &%

## Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 10 Page 347

a) A(0) = 400(1.09)0
= 400
The initial value of the investment is \$400, when t = 0.

b) 2 = 1.09t
log 2 = t log1.09
log 2
t=
log1.09
t =& 8
The investment will double in approximately 8 years.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 627

Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 11 Page 347

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 628

log(mx) = m log x
log(mx) = log x m
mx = x m
x m ! mx = 0
x(x m!1 ! m) = 0
so x = 0, but x 0 since log 0 is undefined
or
xm 1 = m, true for m = 1
log(mx) = m log x only when m = 1.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 629

Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 12 Page 347

## Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 13 Page 348

( )
5
a) log 2 85 = log 2 23 b) log 2 85 = 5log 2 8

= 15 = 5(3)
= 15

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 630

c) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.
I prefer the power law method since it involves simpler calculations.

## Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

1

( ) ( )
1 1
1
log 3 27 3 = log 3 33 3
log 3 27 3 = log 3 33
3
1
= log 3 3 1
= (3)
=1 3
=1

## Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 15 Page 348

! 10 \$
a) t = log 0.5 # ; t =& 6.6 h
" 1000 &%
t = log 0.5 0.01
t =& 6.6
The docking procedures should begin approximately 6.6 h after the reverse thrusters are first
fired.

{ }
b) Domain: d !R, 0 < d " 1000 ; Range: t !R, t " 0 { }
The domain represents the distance from the space station in kilometres.
The range represents the time, in hours, required to reach a distance from the space station.

## Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 17 Page 348

Let w = log b x
x = bw write in exponential form
w
log k x = log k b take log k of both sides
log k x = wlog k b apply the power law of logarithms
log k x
w=
log k b
log k x
log b x = express in terms of x
log k b

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 631

Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 18 Page 348

log 2 9 log 2 25
a) b)
log 2 3 log 2 10

( )
64
log 2 210 = 640

## a) A(t) = P(1+ r)i

0.035
r=
4
= 0.008 75 interest rate each quarter
i = 4t number of pay periods each year

( )
4t
A(t) = P 1.008 75

b) i) 2 = (1.008 75)4t
log 2 = 4t log1.008 75
log 2
4t =
log1.008 75
log 2
t=
4 log1.008 75
t =& 19.9
It will take approximately 19.9 years for the investment to double.

## ii) 3 = (1.008 75)4t

log 3 = 4t log1.008 75
log 3
4t =
log1.008 75
log 3
t=
4 log1.008 75
t =& 31.5
It will take approximately 31.5 years for the investment to triple.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 632

Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 21 Page 348

1
f (x) =
1! x
1
f (a) = substitute a in for x
1! a
1
=2 given: f (a) = 2
1! a
1
= 1! a
2
1
= 1! a square both sides
4
3
a=
4
" 1%
f (1! a) = f \$ '
# 4&
1
=
1
1!
4
1
=
3
4
1
=
3
2
2
=
3

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 633

Chapter 6 Section 4 Question 22 Page 348

## So e = 256 and f = 128.

Check
f = 256 256 256
= 256 256 !16
= 256 4096
= 256 ! 64
= 16 384
= 128
e + f = 256 + 128
= 384

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 634

Chapter 6 Section 5 Making Connections: Logarithmic Scales in
the Physical Sciences

## a) pH = ! log "# H + \$% b) pH = ! log " H + \$

# %
= ! log(0.01) = ! log(0.000 034)
= !(!2) =& !(!4.5)
=2 =& 4.5

## c) pH = ! log " H + \$ d) pH = ! log " H + \$

# % # %
= ! log(10!9 ) = ! log(1.5 & 10!10 )
= !(!9) =& !(!9.8)
=9 =& 9.8

## a) 10 ! pH = "# H + \$% b) 10! pH = " H + \$ c) 10! pH = " H + \$ d) 10! pH = " H + \$

# % # % # %
+ !11
H = 10 10 = "# H \$%
!3 +
10 = "# H \$%
!8.5 +
10 = "# H \$%
!4.4 +

## a) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

The pH scale varies over several powers of 10.

## b) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

To ensure that most pH measurements are positive.

## a) pH = ! log "# H + \$% b) pH = ! log " H + \$

# %
= ! log(0.000 01) = ! log(2.5 & 10!11 )
= !(!5) =& !(!10.6)
=5 =& 10.6

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 635

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 5 Page 353

b)

## The pH level of acetic acid is approximately 2.7.

c) pH = ! log " H + \$
# %
= ! log(1.9 & 10!3 )
=& !(!2.7)
=& 2.7

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 636

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 6 Page 354

#I &
a) ! 2 " !1 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
"I %
80 ! 60 = 10 log \$ 2 '
# I1 &
"I %
20 = 10 log \$ 2 '
# I1 &
"I %
2 = log \$ 2 '
# I1 &
I2
102 =
I1
I2
100 =
I1
The ratio of intensities is 100. A shout is 100 times more intense than a conversation.

#I &
b) ! 2 " !1 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
"I %
80 ! 30 = 10 log \$ 2 '
# I1 &
"I %
50 = 10 log \$ 2 '
# I1 &
"I %
5 = log \$ 2 '
# I1 &
I2
105 =
I1
I2
100 000 =
I1
The ratio of intensities is 100 000. A shout is 100 000 times more intense than a whisper.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 637

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 7 Page 354

#I &
! 2 " !1 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
#I &
150 " 110 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
#I &
40 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
#I &
4 = log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
I2
104 =
I1
I2
10 000 =
I1
A rock concert speaker sounds 10 000 times as intense as a loud car stereo.

## Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 8 Page 354

#I &
! 2 " !1 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
# 30 000 &
60 " !1 = 10 log %
\$ 1 ('
60 " !1 =& 45
!1 =& 15

## Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 9 Page 354

! I\$
M = log # &
" I0 %
(
M = log 10 000 )
=4
The earthquake in North Bay, Ontario, measured 4 on the Richter scale.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 638

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 10 Page 354

! I\$
a) M = log # &
" I0 %
! I\$
2.3 = log # &
" I0 %
I
102.3 =
I0
I
=& 199.53
I0

## The earthquake in Welland, Ontario, was approximately 199.53 times as intense as a

standard low-level earthquake.

! I\$
b) M = log # &
" I0 %
! I\$
1.1 = log # &
" I0 %
I
101.1 =
I0
I
=& 12.59
I0
199.53
=& 15.85
12.59
The Welland earthquake was approximately 15.85 times as intense as the St. Catharines
earthquake.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 639

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 11 Page 354

! I\$
M = log # &
" I0 %
! I\$
8.9 = log # &
" I0 %
I
108.9 =
I0
I
=& 794 328 235
I0
The most intense earthquakes are approximately 794 328 235 times as intense as standard, low-
level earthquakes.

## Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 12 Page 354

"b %
a) m2 ! m1 = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
"b %
0.12 ! (!1.5) = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
"b %
1.62 = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
b1
101.62 =
b2
b1
=& 41.69
b2
Sirius appears to be approximately 41.69 times brighter than Betelgeuse.

"b %
b) m2 ! m1 = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
(
(!1.5) ! m1 = log 1.3 ( 1010 )
(
m1 = !1.5 ! log 1.3 ( 1010 )
m1 =& !11.61
The apparent magnitude of the Sun is approximately 11.61.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 640

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 13 Page 354

## Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

I think that astronomers would be more interested in the absolute magnitude since it takes
distance into consideration.

## Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 15 Page 355

a) i)
"b %
M 2 ! M1 = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
"b %
0.4 ! (!1.8) = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
"b %
2.2 = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
b1
= 102.2
b2
b1
=& 158.5
b2
The brightest star is approximately 158.5 times brighter than the second brightest, in
absolute terms.

ii)
"b %
M 2 ! M1 = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
"b %
3.2 ! (!1.8) = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
"b %
5 = log \$ 1 '
# b2 &
b1
= 105
b2
b1
= 100 000
b2
The brightest star is 100 000 times brighter than the least brightest, in absolute terms.

b) The closest star is Biffidus-V, next is Cheryl-XI, and farthest away is Roccolus-III.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 641

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 16 Page 355

## Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

There have been several major earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean. The largest known
earthquakes are:
Chile, 1960 magnitude 9.5
Indonesia, 2004 magnitude 9.3 (Boxing Day tsunami)
Russia, 1737 estimated magnitude 9.3
Russia, 1952 magnitude 9.0
There have been minor earthquakes (tremors) where I live, but nothing above 4.0.

## Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

There is a logarithmic equation relating the apparent magnitude (how bright we see a star), m, and
the stars distance from earth, d, to the absolute magnitude (how bright the star would appear
from 10 parsecs, or about 32.6 light years, away), M:
(" d % +
M =& m ! 5 *\$ log ' !1
) # 3.26 & -,

## Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

The eye sees luminosity on a logarithmic scale, so people can look at one object 1 000 000 times
brighter than another, but they do not appear that different.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 642

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 19 Page 355

B;
1
log sin x cos x =
2
( )=1
log cos x
log ( sin x ) 2
2 log(cos x) = log(sin x)
( )
log cos 2 x = log sin x( )
cos 2 x = sin x
cos 2 x ! sin x = 0
(1! sin 2 x) ! sin x = 0
! sin 2 x ! sin x + 1 = 0
1 (!1)2 ! 4(!1)(1)
sin x =
2(!1)
1 5
sin x =
!2
!1+ 5
sin x = , since sin x cannot be less than ! 1
2

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 643

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 20 Page 355

1
The base of the triangle = s 2 + s 2 Area of triangle = bh Area of square = s2
2

( )
= 2s 2 1
= 2s h
= 2s 2
Area square = Area triangle

s2 =
1
2
( )
2s h

2s 2 = 2sh
2s 2 2
h= ! divide the s ' s
2s 2
multiply the numerator and denominator by 2 to get the square root out of the denominator
2 2s
h=
2
h = 2s

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 644

Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 21 Page 355

B;
a+b=3
(a + b)2 = 32
a 2 + 2ab + b2 = 9
(a 2
)
+ b2 + 2ab = 9
7 + 2ab = 9 substitute a 2 + b2 = 7
2ab = 2
ab = 1
1
a=
b

(a )
2
2
+ b2 = 72
a 4 + 2a 2 b2 + b4 = 49
2
! 1\$
a 4 + 2 # & b2 + b4 = 49
" b%
! b2 \$
a 4 + 2 # 2 & + b4 = 49
"b %
a 4 + 2 + b4 = 49
a 4 + b4 = 47

## Chapter 6 Section 5 Question 22 Page 355

D;
log b (a 2 ) = 3
b3 = a 2
2 2

( ) ( )
b3 3
= a2 3

4
b2 = a 3
4
2
log a b = log a a3
4
=
3

Chapter 6 Review

## Chapter 6 Review Question 1 Page 356

a)

{ }
i) Domain: x !R ; Range: { y !R, y > 0}
ii) Let y = 0.
0 = 3x
log 0 = x log 3 log 0 is undefined
No x-intercept.

iii) Let x = 0.
y = 30
y =1
The y-intercept is 1.

## vi) The horizontal asymptote is y = 0.

b), c)

{ }
Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range: { y !R} ; x-intercept is 1; no y-intercept;
1
f is positive for x > 1 and negative for 0 < x < 1;
f 1 is increasing for all intervals; vertical asymptote is x = 0

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 646

Chapter 6 Review Question 2 Page 356

a)

{
i) Domain: x !R ; Range:} { y !R, y > 0}
ii) Let y = 0.
x
1
0=
4
1
log 0 = x log log 0 is undefined
4
No x-intercept.

iii) Let x = 0.
0
1
y=
4
y =1
The y-intercept is 1.

## vi) The horizontal asymptote is y = 0.

b), c)

{
Domain: x !R, x > 0 ; Range:} { y !R} ; x-intercept is 1; no y-intercept;
1
g is positive for 0 < x < 1 and negative for x > 1;
g1 is decreasing for all intervals; vertical asymptote is x = 0

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 647

Chapter 6 Review Question 3 Page 356

## log 2 50 =& 5.6

log 2 32 = 5 and log 2 64 = 6 , so log 2 50 must be between 5 and 6. Find the approximate exponent
to which 2 must be raised to give 50.

## Estimate Check Analysis

5.5 2 5.5
=& 45.3 Too low. Try a higher
value.
5.7 25.7 =& 52.0 High, but close.
5.6 25.6 =& 48.5 This is a good estimate.
log 2 50 =& 5.6

## a) log 2 16 = log 2 24 b) log 3 81 = log 3 34

=4 =4

! 1\$ ! 1\$
c) log 4 # & = log 4 # 2 & d) log 0.000 001 = log10!6
" 16 % "4 %
= !6
= log 4 4'2
= '2

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 648

Chapter 6 Review Question 7 Page 356

log x x = 1, x > 0, x ! 1
log x x = y
xy = x
xy ! x = 0
x(x y !1 ! 1) = 0
x = 0, not a solution, since log 0 0 is not defined
y !1
x =1
( y ! 1) log x = log1
( y ! 1) log x = 0
y ! 1 = 0, y = 1
Therefore log x x = 1 for x > 0, x " 1.

## Chapter 6 Review Question 8 Page 356

a)

{
b) i) Domain: x !R, x > 5 }
ii) Range: { y !R}
iii) The vertical asymptote occurs when x 5 = 0. The vertical asymptote is x = 5.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 649

Chapter 6 Review Question 9 Page 356

a)

{
b) i) Domain: x !R, x < 0 }
ii) Range: { y !R}
iii) The vertical asymptote occurs when x = 0. The vertical asymptote is x = 0.

## a) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

Horizontal stretch by a factor of 2.
Translation 8 units left.
Translation 3 units down.
Reflection in the x-axis.
"1 % "1 %
y = ! log \$ x + 4' ! 3 or y = ! log \$ (x + 8) ' ! 3
#2 & #2 &
b) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 650

{
c) i) Domain: x !R, x > "8 }
ii) Range: { y !R}
1
iii) The vertical asymptote occurs when x + 4 = 0 . The vertical asymptote is x = 8.
2

## a) log 2 323 = 3log 2 25 ( ) b) log1000!2 = !2 log103

= 3(5) = !2 3 ()
= 15 = !6

4 2
! 1\$ ! 1\$
c) log 0.001!1 = ! log10!3 d) log 1 # & = 4 log 1 # &
" 16 % " 4%
= ! !3 ( ) 4 4

= 4(2)
=3
=8

## log17 log 0.35

a) x = b) x = c) x log 4 = log10
log 3 log 2
1
x =& 2.579 x =& !1.515 x=
log 4
x =& 1.661

x
80 ! 1 \$
d) =
100 #" 2 &%
x
! 1\$
0.8 = # &
" 2%
1
log 0.8 = x log
2
log 0.8
x=
1
log
2
x =& 0.322

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 651

Chapter 6 Review Question 14 Page 357

0.75 = (0.8) x
log 0.75 = x log 0.8
log 0.75
x=
log 0.8
x =& 1.3
The glass should be approximately 1.3 mm thick.

## Chapter 6 Review Question 15 Page 357

a) Draw a graph of the inverse function y = 3x, then reflect it in the line y = x.

b)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 652

Chapter 6 Review Question 16 Page 357

Chemical A Chemical B
pH = ! log "# H + \$% pH = ! log "# H + \$%

## 10! pH = "# H + \$% 10! pH = "# H + \$%

10!6 = H + 10!8 = H +
There is less hydronium ion concentration in Chemical B.

## Chapter 6 Review Question 17 Page 357

great light
! I\$ ! I\$
M = log # & M = log # &
" I0 % " I0 %
! I\$ ! I\$
8 = log # & 4 = log # &
" I0 % " I0 %
I I
108 = 104 =
I0 I0
No, a great earthquake is not twice as intense as a light earthquake, it is 10 000 times as
intense as a light earthquake.

## Chapter 6 Review Question 18 Page 357

7 logT
a) n = 1!
3
1
7 log
n = 1! 8
3
n =& 3.1
The shade number that the welder should use is 3.

7 logT
b) n = 1!
3
7 logT
14 = 1!
3
7 logT
13 = !
3
39
! = logT
7
39
!
10 7 =T
T =& 2.683 " 10!6
1
These glasses transmit a fraction of approximately of light.
372 717

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 653

7 logT
c) n = 1!
3
7 logT
2 = 1!
3
7 logT
1= !
3
3
! = logT
7
3
!
10 =T 7

T =& 0.373
0.373
=& 138 950
2.683 ! 10"6
The #2 welding glasses transmit approximately 138 950 times as much visible light as the
#14 welding glasses.

## Chapter 6 Review Question 19 Page 357

a)

{ } {
b) Domain: T !R, 0 < T " 1 ; Range: n !R, n " 1 }
Since T is the fraction of light, it can be between 0 and including 1. T cannot be 0 since log T
is undefined. From the graph we can see that see that n is greater than or equal to 1.

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 654

Chapter 6 Practice Test

## The correct solution is A.

! 1 \$ ! 1\$
log5 # & = log5 # 3 &
" 125 % "5 %
= log5 5'3
= '3

= !3 2 ()
= !6

## Chapter 6 Practice Test Question 5 Page 359

log 27
a) log 6 27 = b) log12 63 = 3log12 6
log 6
3log 6
=& 1.839 =
log12
=& 2.163

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 655

Chapter 6 Practice Test Question 6 Page 359

1
a) g(x) = log "# !(x + 3) \$% + 6
2
1
Compress vertically by a factor of , translate 3 units left, translate 6 units up, and reflect in
2
the y-axis.

b)

{
c) i) Domain: x !R, x < "3 }
ii) Range: { y !R}
iii) The vertical asymptote occurs when x 3 = 0. The vertical asymptote is x = 3.

d)

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 656

Chapter 6 Practice Test Question 8 Page 359

## A(t) = P(1+ i)t

2 = (1.065)t
log 2 = t log1.065
log 2
t=
log1.065
t =& 11
It will take approximately 11 years for the amount to double.

## Chapter 6 Practice Test Question 9 Page 359

a) pH = ! log " H + \$
# %
= ! log(3.2 & 10!12 )
=& !(!11.5)
=& 11.5
The pH level of ammonia is approximately 11.5.

b) pH = ! log "# H + \$%

10! pH = "# H + \$%

## 10!2 = "# H + \$% 10!3.5 = "# H + \$%

H + = 0.01 H + =& 0.000 32
The range of the hydronium ion concentration in vinegar is approximately
0.000 32 < V < 0.01.

c) Vinegar is acidic since its pH is less than 7. Ammonia is alkaline since its pH is greater than 7.

a)

b)

c)

## The mountain climber is approximately 1.4 km above sea level.

d) b) P = 101.3(1.133)! d
= 101.3(1.133)!5
=& 54.3

c) P = 101.3(1.133)! d
85 = 101.3(1.133)! d
85
= 1.133! d
101.3
" 85 %
log \$ = !d log1.133
# 101.3 '&
" 85 %
log \$
# 101.3 '&
d=!
log1.133
d =& 1.4

## MHR Advanced Functions 12 Solutions 658

Chapter 6 Practice Test Question 11 Page 359

#I &
a) ! 2 " !1 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
( )
! 2 " 85 = 10 log 315
!2 = 10 log ( 315) + 85
! 2 =& 110
The passing subway train has a level of approximately 110 dB.

#I &
b) ! 2 " !1 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
#I &
118 " 85 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
#I &
33 = 10 log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
#I &
3.3 = log % 2 (
\$ I1 '
I2
103.3 =
I1
I2
=& 1995
I1
The sound of the power saw is approximately 1995 times as intense as the sound of normal
city traffic.

## Examples may vary. A sample solution is shown.

Graphing y = 2log x and y = log x2 results in the same graph when x > 0.
The results are the same for y = 6log x and y = log x6 and y = 2.3log x and y = log x2.3.