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1.

Introduction
Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat. If the gluten content in the wheat
are low it is called soft or weak. Meanwhile, if the gluten content is high it is called as hard or
strong. Gluten is the composite of protein storage together with starch in the endosperm of the
wheat. The higher the amount of gluten in a wheat flour, thus it makes the dough from the wheat
to be more elastic that help to hold its shape well once baked. As for the lower amount of gluten
contained in the wheat flour will result in a loaf with a finer, crumbly texture. Soft wheat flour is
usually categorized into two groups; cake flour and pastry flour. Cake flour has the lowest content
in gluten while the pastry flour has slightly more gluten than the cake flour.
There are three parts of wheat; endosperm, germ and bran. Endosperm is the protein and
starch part which contained high amount of carbohydrates that will supply a lot of energy when
we consumed it. Germ is the protein, fat and vitamin-rich that offers a lot of essential supplement
to the consumer body needs. The last part is the bran or the fiber part that help in our digestive
system.
Therefore, based on the collected data from different sources regarding the nutrition
composition of wheat flour, we would like to consider either wheat flour is suitable or not in order
to overcome the problem of malnutrition among those infected in Indonesia through this simple
research.

2. Nutrient Composition
Globally, there is no doubt that the number of people who rely on wheat for a substantial
part of their diet amounts to several billions. Therefore, the nutritional importance of wheat
proteins should not be underestimated, particularly in less developed countries where bread,
noodles and other products (e.g. bulgar, couscous) may provide a substantial proportion of the diet.
Wheat provides nearly 55% of carbohydrate and 20% of the food calories. It contains carbohydrate
78.10%, protein 14.70%, fat 2.10%, minerals 2.10% and considerable proportions of vitamins
(thiamine and vitamin-B) and minerals (zinc, iron). Wheat is also a good source of traces minerals
like selenium and magnesium, nutrients essential to good health [3, 21, 44, 48]. Wheat grain
precisely known as caryopsis consists of the pericarp or fruit and the true seed. In the endosperm
of the seed, about 72% of the protein is stored, which forms 8-15% of total protein per grain weight.
Wheat grains are also rich in pantothenic acid, riboflavin and some minerals, sugars etc. The barn,
which consists of pericarp testa and aleurone, is also a dietary source for fiber, potassium,
phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and niacin in small quantities.

Table 1: Composition of wheat products per 100g edible portion@ .


Parameter Ref 1 Ref 2 Ref 3 Ref 4 Ref 5 Ref 6
Carbohydrat - 71,76 78,4 - 62,0 68.5
Protein 4,71 12,3 14,3 13,3 10,4 12.6
Lipid - - - - - -
Fibre 4,92 - - 3,3 0,2 -
Ash 5,39 0,42 2,2 0,43 0,6 -
Moisture 7,38 11,36 - 11,6 13,1 -
Fat 1,52 1,91 2,3 0,88 - 2
Vitamin A 1924,07 - - - - -
S. D. F - 1,19 - - - -
I. D. F - 1,83 - - - -

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T. D. F. - 2,85 - - - -
Lysin* - 3,13 2,6 - - -
Threonin* - 2,78 2,8 - - -
Valin - 5,08 4,4 - - -
Methionin* - 1,85 - - - -
Serine* - 2,8 - - - -
Isoleucine - 3,6 4,2 - - -
Histidine - - 2,0 - - -
Leucine - - 6,8 - - -
Tryphtophan - - 1,2 - - -
*Essential Amino Acids

3. Benefit of Wheat Flour


The health benefits of wheat depend entirely on the form in which you eat it. These benefits
will be few if you select wheat that has been processed into 60% extraction, bleached white flour.
60% extractionthe standard for most wheat products in the United States, including breads,
noodles and pastas, baked goods like rolls or biscuits, and cookiesmeans that 40% of the original
wheat grain was removed, and only 60% is left. Unfortunately, the 40% that gets removed includes
the bran and the germ of the wheat grainits most nutrient-rich parts. In the process of making
60% extraction flour, over half of the vitamin B1, B2, B3, E, folic acid, calcium, phosphorus, zinc,
copper, iron, and fiber are lost.
If you select 100% whole wheat products, however, the bran and the germ of the wheat
will remain in your meals, and the health benefits will be impressive! Our food ranking qualified
whole wheat (in its original non-enriched form) as a very good source of dietary fiber and
manganese, and as a good source of magnesium.
The many benefits of whole wheat products are being recognized more and more by
consumers. Even though many health-conscious individuals have been cutting back on their intake
of total carbs and refined wheat products (by about 10% between 1997-2007), the demand for
whole wheat products has actually increased during that same time period. This trend fits in well
with a Mediterranean diet approach to health, which looks to lower overall carbs but higher whole
grains, including whole wheat.
Whole Grains Reduce Risk of Metabolic Syndrome
Whole Wheat's Betaine Lessens Chronic Inflammation
Whole Wheat Promotes Women's Health and Gastrointestinal Health

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4. Process Production of Wheat Flour
Here is the Flowsheet of the process :

Figure 1. Flow Sheet of Wheat Flour Production

- Raw Materials
Although most flour is made from wheat, it can also be made from other starchy plant
foods. These include barley, buckwheat, corn, lima beans, oats, peanuts, potatoes, soybeans, rice,
and rye. Many varieties of wheat exist for use in making flour. In general, wheat is either hard
(containing 11-18% protein) or soft (containing 8-11% protein). Flour intended to be used to
bake bread is made from hard wheat. The high percentage of protein in hard wheat means the
dough will have more gluten, allowing it to rise more than soft wheat flour. Flour intended to be
used to bake cakes and pastry is made from soft wheat. All-purpose flour is made from a blend

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of soft and hard wheat. Durum wheat is a special variety of hard wheat, which is used to make a
kind of flour called Semolina. Semolina is most often used to make pasta.
Flour usually contains a small amount of additives. Bleaching agents such as benzoyl peroxide
are added to make the flour more white. Oxidizing agents (also known as improvers) such
as potassium bromate, chlorine dioxide, and azodicarbonamide are added to enhance the baking
quality of the flour. These agents are added in a few parts per million. Self-rising flour contains
salt and a leavening agent such as calcium phosphate. It is used to make baked goods without the
need to add yeast or baking powder. Most states require flour to contain added vitamins and
minerals to replace those lost during milling. The most important of these are iron and the B
vitamins, especially thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin.
The Manufacturing Process

Grading the wheat


1. Wheat is received at the flour mill and inspected. Samples of wheat are taken for physical
and chemical analysis. The wheat is graded based on several factors, the most important
of which is the protein content. The wheat is stored in silos with wheat of the same grade
until needed for milling.
2.
Purifying the wheat

An illustration from The Young Millwright and Miller's Guide, depicting the processes of an
automated grain mill.
(From the collections of Henry Ford Museum & Greenfield Village.)
In 1795, an American engineer published a book called The Young Millwright and Miller's
Guide. In the book, simple theories are transformed into a set of mechanical devices that form a
flour mill. At the back of the book is a drawing, illustrating how these devices make a continuous
production line in which the human hand is eliminated from the beginning of the process to the
end of production. The author of this book was Oliver Evans, himself the son of a miller. He and
his brothers ran their own mill, developed the systems, and perfected the operations that led to
the automated grain mill.
Today, Evans is considered one of America's most ambitious mechanical innovators. He used his
understanding of the way in which water turned a mill wheel and developed it into a viable
grain-milling system.
Most important was the fact that his system contained the idea of the integrated and automated
factory. When a machine substitutes human intervention, the problems of the fully automated

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assembly line are solved. This concept was not fully applied until the 1920s by Henry Ford, who
was able to develop a successful, operational assembly line. Ford had the advantage of living at
the end of the machine age, but Oliver Evans was the first to present the concept of automation
before it was even possible.

Henry Prebys
3. Before wheat can be ground into flour it must be free of foreign matter. This requires
several different cleaning processes. At each step of purification the wheat is inspected
and purified again if necessary.
4. The first device used to purify wheat is known as a separator. This machine passes the
wheat over a series of metal screens. The wheat and other small particles pass through the
screen while large objects such as sticks and rocks are removed.
5. The wheat next passes through an aspirator. This device works like a vacuum cleaner.
The aspirator sucks up foreign matter which is lighter than the wheat and removes it.
6. Other foreign objects are removed in various ways. One device, known as a disk
separator, moves the wheat over a series of disks with indentations that collect objects the
size of a grain of wheat. Smaller or larger objects pass over the disks and are removed.

7. Another device, known as a spiral seed separator, makes use of the fact that wheat grains
are oval while most other plant seeds are round. The wheat moves down a rapidly
spinning cylinder. The oval wheat grains tend to move toward the center of the cylinder
while the round seeds tend to move to the sides of the cylinder, where they are removed.
8. Other methods used to purify wheat include magnets to remove small pieces of metal,
scourers to scrape off dirt and hair, and electronic color sorting machines to remove
material which is not the same color as wheat.

Preparing the wheat for grinding

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9. The purified wheat is washed in warm water and placed in a centrifuge to be spun dry.
During this process any remaining foreign matter is washed away.
10. The moisture content of the wheat must now be controlled to allow the outer

layer of bran to be removed efficiently during grinding. This process is known as


conditioning or tempering. Several methods exist of controlling the amount of water
present within each grain of wheat. Usually this involves adding, rather than removing,
moisture.
11. Cold conditioning involves soaking the wheat in cold water for one to three days. Warm
conditioning involves soaking the wheat in water at a temperature of 115F (46C) for
60-90 minutes and letting it rest for one day. Hot conditioning involves soaking the wheat
in water at a temperature of 140F (60C) for a short period of time. This method is
difficult to control and is rarely used. Instead of water, wheat may also be conditioned
with steam at various temperatures and pressures for various amounts of time. If
conditioning results in too much moisture, or if the wheat happens to be too moist after
purification, water can be removed by vacuum dryers.

Grinding the wheat


12. Wheat of different grades and moistures is blended together to obtain a batch of wheat
with the characteristics necessary to make the kind of flour being manufactured. At this
point, the wheat may be processed in an Entoleter, a trade name for a device with rapidly
spinning disks which hurl the grains of wheat against small metal pins. Those grains
which crack are considered to be unsuitable for grinding and are removed.

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13. The wheat moves between two large metal rollers known as breaker rolls. These rollers
are of two different sizes and move at different speeds. They also contain spiral grooves
which crack open the grains of wheat and begin to separate the interior of the wheat from
the outer layer of bran. The product of the breaker rolls passes through metal sieves to
separate it into three categories. The finest material resembles a coarse flour and is
known as middlings or farina. Larger pieces of the interior are known as semolina. The
third category consists of pieces of the interior which are still attached to the bran. The
middlings move to the middlings purifier and the other materials move to another pair of
breaker rolls. About four or five pairs of breaker rolls are needed to produce the
necessary amount of middlings.
14. The middlings purifier moves the middlings over a vibrating screen. Air is blown up
through the screen to remove the lighter pieces of bran which are mixed with the
middlings. The middlings pass through the screen to be more finely ground.
15. Middlings are ground into flour by pairs of large, smooth metal rollers. Each time the
flour is ground it passes through sieves to separate it into flours of different fineness.
These sieves are made of metal wire when the flour is coarse, but are made of nylon or
silk when the flour is fine. By sifting, separating, and regrinding the flour, several
different grades of flour are produced at the same time. These are combined as needed to
produce the desired final products.
Processing the flour
Small amounts of bleaching agents and oxidizing agents are usually added to the flour
after milling. Vitamins and minerals are added as required by law to produce enriched
flour. Leavening agents and salt are added to produce self-rising flour. The flour is
matured for one or two months.
The flour is packed into cloth bags which hold 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, or 100 lb (About 0.9, 2.3,
4.5, 11.3, 22.7, or 45.4 kg). For large-scale consumers, it may be packed in metal tote
bins which hold 3000 lb (1361 kg), truck bins which hold 45,000 lb (20,412 kg), or
railroad bins which hold 100,000 lb (45,360 kg).

4. Conclusion

Wheat flour can be an alternative source of food to overcome hunger and malnourished
problem in Indonesia. Its because the raw material is easy to get and have a high sustainability,
the process is not so complicated, it also give many advantage for human and it countain high a
mount of essential nutrient which is needed by Human body, like Carbohydrates, Protein, Vitamin,
fibre and others. So that Wheat flour can be produced massively and distributed cheaply for poor
people so that they can get a good nutrient for their bodys with cheap price.

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References :

1. Kidane G, Abegaz K, Mulugeta A, Singh P. 2013. Nutritional Analysis of Vitamin A


Enriched Bread from Orange Flesh Sweet Potato and Locally Available Wheat Flours at
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Journal, 1(1) : 49-57.
2. Ahmed A. R. 2014. Influence of Chemical Properties of Wheat-Lupine Flour Blends on
Cake Quality. American Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2(2): 67-75.
3. Valcrcel-Yamani B., Silva Lannes S. C. 2012. Applications of Quinoa (Chenopodium
Quinoa Willd.) and Amaranth (Amaranthus Spp.) and Their Influence in the Nutritional
Value of Cereal Based Foods. Food and Public Health, 2(6): 265-275
4. Adedeji, Akinbode A., Ngadi Michael O. 2011. Microstructural Properties of Deep-Fat
Fried Chicken Nuggets Coated with Different Batter Formulation. International Journal
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5. Neves M. A., Kimura T., Shimizu N., Shiiba K. 2006. Production of Alcohol by
Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Low-grade Wheat Flour. Brazilian
Archives of Biology and Technology International Journal. 49(3) : 481-490.
6. P Kumar , RK Yadava , B Gollen , S Kumar , RK Verma , S Yadav.,2011, Nutritional
Contents and Medicinal Properties of Wheat: A Review . Life Sciences and Medicine
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http://astonjournals.com/manuscripts/Vol2011/LSMR-22_Vol2011.pdf
7. "How Flour is Made." The Story of Wheat. University of Saskatchewan College of
Agricultural Sciences. December 7,
1996. http://pine.usask.ca/cofa/displays/college/story/wheat.html .
8. http://www.namamillers.org/education/wheat-milling-process/

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