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Current Senario

Articles from various links from 2015 suggests that portable toilets first started to be
built as a immediate response to the earthquake victims to further prevent the victims
from illness/disease from sanitation or hygiene issues.

Links:

https://nepalearthquakelive.wordpress.com/2015/05/22/construction-of-temporary-
toilets-2/

http://www.himalayanconsensus.org/news/2015/6/17/kavre-earthquake-relief-nepal-
an-urgent-appeal-to-the-global-community-to-help-nepal

http://www.reuters.com/article/us-quake-nepal-collapse-idUSKBN0NI12120150427

Kathmandu Solid Waste Management Service (KSWM) started initiating mobile toilet
service in Kathmandu from Basantapur from 2009. They are developed using local
technology by Balaju Yantrasala and KSWM.
https://sanitationupdates.wordpress.com/2009/05/13/nepal-kathmandu-mobile-
toilets-convenient-and-eco-friendly/
According to The Himalayan Times Article, mobile toilets have been set up at Sahidgate,
Old Buspark, Bir Hospital and Basantapur currently, while one mobile toilet keeps
making round of the city. The demand are high and so they planned to add 5 more in
the valley. https://thehimalayantimes.com/kathmandu/mobile-public-toilets-becoming-
popular-valley/
Maintenance: Each of these mobile toilets earn 25000 in profit in a month. There are
two tanks for collecting urine and feces separately, which usually fills up in 2 days.

Installation cost: during the earthquake Himalayan consensus planned to install


hundreds of portable toilets which would around 450$ each.
http://www.himalayanconsensus.org/news/2015/6/17/kavre-earthquake-relief-nepal-
an-urgent-appeal-to-the-global-community-to-help-nepal

Made from local technology developed by the Balaju Yantrasala and KSWM, its
manufacturing cost is nearly Rs 10 lakh. It can accommodate nine people at a time with
separate ladies' and gents' sections. On the other hand, the first mobile toilet in Lalitpur
cost 90,000 which was designed by Jagannath Shrestha, director at center of energy
studies at tribhuvan university.
http://www.ngoforum.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=5561
2010, article from NGO forum says that nearly 600 people are using the mobile toilet in
Sundhara daily and 700 people are using the service at Basantapur daily

Human waste managed: the collected urine and stool is taken to a treatment plant at
the Kathmandu Metropolitan City. The waste is treated to destroy harmful contents and
the residue, which is no longer harmful, is discarded.
https://sanitationupdates.wordpress.com/2009/05/13/nepal-kathmandu-mobile-
toilets-convenient-and-eco-friendly/

Cost: among many of the portable toilets in operation, Bionics toilets are one the easy
to install and cheaper ones. There are two types of bionic toilets temporary which uses
a pot and permanent which uses tank. Depending upon the space it covers, it will costs
around 15,000 to 20,000 Rupees. https://thehimalayantimes.com/environment/eco-
friendly-bianics-toilet/

Markets

1. Mount Everest region: Pumori, Ama Dablam, and Island Peak: Series of wastage and
rubbish reports of Mount Everest region have been identified since 1990s. While some
trekking companies do provide toilet facilities with toilet tents, there still seems to be a
great demand of portable toilets in higher trekking regions like Mount Everest. Eco
Everest expedition has collected more than 13 tonnes of garbage, 400 kilogrammes of
human waste and four bodies since 2008.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/oct/12/everest-waste-toilets

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/nepal/8823767/Public-toilets-could-
be-put-on-Mount-Everest.html

2. Article in Wash-Resource Centre Network Nepal: religious and places like lumbini can be
example of possible places for public toilet. http://www.wash-rcnn.net.np/lumbini-to-
introduce-portable-toilets-for-its-visitors
Companies in Portable toilet

Arati Prefab

Ground work Mishimma (in collaboration with Nepal Japan Friendship Society)

E-pack polymers

Balaju Yantra shala

Agroassain Green- Portable Luxury Toilets