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Q. List the four categories of standards for drinking water.

A. Physical, chemical, biological, radiological

Q. List the four categories of physical standards

A. Turbidity, Odor, Temperature, Color.

Q. Select the appropriate category of chemical standard for a given constituent,

for example, zinc-esthetics, iron-esthetics/economics, nitrates-toxicity

A. Chloride-taste, copper-taste, fluoride-health problem, lead-health problem,

manganese-esthetics, sodium-health problem, sulfate-health probelm

Q. Define pathogen.

A. Disease-producing organisms such as bacteria, protozoa, virus, and worms.

Q. Identify the microorganism group used as an indicator of fecal contamination of

water and explain why it was selected.

A. Coliform group which lives in human intestinal tract or in most domestic

animals, it was selected because they are easily identified and outnumber the

Q. Sketch a water softening plant and a filtration plant, labeling all of the parts
and explaining their functions.

A. filtration plant: screen -> rapid mix (coagulation) -> flocculation basin
(flocculation) -> sedimentation basin -> rapid sand filter -> disinfection ->
softening plant (groundwater): rapid mix -> reaction basin -> settling tank ->
recarbonation (adjustment of pH) -> rapid sand filter -> disinfection -> storage.

Q. Define the Shulze-Hardy rule and use it to explain the effectiveness of ions of
differing valence in coagulation.

A. One mole of trivalent ion can reduce the charge as much as 30-50 moles of
divalent ion and 1500-2500 mole of monovalent ion. So, trivalent ion is more
effective in removing repelling charges around the colloidal materials and
destabilizing them.

Q. Explain the significance of alkalinity in coagulation.

A. Because coagulants react with bicarbonate ions to form complex, that can
destabilize the colloids to adhere each other.

Q. Differentiate between coagulation and flocculation.

A. Coagulation is a process of rapid mixing of coagulants and colloidal matters in

water so that they form flocs that can precipitate. Flocculation is a process of
contacting the particles together so that they can settle down efficiently.

Q. Write the reaction chemistry of alum and ferric chloride when alkalinity is
present and when no alkalinity is present.

A. Alkalinity present: Al2(SO4)3 + 6HCO3- -> 2Al(OH)3 + 6CO2 + 3SO4-2, FeCl3 +

3HCO3- -> Fe(OH)3 + 3CO2 + 3Cl-
No alkalinity: Al2(SO4)3.14H2O -> 2Al(OH)3 + 8H2O + 3H2SO4, FeCl3 + 3H2O -> Fe(OH)3
+ 3HCl

Q. Explain the effect of pH on alum and ferric chloride solubility.

A. Optimal pH: 5,5 - 6,5

If there is no bicarbonate ion (=pH is low), alum and ferric complex can be formed
but pH decreases readily because of formation of H2SO4 and HCl.If pH is high, CO3-2
is predominant species, so the same pH drop will be observed.

Q. Explain how to conduct a jar test to obtain an optimum coagulant dose.

A. First, the different concentrations of coagulants are made. pH of the sample

water is optimized to 5,5 - 6,5. Each jar is mixed with series of coagulant dose
and mixed rapidly and then settled for 30minutes to 1hour. The water quality was
checked by pH measurement and turbidity (or others), and then the optimal coagulant
dose can be found.

Q. List the four basic types of coagulant aids; explain how each aid works and when
it should be employed.

A. Polymers: polymer's active sites adhere to flocs and make larger flocs that
settle better
pH adjusters: either acid or base is added to adjust the optimal pH for
Activated silica: added when treating low-colored, low-turbidity water. Activated
silica form a negatively charged solution that will bind with aluminum or iron
Clay: added when colored, low-turbidity water is present. Works like activated

Q. Using diagrams and chemical reactions, explain how water becomes hard.

A. When rainwater enters the soil, CO2 produced by soil bacteria reacts with water
to from H2CO3, and that will further react with limestone to form Ca(HCO3)2 and

Q. Write the general equations for softening by ion exchange and by chemical

A. Chemical precipitation:
Ca+2 + CO3-2 <-> CaCO3
Mg+2 + 2OH- <-> Mg(OH)2
Ion exchange:
Ca(HCO3)2 + 2NaR <-> CaR2 + 2NaHCO3

Q. Explain the significance of alkalinity in lime-soda softening.

A. Alkalinity --> providing enough HCO3- for CaCO3 precipitation

Q. Calculate the theoretical detention time or volume of tank if you are given the
flow rate and the volume or detention time.

A. detention time t = V(volume)/Q(flow)

Q. Explain how an upward flow sedimentation tank (upflow clarifier) works, using a
vector arrow diagram of a settling particle.

A. settling velocity of particle arrow is downwards and velocity of liquid arrow is

upwards. Settled particles are discarded from the bottom of the clarifier and inlet
liquid flow from the bottom of the clarifier.

Q. Define overflow rate in terms of liquid flow and settling basin geometry and
state its units.

A. overflow rate = (volume*time)/surface area = liquid flow rate/surface area (m/s)

Q. Calculate the percent of particles retained in a settling basin given the

overflow rate, settling velocity, and basin flow scheme (horizontal flow or upward

A. P = 100*(vs/v0) = 100*(vs/(Q/As)) = 100*((vs*As)/Q)

Q. Explain the difference between Type I, Type II, and Type III sedimentation.

A. Type I: constant settling velocity is known (sand and grit material)

Type II: flocculation occurs during sedimentation, so settling velocity changes
Type III: particles settle as a mass so there are clear zone and sludge zone in

Q. Compare slow sand filters, rapid sand filters, and dual media filters with
respect to operating procedures and loading rates.

A. Slow sand filters: loading rate 3-7,5 m3/d*m2, uniform sand diameter of 0,2 mm
and suspended or colloidal material is applied to the sand then the particles clog
to the pore spaces. When the pores are clogged, the top layer of sand is replaced.
Rapid sand filters: backwashing (forcing water backwards through the sand) is
applied. loading rate is 120 m3/d*m2.
Dual media filters: deeper filter for particle removal, and coal is placed on top
of small particles. loading rate is 300 m3/d*m2.

Q. Explain how a rapid sand filter is cleaned.

A. Backwashing (washwater expands the sand filter and removes from the bed. after
backwashing, the sand settles back into place).

Q. Sketch and label a rapid sand filter identifying the following pertinent
features: inlet main, outlet main, washwater outlet, collection laterals, support
media (graded gravel), graded filter sand, and backwash troughs.

A. see figure 3-32

Q. Define effective size and uniformity coefficient and explain their use in
designing a rapid sand filter.

A. The EFFECTIVE SIZE (ES) is defined as thesize of a sieve opening through which
10 percent (by weight)of the particles (sand) will just pass and is given the
symbol d10. In a similar way,thesize of a sieve opening through which 60 percent
(by weight) of the particles (sand) will just pass is given the symbol d60. The
UNIFORMITY COEFFICIENT, (UC) which is a measure of the grading of the material,is
the ratio d60/d10.In general, rapid sand filters use sand with an effective size of
0.35-0.60 mm (0.014-0.024 in.) and a maximum uniformity coefficient of 1.7. Coarse
media, often 0.6-1.0 mm (0.024-0.04 in.), are used for closely controlled
coagulation and sedimentation.

Q. Explain why a disinfectant that has a residual is preferable to one that does

A. to prevent recontamination before use

Q. Write the equations for the dissolution of clorine gas in water and the
subsequent dissociation of hypochlorous acid.

A. Cl2(g) + H2O <-> HOCl + H+ + Cl-

HOCl <-> H+ + OCl-

Q. State the purpose of super-chlorination.

A. to remove taste- and odor-producing chlorine-containing organic materials

Q. Explain the difference between free available chlorine and combined available
chlorine and state which is the more effective disinfectant.

A. Combined available chlorine is formed when ammonia is available in water and

used as an indicator of contamination because it is reduced slowly. Free available
chlorine is formed when there is no ammonia present in water and it is more
effective disinfectant.

Q. Sketch a breakpoint chlorination curve and label the axes, breakpoint, and
regions of predominantly combined and predominantly free residual.

A. First comes peak of combined residual and then the breakpoint comes and peak of
free residual. y axis is residual chlorine concentration and x axis is chlorine

Q. Define the terms thickening, conditioning, and dewatering.

A. Thickening: process of producing concentrated sludge to reduce costs following

dewatering and disposal. process used to increase the solids content of sludge by
the separation and removal of a portion of the liquid phase.

Conditioning: process whereby sludge solids are treated with chemicals or various
other means to prepare the sludge for dewatering processes, in other words, to
improve dewatering characteristics of the sludge.

Dewatering: process of removing the water from sludge. process where water is
removed from solid material, and is also referred to as residual dewatering or
biosolids dewatering.

Q. List and describe three methods of nonmechanical dewatering of sludge.

A. sludge lagoon: Lagoons are pond-like bodies of water or basins designed to

receive, hold, and treat wastewater for a predetermined period of time. If
necessary, they are lined with material, such as clay or an artificial liner, to
prevent leaks to the groundwater below.

In the lagoon, wastewater is treated through a combination of physical, biological,

and chemical processes. Much of the treatment occurs naturally, but some systems
use aeration devices to add oxygen to the wastewater. Aeration makes treatment more
efficient, so that less land area is necessary. Aerators can be used to allow
existing systems to treat more wastewater.

Lagoons must be individually designed to fit a specific site and use. Designs are
based on such factors as type of soil, amount of land area available, and climate.
An important design considerations for lagoons includes the amount and type of
wastewater to be treated and the level of treatment required by regulations.
Wastewater leaving a lagoon may require additional treatment, or "polishing," to
remove disease-causing organisms or nutrients from the wastewater before it can be
returned to the environment.

Sand bed: A drying bed consists of a 30 cm bed of sand with an under-drainage.

Sludge is applied on the sand bed and is allowed to dry by evaporation and drainage
of excess water over a period of several weeks depending on climatic conditions.
Bacterial decomposition of the sludge takes place during the drying process while
moisture content is sufficiently high. During the rainy season the process may take
a longer time to complete and sizing the area of the drying beds should take this
into account.

freeze treatment:

Q. List and describe four mechanical methods of dewatering of sludge.

A. Centrifuge: Centrifugal dewatering of sludge is a process which uses the force

developed by fast rotation of a cylindrical drum or bowl to separate the sludge
solids from the liquid. In the basic process, when a sludge slurry is introduced to
the centrifuge, it is forced against the bowl's interior walls, forming a pool of
liquid. Density differences cause the sludge solids and the liquid to separate into
two distinct layers. The sludge solids "cake" and the liquid "centrate" are then
separately discharged from the unit.

Vacuum filtration: A vacuum filter consists of a cylindrical drum covered with a

filtering material or fabric, which rotates partially submerged in a vat of
conditioned sludge. A vacuum is applied inside the drum to extract water leaving
the solids, or filter cake, on the filter medium. A the drum completes its
rotational cycles, a blade scrapes the filter cake from the filtering the cycle
begins again. Two basic types of rotary drum vacuum filters are used in water
treatment.: the traveling medium and the precoat medium filters. The traveling
medium filter is made of fabric or stainless steel coils.

Continuous Belt Filter Press (CBFP):

(1.) Gravity drainage - to remove free-draining water
(2.) A low pressure zone - top belt being solid and the bottom belt being a sieve;
a sludge mat having significant dimensional stability is formed(3.) A high pressure
zone - bending a sludge cake contained between two filterbelts around a roll
introduces shear and compressive forces in the cake, allowing water to work its way
to the surface and out of the cake.

Plate Pressure Filters: Consist of a series of recessed vertical plates covered

with cloth to support and contain the sludge cake. Conditioned sludge is pumped
into the pressure filter. As the sludge cake forms and builds up in the chamber,
the pressure gradually increases to a point where further sludge injection would be
counterproductive. At this time the injection ceases and the pressure maintain for
1-4 hours. The filter is then mechanically opened, and the dewatered cake is
dropped from the chambers onto a conveyor for removal.