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INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY

Faculty of Science and Technology


_____________________________________________________

San Seyla

Steel Structures (AISC)


Emphasizing LRFD Specification
in

Mathcad

First Edition

Phnom Penh 2011


_____________________________________________________
TK Campus: #35-41, Str. 582, S/k Boeung Kak II. Khan Tuol Kok, Phnom Penh
PPT Campus: Str. 1984 & 1011, S/k Phnom Penh Thmey, Khan Russey Keo, Phnom Penh
Phone & Fax: 023 881623, HP: 012 1926969, 099 899069, 016 203040
Web Site: www.iu.edu.kh, Email: iusabo@yahoo.com
Table of Contents

1. Unit convension ..................................................................................................... 1

2. Design loads ......................................................................................................... 3

3. Materials ............................................................................................................... 10

4. Tension members........................ .......................................................................... 15

5. Compression members ......................................................................................... 30

6. Beam: Laterally supported ..................................................................................... 42

7. Welding ................................................................................................................. 53

8. Fastener ................................................................................................................ 73

9. Lateral-torsional buckling of beams........................................................................ 96

10. Combined bending and axial load......................................................................... 113

Reference .................................................................................................................. 123


1. Unit Convension

in = inch lbm = pound mass


ft = foot lbf = pound force
yd =yard kip = kilopound
mi = mile

psi = pound per sqaure inch


psf = pound per sqaure foot
ksi = kilopound per square inch

pcf = pound per cube foot

Length

1in 25.4 mm 1mm 0.039 in

1in 2.54 cm 1cm 0.394 in

1ft 0.305 m 1m 3.281 ft

1yd 0.914 m 1m 1.094 yd 1yd 3 ft

1mi 1.609 km 1km 0.621 mi 1mi 1760 yd

Area

2 2 2 2
1in 6.452 cm 1cm 0.155 in

2 2
1hectare 10000 m 1acre 4840 yd

Force

1lbf 4.448 N 1N 0.225 lbf 1N 0.102 kgf

1lbf 0.454 kgf 1kgf 2.205 lbf 1kgf 9.807 N

1kip 4.448 kN 1kN 0.225 kip 1kN 101.972 kgf

1tonnef 1000 kgf 1tonf 2000 lbf

Page 1
Stress

N
1psi 6.895 kPa 1kPa 0.145 psi 1Pa 1
2
m
N
1ksi 6.895 MPa 1MPa 0.145 ksi 1MPa 1
2
mm

kgf kN
1MPa 10.197 1kPa 1
2 2
cm m

kgf
1 0.098 MPa
2
cm

Fastener steel strength of A307, A325 and A490

A307(A) 60ksi 414 MPa A307(B) 100ksi 689 MPa

A325 120ksi 827 MPa A490 150ksi 1034 MPa

Weld electrode strength

E60XX 62ksi 427 MPa E70XX 72ksi 496 MPa

E100XX 100ksi 689 MPa E110XX 110ksi 758 MPa

Structure steel strength

A36 Fy 32ksi 221 MPa Fu 58ksi 400 MPa

Fy 36ksi 248 MPa Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

Density

kN kN kgf
1pcf 0.157 1 6.366 pcf 1pcf 16.018
3 3 3
m m m
kgf kN kgf
450pcf 7208.309 490pcf 76.973 490pcf 7849.047
3 3 3
m m m

Moment

1ft lbf 1.356 N m 1N m 0.738 ft lbf

1ft kip 1.356 kN m 1kN m 0.738 ft kip

Page 2
DESIGN LOADS

2.1. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD)

Factored_resistance Factored_load_effects

Or Design_strength Required_strength

Rn
Q
Where,

= load factor corresponding to Q

Q = nominal load effect

= resistance factor corresponding to Rn

Rn = nominal strength

2.2. LOAD COMBINATIONS (LRFD)

1. Dead load only 1.4D

2. Dead load with live load 1.2D + 1.6L + 0.5( Lr or S or R)

3. Dead load with roof live load 1.2D + 1.6( Lr or S or R) + (0.5L or 0.8W)

4. Dead load with wind load 1.2D + 1.6W + 0.5L + 0.5( Lr or S or R)

5. Dead load with earthquake load 1.2D 1.0E + 0.5L + 0.2S

6. Dead load with wind load and earthquake load 0.9D (1.6W or 1.0E)

Where, D = dead load (gravity load from the weight of structure elements and

permenent attachments)

L = live load (gravity occupacy and movable equipment load)

Lr = roof live load

W = wind load

Page 3
R = rain load

S = snow load

E = earthquake load

2.3. RESISTANCE FACTOR (LRFD)

Tension member

t = 0.90 for yielding limit state

t = 0.75 for fracture limit state

Compression member

t = 0.90

Beams

t = 0.90 for flexure

t = 0.75 for shear

Welds

t = the same as for type of action; i.e., tension, shear etc.

Fasteners

t = 0.75

2.4. TYPICAL DESIGN DEAD LOADS

(a) Material weights

kN
-Steel 490pcf 76.97
3
m
kN
-Aluminum 165pcf 25.92
3
m

-Reinforced concrete

kN
Normal weight 150pcf 23.56
3
m
kN kN
Light weight 90pcf 14.14 to 120pcf 18.85
3 3
m m

Page 4
kN
-Brick 120pcf 18.85
3
m

(b) Building Component Weights

-Cellings

kN
Gypsum plaster on suspended metal lath 10psf 0.48
2
m
-Wall and partitions

kN
Gypsum board (thk 1in 25 mm) 4psf 0.19
2
m

2.5. TYPICAL DESIGN LIVE LOADS

- Assembly areas and theaters

kN
Fixed seats (fastened to floor) 60psf 2.87
2
m
kN
Lobbies 100psf 4.79
2
m
kN
Stage floors 150psf 7.18
2
m
- Libraries

kN
Reading rooms 60psf 2.87
2
m
kN
Stack rooms 150psf 7.18
2
m
- Office buildings

kN
Lobbies 100psf 4.79
2
m
kN
Offices 50psf 2.39
2
m
- Schools

kN
Classrooms 40psf 1.92
2
m
kN
Corridors above the first floor 80psf 3.83
2
m

Page 5
Example 01: Combination load on truss

A A

A B C D

PLAN OF ROOF

Page 6
A D

SECTION A-A

Given :

h1
150
b1 75 mm
C-Section 20
c1 3.2
t
1

h2
150
b2 150 mm
WF-Section 10
tf2 7
t
w2

Page 7
h3
100
b3 100 mm
WF-Section 8
tf3 6
t
w3

Solution 01

Roofing slope angle 12deg

Thickness roofing sheet t 0.47mm

kgf 1 kgf
Roofing sheet RS 2 t 7200 6.919
3 cos( ) 2
m m

h 1 2c1 t1 2 b 1 2t1 t1 7850


kgf kgf
Purlin wc 8.219
3 m
m

wc 1 m 1 kgf
purlin 5.602
1 m 1.5m cos( ) 2
m

kgf
Dead load SDL RS purlin 12.521
2
m
kN
Roof live load Lr 1.00
2
m

Joint force on truss

P1DL 1.0m 5.0m SDL 0.614 kN P1Lr 1.0m 5.0m Lr 5 kN

P2DL 1.5m 5.0m SDL 0.921 kN P2Lr 1.5m 5.0m Lr 7.5 kN

Load combination

1. Dead load only

P1USL1 1.4 P1DL 0.86 kN

P2USL1 1.4 P2DL 1.289 kN

2. Dead load with roof live load

Page 8
P1USL2 1.2P1DL 1.6P1Lr 8.737 kN

P2USL2 1.2P2DL 1.6P2Lr 13.105 kN

Page 9
MATERIALS

3.1. PROPERTIES OF STEEL

- Minimum yield stress Fy

- Tensile strength Fu

ASTM Designation

- A36 Fy 32ksi 221 MPa Fu 58ksi 400 MPa to Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

Fy 36ksi 248 MPa Fu 58ksi 400 MPa to Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

- A53 Grade B Fy 35ksi 241 MPa Fu 60ksi 414 MPa

- A242 Fy 42ksi 290 MPa Fu 63ksi 434 MPa

Fy 46ksi 317 MPa Fu 67ksi 462 MPa

Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 70ksi 483 MPa

- A500 Grade A Fy 33ksi 228 MPa Fu 45ksi 310 MPa Round

Grade B Fy 42ksi 290 MPa Fu 58ksi 400 MPa Round

Grade C Fy 46ksi 317 MPa Fu 62ksi 427 MPa Round

Grade A Fy 39ksi 269 MPa Fu 45ksi 310 MPa Shaped

Grade B Fy 46ksi 317 MPa Fu 58ksi 400 MPa Shaped

Grade C Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 62ksi 427 MPa Shaped

- A510 Fy 36ksi 248 MPa Fu 58ksi 400 MPa

- A514 Fy 90ksi 621 MPa Fu 100ksi 689 MPa to Fu 130ksi 896 MPa

Fy 100ksi 689 MPa Fu 110ksi 758 MPa to Fu 130ksi 896 MPa

- A529 Grade 42 Fy 42ksi 290 MPa Fu 60ksi 414 MPa Fu 85ksi 586 MPa

Grade 50 Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 70ksi 483 MPa Fu 100ksi 689 MPa

Page 10
- A570 Grade 40 Fy 40ksi 276 MPa Fu 55ksi 379 MPa

Grade 45 Fy 45ksi 310 MPa Fu 60ksi 414 MPa

Grade 50 Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 65ksi 448 MPa

- A572 Grade 42 Fy 42ksi 290 MPa Fu 60ksi 414 MPa

Grade 50 Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 65ksi 448 MPa

Grade 60 Fy 60ksi 414 MPa Fu 75ksi 517 MPa

Grade 65 Fy 65ksi 448 MPa Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

- A588 Fy 42ksi 290 MPa Fu 63ksi 434 MPa

Fy 46ksi 317 MPa Fu 67ksi 462 MPa

Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 70ksi 483 MPa

- A606 Fy 45ksi 310 MPa Fu 65ksi 448 MPa

Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 70ksi 483 MPa

- A607 Grade 45 Fy 45ksi 310 MPa Fu 60ksi 414 MPa

Grade 50 Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 65ksi 448 MPa

Grade 55 Fy 55ksi 379 MPa Fu 70ksi 483 MPa

Grade 60 Fy 60ksi 414 MPa Fu 75ksi 517 MPa

Grade 65 Fy 65ksi 448 MPa Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

Grade 70 Fy 70ksi 483 MPa Fu 85ksi 586 MPa

- A611 Grade C Fy 33ksi 228 MPa Fu 48ksi 331 MPa

Grade D Fy 40ksi 276 MPa Fu 52ksi 359 MPa

Grade E Fy 80ksi 552 MPa Fu 82ksi 565 MPa

- A618 Grade I&II Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 70ksi 483 MPa

Grade III Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 65ksi 448 MPa

Page 11
- A709 Grade36 Fy 36ksi 248 MPa Fu 58ksi 400 MPa to Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

Grade50 Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 65ksi 448 MPa

Grade50W Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 70ksi 483 MPa

Grade70W Fy 70ksi 483 MPa Fu 90ksi 621 MPa to Fu 110ksi 758 MPa

Grade100 Fy 90ksi 621 MPa Fu 100ksi 689 MPa

Fy 100ksi 689 MPa Fu 110ksi 758 MPa

Grade100W Fy 90ksi 621 MPa Fu 130ksi 896 MPa

Fy 100ksi 689 MPa Fu 130ksi 896 MPa

-A852 Fy 70ksi 483 MPa Fu 90ksi 621 MPa Fu 110ksi 758 MPa

- A913 Grade 60 Fy 65ksi 448 MPa Fu 75ksi 517 MPa

Grade 65 Fy 70ksi 483 MPa Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

Grade 70 Fy 75ksi 517 MPa Fu 90ksi 621 MPa

3.2. FASTENER STEELS

ASTM Specification

1 in
Diameter of bold 2
5
8 in

3 in
13

4 16
7 19
8 in 22

Diameter 1in 25 mm
1 29
1 in
8 32
1 1 in 35
4 38
3
1 in
8
1
1 2 in

Page 12
1
- A307 [2.4] Grade A Fu 60ksi 414 MPa Dia. in to 4in
4
1
Grade B Fu 100ksi 689 MPa Dia. in to 4in
4

1 1
- A325 [2.5] Fu 105ksi 724 MPa Dia. 1 in to 1 in
8 2
1
Fu 120ksi 827 MPa Dia. in to 1in
2

3
- A449 [2.7] Fu 90ksi 621 MPa Dia. 1 in to 3in
4

1 1
Fu 105ksi 724 MPa Dia. 1 in to 1 in
8 2

1
Fu 120ksi 827 MPa Dia. in to 1in
2

1 1
- A490 [2.8] Fu 150ksi 1034 MPa Dia. in to 1 in
2 2

3.3. WELD ELECTRODE AND FILLER MATERIAL

ASTM Specification

Shielded matal arc welding (SMAW) AWS A5.1 or A5.5

- E60XX Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 62ksi 427 MPa

- E70XX Fy 60ksi 414 MPa Fu 72ksi 496 MPa

- E80XX Fy 67ksi 462 MPa Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

- E100XX Fy 87ksi 600 MPa Fu 100ksi 689 MPa

- E110XX Fy 97ksi 669 MPa Fu 110ksi 758 MPa

Submerged arc welding (SAW) AWS A5.17 or A5.23

- E6XX-EXXX Fy 50ksi 345 MPa Fu 62ksi 427 MPa to Fu 80ksi 552 MPa

- E7XX-EXXX Fy 60ksi 414 MPa Fu 70ksi 483 MPa to Fu 90ksi 621 MPa

Page 13
- E8XX-EXXX Fy 68ksi 469 MPa Fu 80ksi 552 MPa to Fu 100ksi 689 MPa

- E10XX-EXXX Fy 88ksi 607 MPa Fu 100ksi 689 MPa to Fu 130ksi 896 MPa

- E11XX-EXXX Fy 98ksi 676 MPa Fu 110ksi 758 MPa to Fu 130ksi 896 MPa

5
- Modulus elasticity E 29000ksi 2 10 MPa

4
- Shear modulus elasticity G 11000ksi 7.58 10 MPa

E 4
- Possion's ratio 0.3 G 7.69 10 MPa
2 ( 1 )

Page 14
TENSION MEMBERS

4.1. TYPE OF TENSION MEMBERS

4.2. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN TENSION MEMBER

Safety provision

1. Tension member

Tn Tu

2. Block shear

Tbs Tu

where, = resistance factor of tensile strength

Tn = nominal strength of a tension member

Page 15
Tu = factored load on a tension member

Tbs = block shear rupture strength

4.3. NOMINAL STRENGTH OF TENSION MEMBER


Tn = min Tny Tnu
1. yielding in the gross section

Tny = t Fy Ag = 0.90Fy Ag

2. fracture in the gross section

Tnu = t Fu Ae = 0.75Fu Ae

where, Fy = yield strenght limite

Fu = specified minimum tensile strength

Ag = gross cross-sectional area

Ae = effective net area = U An

An = net area

U = reduction coefficient (an efficiency factor)

Page 16
EFFECTIVE NET AREA

LRFD provide that the effective net area Ae be computed as

Ae = UAn

where, U = reduction coefficient

An = net area

REDUCTION COEFFICIENT

U = min 1
x
0.90
L

where, x = distance from centroid of element being connected eccentrically to

plan of load transfer.

L = length of connection in the direction of loading.

Page 17
NET AREA

Net area = Gross cross-sectional area - Hole areas

An = Ag Ah

Ah = d e t

Where Ah = area of cross section lost due to a bolt hole

de = effective width of a bolt hole, in(US), or mm(SI)


1
= d b in (US), or d 3.2mm (SI) for standard punched holes.
8

d b = nominal diameter of the bolt

t = thickness of the plate material

NET AREA FOR BOLT ARRANGEMENTS WITH STAGGER

Cochrane (1922) proposed that when deducting the area corresponding to a

staggered hole, use a reduced diameter, given by

s 2
j
n m
An = Ag
dei t 4 g t

i 1 j1 j
Where

d e = diameter of hole

Ag = gross area of the member

An = net area atumber of rectangular elements in the cross section

t = thickness of element

s = staggered or pitch (spacing in the direction of the load)

g = gage (transverse spacing)

Page 18
NET AREA FOR BOLT ARRANGEMENTS WITHOUT STAGGER

n
An = Ag
deit
i 1

ANGLE

The gage length that used two legs of angle g = g ab

g ab = g'a g'b = g a g b
t t
2 2

Page 19
2. BLOCK SHEAR RUPTURE STRENGTH

The design block shear rupture strength Tbs according to LRFD-J4 base on combination

between tension and shear.


Tbs = Vny Tnu for Tnu Vnu


Tbs = Vnu Tny for Tnu Vnu

1. Shear rupture strength


Vnu = Anv 0.6Fu

Tnu = Ant Fu
2. Tension rupture strength

3. Shear yield strength


Vny = Agv 0.6 Fy

Tny = Agt Fy
4. Tension yield strength

where, = 0.75 for the fracture limit state

Agv = gross area acted upon by shear

Agt = gross area acted upon by tension

Anv = net area acted upon by shear

Ant = net area acted upon by tension

Fu = specified minimum tensile strength

Fy = specified minimum yield strength

Page 20
4.3. MINIMUM SLENDER OF TENSION MEMBER

Effective length slender

KL
300
rmin


rmin = min rx ry

K 1 for tension member

Page 21
Example 02 : Follow the example 01.

a. Design tension member of truss that connection by weld.

b. Design tension member of truss that connection by bolt.

Given : Mild steel strength of ASTM-A36

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa

Solution 02

Resultance from analysis

1. Joint forces on truss

2. Reaction forces

3. Tension and compression forces

Page 22
Factor tension force Tu 435.23kN

Determination of section

h 150
b
W-Shape 150 mm Member length L 1.00m
tf 10
t 7
w

2
Gross-sectional Ag 40.140cm

4 4
Moment of inertia Ix 1640.000cm Iy 563.000cm

Ix Iy
Radius of gyration rx 6.392 cm ry 3.745 cm
Ag Ag

Minimum of gyration
rmin min rx ry 37.451 mm

a. Design tension member of truss that connection by weld

0.90 Ag Fy
Tn min 848.961 kN
0.75 Ag Fu

Page 23
Slenderness of tension members

K L
Members "is slenderness" if 300 "is rigid"
rmin

"is rigid" otherwise

Design tension members

Tension_member "is stable" if Members = "is rigid" Tn Tu "is stable"

"is unstable" otherwise

b. Design tension member of truss that connection by bolt

Page 24
ORIGIN 1

Geometry of bolt

1 0 1 0 1 0 1
s 60 mm
bolt 0 1 0 1 0 1 0
g 30
1 0 1 0 1 0 1

nx rows( bolt) 3 ny cols( bolt) 7

Diameter of bolt d 20mm

1
Diameter of hole d h d in 23.175 mm
8

I. Norminal tension strength of member section

1. yielding in the gross section

Tny 0.90 Ag Fy 848.961 kN

2. fracture in the gross section

Tnu = 0.75Fu Ae

Reduction coefficient

x 0 Ls ( ny 1 ) s 360 mm

U min 1 0.9 0.9


x
Ls

Net area for bolt arrangements with stagger

i 1 nx de d h
i

j 1 ( nx 1 ) s s g g
j j

Page 25
s 2
j
nx nx 1
deitw 4 g tw 39.473 cm

2
An1 Ag
i 1 j1 j

Net area for bolt arrangements without stagger

i 1 ( nx 1 ) de d h
i

nx 1

deitw 36.895cm
2
An2 Ag
i 1
Effective net area


An min An1 An2 36.895 cm
2

Effective area

2
Ae U An 33.206 cm

Tnu 0.75 Ae Fu 996.179 kN

Nominal strength of tension member


Tn min Tny Tnu 848.961 kN

Block shear rupture strength

s s 0.06 m g g
1 1

2
Gross shear area Agv ( ny 1 ) s tw 25.2 cm

dh tw 2
Net shear area Anv ( ny 1 ) s tw ( ny 1 ) 20.333 cm
2

2
Gross tension area Agt ( nx 1 ) g tw 4.2 cm

d h tw 2
Net tension area Ant ( nx 1 ) g tw ( nx 1 ) 2.578 cm
2

Shear rupture strength


Vnu Anv 0.60 Fu 487.998 kN

Page 26
Tension rupture strength Tnu Ant Fu 103.11 kN

Shear yield strength


Vny Agv 0.60 Fy 355.32 kN

Tension yield strength Tny Agt Fy 98.7 kN

Tbs 0.75 Vny


Tnu if Tnu Vnu
440.024 kN

0.75 Vnu Tny


otherwise

Design tension member

Tension_member
"is stable" if Members = "is rigid" min Tn Tbs Tu "is stable"

"is unstable" otherwise

II. Norminal tension strength of metal plate

Thickness of metal plate t 10mm

Width of section metal plate p ( nx 1 ) g 3d 120 mm

Gross-sectional of metal plate Ag 2 p t

1. yielding in the gross section

Tny 0.90 Ag Fy 507.6 kN

2. fracture in the gross section

Tnu = 0.75Fu Ae

Reduction coefficient

x 0 Ls ( ny 1 ) s 360 mm

Page 27
U min 1 0.9 0.9
x
Ls

Net area for bolt arrangements with stagger

i 1 nx de d h
i

j 1 ( nx 1 ) s s g g
j j

s 2
j
nx nx 1
dei t 4 g t 23.047 cm

2
An1 Ag
i 1 j1 j

Net area for bolt arrangements without stagger

i 1 ( nx 1 ) de d h
i

nx 1

deit 19.365cm
2
An2 Ag
i 1
Effective net area


2
An min An1 An2 19.365 cm

Effective area

2
Ae U An 17.428 cm

Tnu 0.75 Ae Fu 522.855 kN

Nominal strength of metal plate


Tn min Tny Tnu 507.6 kN

Block shear rupture strength

s s 0.06 m g g
1 1

Page 28
2
Gross shear area Agv ( ny 1 ) s t 36 cm

dh t 2
Net shear area Anv ( ny 1 ) s t ( ny 1 ) 29.047 cm
2

2
Gross tension area Agt ( nx 1 ) g t 6 cm

dh t 2
Net tension area Ant ( nx 1 ) g t ( nx 1 ) 3.682 cm
2

Shear rupture strength


Vnu Anv 0.60 Fu 697.14 kN

Tension rupture strength Tnu Ant Fu 147.3 kN

Shear yield strength


Vny Agv 0.60 Fy 507.6 kN

Tension yield strength Tny Agt Fy 141 kN

Tbs 0.75 Vny


Tnu if Tnu Vnu
628.605 kN

0.75 Vnu Tny


otherwise

Design metal plate

Tension_plate
"is stable" if min Tn Tbs Tu "is stable"

"is unstable" otherwise

Tension_strength "is enough" if Tension_plate = "is stable" Tension_member = "is stable"


"is not enough" otherwise

Tension_strength "is enough"

Page 29
COMPRESSION MEMBERS

5.1. TYPE OF COMPRESSION MEMBERS

5.2. THEORY OF ELASTIC COLUMN

Page 30
Theory Euluer's for column both end pined

2
n EI
Pcr = L

Elastic buckling load of a column by Euluer

2 2
E I E I
Pcr = or Pcr =
2 2
L ( K L)

Elastic of critical stress

Pcr 2 2
( r) E ( r) E
Fcr = = or Fcr =
Ag 2 2
L ( K L)

2
Where, I = Ag r

Page 31
5.3. INELASTIC STABILITY OF AXIALLY LOADED COLUMNS

Inelastic buckling load of a column by Engesser-Shanely

2 2
Et Et I Et I
Pcr = P = or Pcr =
E E 2 2
L ( K L)

Inelastic of critical stress

2 2
Pcr ( r) Et ( r) Et
Fcr = = or Fcr =
Ag 2 2
L ( K L)

where, E = modulus elastic

Et = tangent modulus elastic

I = moment of inertia

Ag = gross cross-section area of member

r = ratio of gyration

L = length of column

K = effective length fator

Page 32
5.4. RESIDUAL STRESS

5.5. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN FOR COMPRESSION STRENGTH

Safety provision

Pn Pu

Where, = 0.85 resistance factor for compression

Pn = design compression strength

Pu = sum of factored loads

The slenderness parameter c is defined as

KL Fy
c =
r 2
E

Page 33
The compressive strength for axially load

1. For c 1.5

c
2

Pn = 0.658 Fy Ag

c
2
Critical stresss for inelastic
Fcr = 0.658 Fy

2. For c 1.5

Pn = 0.877 F A
y g
c2

Critical stresss for elastic Fcr = 0.877 F


y
c2

Page 34
5.7. EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF COLUMN IN STRUCTURES

LRFD Specificationd divide two categorizes frames

1.Braced frame

2.Unbraced frame

Page 35
ALIGNMENT CHARTS FOR EVALUATING EFFECTIVE LENGTH FACTOR K

Page 36
L columns
I

G=

L beams
I

K factor for braced frame

tan
GA GB GA GB
2 K

1 2K 1 = 0

4 K 2 tan

2K
K
K factor for unbraced frame

GA GB 2


36 K
4 K
=0

6 GA GB tan

K

ADJUSTMENT OF ALIGNMENT CHARTS K FACTORS FOR INELASTIC COLUMN BEHAVIOR

Et I

L column
Ginelastic = = Gelastic s
E I
L
beam

Where

2 c
2
Et Fcr_inelastic
c
s = = = 0.658
E Fcr_elastic 0.877

Page 37
5.7. MAXIMUMN SLENDERNESS OF COMPRESSION MEMBER

Effective length slender

KL
200
rmin


rmin = min rx ry

Page 38
5.8. MAXIMUMN SLENDERNESS OF THICKNESS r

I-Shape section

b
Flange f =
2 tf

h
Web w =
tf

C-Shape section

b
Flange f =
tf

h
Web w =
tf

Table 6.1 Width/thicknes ratio limit r Members Under Compression

Component element width thickness ratio r

b 95
Flange of I-Shaped rolled
t Fy
beam and channels

b 76
Flange of single angles
t Fy

b 238
Flange of square and
t Fy
rectangular box

h 253
Web in compression
tw Fy

D 3300
Circular hollow sections
t Fy

Note: All stresses have units of ksi.

Page 39
Example 03 : Follow the example 01.

Design compression member of truss.

Given : Mild steel strength of ASTM-A36

Fy 235MPa E 29000ksi

3. Tension and compression forces

Factor compression force Pu 435.23kN

Determination of section

h 150
b
W-Shape 150 mm Member length L 1.00m
tf 10
t 7
w

2
Gross-sectional Ag 40.140cm

4 4
Moment of inertia Ix 1640.000cm Iy 563.000cm

Ix Iy
Radius of gyration rx 6.392 cm ry 3.745 cm
Ag Ag

Effective length for compression member truss K 1.00

Page 40
Solution 03:

Norminal of compression strength Pn

Slenderness of flang and web

b 95
f 7.5 rf 16.272
2 tf Fy
ksi

h 253
w 21.429 rw 43.336
tw Fy
ksi

Minimum of gyation ratio


rmin min rx ry 3.745 cm

K L Fy
The slenderness parameter c 0.29
rmin 2
E

K L
Pn if 200 910.358 kN
rmin

if f rf w rw

c
2

0.658 Fy Ag if c 1.5
0.877 F A otherwise
y g
c2

"Increase of thickness flang or web" otherwise
"Reduction of height column" otherwise

Pn 0.85 Pn 773.804 kN

Page 41
BEAMS: LATERALLY SUPPORTED

6.1. TYPE OF BEAM MEMBERS

6.2. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN FOR BENDING MOMENT

Safety provision

M n M u

Where = 0.90 for bending moment

Mn = nominal moment strength

Mu = factor service load moment

Page 42
1. Bending of symmetric sections about their minor or major axis

a. Nominal strength of elastic bending moment

Mny = 0.90 S Fy

Where M ny = nominal strength of elastic moment strength

S = section modulus of elastic

Fy = specified minimum yield stress

b. Nominal strength of plastic bending moment

Compact section if p

Mnp = 0.90 Z Fy

Non-compact section if p r

0.90 Z Fy

Mnp = min p
Mp Mp Mr
r p

Where M np = nominal elastic moment strength

Z = section modulus of plastic

= slenderness of thickness

I-Shape section

b
Flange = f =
2 tf

h
Web = w =
tf

Page 43
C-Shape section

b
Flange = f =
tf

h
Web = w =
tf

The residul mement


M r = Fy Fr Sx

Where, Fy = minimum specified yield strength

Fr = compressive residual stress

= 10ksi for rolled shape; 16.5ksi for welded shapes

Sx = elastic section modulus

Ix = moment of inertia about the x-axis

d = overall depth of the section

Lp, Lr = limiting lateral unsupported lengths given in the following table

Page 44
Table 6.1 p and r Members Under Flexural Compression

Component element width thickness ratio p r

b 65 141
Flange of I-Shaped rolled
t Fy Fy 10
beam and channels

b 65 162
Flange of I-Shaped hybird
t Fy Fy 16.5
or welded beams
kc

b 190 238
Flange of square and
t Fy Fy
rectangular box

h 640 970
Web in flexural compression
tw Fy Fy

D 1300 8970
Circular hollow sections
t Fy Fy

4.05 h
kc = if 70 , otherwise k c = 1.0
0.46 t
h
t

Note: All stresses have units of ksi.

Example 01

Given M u 50kN m

I-Shap Section H-300x150x6.5x9

2 2 4 4
Ag 76.78 10 mm Ix 7209 10 mm rx 124.1mm

3 3 3 3
Sx 480.6 10 mm Zx 542.1 10 mm

Used steel structure A36 Fy 235MPa

Page 45
Find Mny and Mnp?

Solution 01

1. Norminal of yield stength M ny

M ny Sx Fy 112.941 kN m

Mny 0.90 M ny 101.647 kN m

2. Norminal of plastic strength M np

h 300
b
I-Shap 150 mm
tf 6.5
t 9
w

Slenderness of flang and web

b 65 141
f 11.538 pf 11.134 rf 28.731
2 tf Fy Fy 10ksi
ksi ksi

h 640 970
w 33.333 pw 109.624 rw 166.149
tw Fy Fy
ksi ksi

Section "Compact" if f pf w pw "Non-compact"

"Non-compact" if pf f rf pw w rw

"Slenderness" otherwise

Compression residul Fr 10ksi

Plastic moment M p Zx Fy 127.394 kN m

Page 46
Residual moment
M r Sx Fy Fr 79.805 kN m

M np M p if Section = "Compact"

Mp

f pf
M p M p M r
min rf pf if Section = "Non-compact"

w pw
Mp Mp Mr
rw pw
"Increase thickness" otherwise

M np 126.299 kN m

Mnp 0.90 M np 113.669 kN m

2. Bending of symmetric sections about their minor and major axis

M ux M uy
Fy
b Sx b Sy

or
M ux M uy
1
b M nx b M ny

where, M nx and M ny nominal strength moment about axis

Example 02

Given M ux 25kN m M uy 10kN m

I-Shap Section H-300x150x6.5x9

2 2 4 4
Ag 76.78 10 mm Ix 7209 10 mm rx 124.1mm

3 3 3 3
Sx 480.6 10 mm Zx 542.1 10 mm

4 4
Iy 507.5 10 mm ry 32.9mm

Page 47
3 3 3 3
Sy 67.67 10 mm Zy 105.1 10 mm

Used steel structure A36 Fy 235MPa

Find safety factor in elastic and plastic condition?

Solution 02

1. Safety factor in elastic condition

M nx Sx Fy 112.941 kN m Mnx 0.90 M nx 101.647 kN m

M ny Sy Fy 15.902 kN m Mny 0.90 M ny 14.312 kN m

M ux M uy
FS 0.945
Mnx Mny

2. Safety factor in plastic condition

h 300
b
I-Shap 150 mm
tf 6.5
t 9
w

Slenderness of flang and web

b 65 141
f 11.538 pf 11.134 rf 28.731
2 tf Fy Fy 10ksi
ksi ksi

h 640 970
w 33.333 pw 109.624 rw 166.149
tw Fy Fy
ksi ksi

Section "Compact" if f pf w pw "Non-compact"

"Non-compact" if pf f rf pw w rw

"Slenderness" otherwise

Page 48
Compression residul Fr 10ksi

Plastic moment about axis x M px Zx Fy 127.394 kN m

Residual moment about axis x


M rx Sx Fy Fr 79.805 kN m

Plastic moment about axis y M py Zy Fy 24.698 kN m

Residual moment about axis y


M ry Sy Fy Fr 11.237 kN m

M nx M px if Section = "Compact"

M px


M px M px M rx
f pf

min rf pf if Section = "Non-compact"



w pw
px px
rx

rw pw
M M M

"Increase thickness" otherwise

Mnx 0.90 M nx 113.669 kN m

M ny M py if Section = "Compact"

M py


M py M py M ry
f pf

min rf pf if Section = "Non-compact"



w pw
Mpy Mpy Mry
rw pw
"Increase thickness" otherwise

Mny 0.90 M ny 21.95 kN m

M ux M uy
FS 0.676
Mnx Mny

Page 49
6.3. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN FOR SHEAR

Safety provision
Vn = Vu

Where = 0.90

Vn = nominal strength in shear

Vu = factor service load shear

h 418
Shear yielding of web if
tw Fy


Vn = 0.90 0.60 Fy Aw
418 h 523
Inelastic shear buckling of web if
Fy tw Fy

418 t w
Vn = 0.90 0.60 Fy Aw
Fy h

523 h
Elastic shear buckling of web if 260
Fy tw

132000Aw
Vn = 0.90
h 2
t
w

Page 50
Example 03

Given Vu 45kN m

I-Shap Section H-300x150x6.5x9

2 2 4 4
Aw 22.71 10 mm Ix 7209 10 mm rx 124.1mm

3 3 3 3
Sx 480.6 10 mm Zx 542.1 10 mm

Used steel structure A36 Fy 235MPa

Find Vn ?

Page 51
Solution 03

Norminal shear strength Vn

h 300
b
I-Shap 150 mm
tf 6.5
t 9
w

h 418
Web "Shear yielding" if "Shear yielding"
tw Fy
ksi
418 h 523
"Inelastic shear buckling" if
Fy tw Fy
ksi ksi
523 h
"Elastic shear bucking" if 260
Fy tw

ksi

Vn 0.60 Aw Fy if Web = "Shear yielding" 320.211 kN

418 tw
0.60 Aw Fy if Web = "Inelastic shear buckling"
Fy h
ksi
132000ksi Aw
if Web = "Elastic shear buckling"
2

h
t
w

Vn 0.90 Vn 288.19 kN

Page 52
WELDING

7.1. TYPES OF JOINTS

The type of joint are five basic type of welded joints:

1. Butt joint

2. Lap joint

3. Tee joint

4. Corner joint

5. Edge joint

7.2. TYPES OF WELDS

The type of weld is four types of welds:

1. Fillet

2. Groove

3. Slot

4. Plug welds

Page 53
7.2.1. GROOVE WELDS

Page 54
7.2.2. FILLET WELDS

Page 55
7.2.3. SLOT AND PLUG WELDS

7.3. WELDING POSITIONS

Page 56
7.4. MINIMUM EFFECTIVE LENGTH FILLET WELDS

Table 7.4 Minimum size of fillet welds

Material thickness of thicker part joined Minimum size of fillet weld


(in) (mm) (in) (mm)

1 1
To inclusive To 6.4 inclusive 3
4 8
1 1 3
Over to Over 6.4 to 12.7 5
4 2 16
1 3 1
Over to Over 12.7 to 19 6
2 4 4
3 5
Over Over 19 8
4 16

7.5. MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE FILLET WELD SIZE

7.6. MINIMUMN LENGTH OF WELD

Lmin = 4w

Page 57
7.7. MAXIMUM LENGTH OF WELD

Lmax = L

= min1.2 0.002
L
1.0
w

Where, L = actual length of weld

7.8. EFFECTIVE AREAS OF WELDS OF FILLET WELDS

7.9. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN FOR FILLET WELDS

Safety provision

Rn Ru


Rn = min Rnw Rnb
where =0.75 resistance factor (strength reduction factor)

Rn = nominal strength of weld

Ru = factored load.

Page 58
7.10. SIMPLE CONNECTION OF WELDS

Weld strength

a. Nominal strength of fillet weld parallel to direction load


Rnw = 0.75 te L 0.60 FEXX

b. Nominal strength of fillet weld depend to direction load


Rnw = 0.75 t L 0.60FEXX 1.0 0.50 sin( )


1.5

Base metal strength

Nominal shear strength of base metal


Rnb = min0.90 0.6Fy 0.75 0.6Fu

where te = effective throat dimension

t = thickness of base material

L = length of weld

FEXX = tensile strength of electrode meterial

Fy = yielding strength of base metal

Fu = tensile strength of base metal

Page 59
Direction of load Increase of weld strength

1.5
0deg 1 0.5 sin( ) 1.00

1.5
15deg 1 0.5 sin( ) 1.07

1.5
30deg 1 0.5 sin( ) 1.18

1.5
45deg 1 0.5 sin( ) 1.30

1.5
60deg 1 0.5 sin( ) 1.40

1.5
75deg 1 0.5 sin( ) 1.47

1.5
90deg 1 0.5 sin( ) 1.50

Example 01 : Find Rnw and Rnb ?

Given , w 10mm t 12mm L 50mm

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa FEXX 400MPa

Solution 01:

Nominal strength of weld

Effictive throad dimension te 0.707 w 7.07 mm


Rnw 0.75 te L 0.60 FEXX 63.63 kN

Nominal strength of base metal


0.75 t L 0.60Fy
Rnb min 63.45 kN

0.75 t L 0.60 Fu

Page 60
Example 02: Find w and t ?

Given, Pu 150kN L 250mm

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa FEXX 400MPa

Solution 02:
Size of weld

Pu
w 4.715 mm

0.75 0.707 L 0.60 FEXX
Balance equation Rnw = Rnb

0.707 w 0.60 FEXX


0.60 Fy
t min 3.333 mm
0.707 w 0.60 FEXX

0.60 Fu

choose : t max( t w) 4.715 mm

Minimum of weld

return 1
in if t
1
wmin in 3.175 mm
8 4
return 3 1
in if t in
16 2
return 1 3
in if t in
4 4
return 5
in otherwise
16

Maximum of weld

1
wmax t if t in 4.715 mm
4
t 1 in otherwise

16

side_weld "is correct" if wmin w wmax "is correct"

"check again" otherwise

Page 61
Example 03: Find L and t ?

Given, Pu 100kN w 5mm

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa FEXX 400MPa

Solution 03:
Size of weld

Pu
L 157.159 mm

0.75 0.707 w 0.60 FEXX
Balance equation Rnw = Rnb

0.707 w 0.60 FEXX


0.60 Fy
t min 3.535 mm
0.707 w 0.60 FEXX

0.60 Fu

choose : t max( t w) 5 mm

Minimum length of weld

Lmin 4w 20 mm

Maximum length of weld

min1.2 0.002
L
1.0 1
w

Lmax L 157.159 mm

length_weld "is correct" if Lmin L Lmax "is correct"

"check again" otherwise

Page 62
Example 04 : Find Rnw and Rnb ?

Given , 20deg w 10mm

t 12mm L 50mm

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa FEXX 400MPa

Solution 04 :

Nominal strength of weld

Effictive throad dimension te 0.707 w 7.07 mm


Rnw 0.75 te L 0.60FEXX 1.0 0.50 sin( )

69.994kN
1.5

Nominal strength of base metal


0.75 t L 0.60Fy
Rnb min 63.45 kN

0.75 t L 0.60 Fu

Example 05: Find w and t ?

Given, Pu 150kN L 250mm 10deg

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa FEXX 400MPa

Solution 05:
Size of weld

Pu
w 4.55 mm

0.75 0.707 L 0.60FEXX 1.0 0.50 sin( )


1.5

Balance equation Rnw = Rnb

0.707 w 0.60 FEXX


0.60 Fy
t min 3.217 mm
0.707 w 0.60 FEXX

0.60 Fu

Page 63
choose : t max( t w) 4.55 mm

Minimum of weld

return 1
in if t
1
wmin in 3.175 mm
8 4
return 3 1
in if t in
16 2
return 1 3
in if t in
4 4
return 5
in otherwise
16

Maximum of weld

1
wmax t if t in 4.55 mm
4
t 1 in otherwise

16

side_weld "is correct" if wmin w wmax "is correct"

"check again" otherwise

Example 06: Find L and t ?

Given, Pu 100kN w 5mm 15deg

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa FEXX 400MPa

Solution 06:
Size of weld

Pu
L 147.451 mm

0.75 0.707 w 0.60FEXX 1.0 0.50 sin( )


1.5

Balance equation Rnw = Rnb

0.707 w 0.60 FEXX


0.60 Fy
t min 3.535 mm
0.707 w 0.60 FEXX

0.60 Fu

Page 64
choose : t max( t w) 5 mm

Minimum length of weld

Lmin 4w 20 mm

Maximum length of weld

min1.2 0.002
L
1.0 1
w

Lmax L 147.451 mm

length_weld "is correct" if Lmin L Lmax "is correct"

"check again" otherwise

7.11. ECCENTRIC WELDED CONNECTIONS : SHEAR ONLY

Stresses on a homogeneous sections

P
f' = = stress due to direction shear
A

Page 65
T r
f'' = = stress due to torsional moment
Ip

Where : r = radial distance from the centroid to point stress

Ip= polar moment of inertia

ELASTIC ANALYSIS

The components of stress caused by direction shear are

Px
f'x =
A

Py
f'y =
A

The components of stress caused by torsional moments are

f''x =
T y
=
Px ey Py ex y
Ip Ip

f''y =
T x
=
Px ey Py ex x
Ip Ip

Where, Ip = Ix Iy

The resultant of shearing stress

Page 66
fv = f'x f''x2 f'y f''y2

Example 07: Find, w and t ?

Given , P 75kN e 50mm

L1 200mm L2 100mm

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa FEXX 400MPa

P Px P

E w
Py

Centroid axis of weld


L2

E w

L1 e

Metal plate

Solution 07:

Component forces

Angle of force 60deg

Px P cos( ) Px 37.5 kN

Py P sin( ) Py 64.952 kN

The components of stress caused by direction shear are


2
mm
Ax 2L1 L2 Ax 500
mm
2
mm
Ay 2L1 L2 Ay 500
mm
Px
f'x f'x 75 MPa mm
Ax

Page 67
Py
f'y f'y 129.904 MPa mm
Ay

Central axis of weld


2
L1
x c x c 80 mm
2L1 L2
2
L2
L1 L2
2
y c y c 50 mm
2L1 L2

The eccentricity
ex L1 e x c ex 170 mm

ey L2 y c ey 50 mm

Torsional moments

T Px ey Py ex T 12.917 kN m

Moment inertia about axis x

3 2
L2 L2 cm
4
Ix L1 Ix 58.333
12 2 mm

L 3
2
1 L1 2 cm
4
Iy 2 L1 x c L2 x c Iy 213.333
12 2 mm

4
cm
Polar moment Ip Ix Iy Ip 271.667
mm

The components of stress caused by torsional moments

T y c
f''x f''x 237.733 MPa mm
Ip


T L1 x c
f''y f''y 570.559 MPa mm
Ip

The resultant of shearing stress

fv f'x f''x2 f'y f''y2 fv 767.105 MPa mm

Page 68
Size of weld

fv
w 6.028 mm

0.75 0.707 0.60 FEXX
Balance equation Rnw = Rnb

0.707 w 0.60 FEXX



0.60 Fy
t min 4.262 mm
0.707 w 0.60 FEXX

0.60 Fu

choose : t max( t w) 6.028 mm

Minimum of weld

return 1
in if t
1
wmin in 3.175 mm
8 4
return 3 1
in if t in
16 2
return 1 3
in if t in
4 4
return 5
in otherwise
16

Maximum of weld

1
wmax t if t in 6.028 mm
4
t 1 in otherwise

16

side_weld "is correct" if wmin w wmax "is correct"

"check again" otherwise

Page 69
7.12. ECCENTRIC WELDED CONNECTIONS : SHEAR PLUS TENSION

The shearing stress

P
fv =
A

The maximum tensile stress from the flexural moment

M c
ft =
I

Where I = the moment of inertia about the centroid axis of the area cosisting

The maximum resultant stress of two components

fr = fv2 ft2

Example08: Find, w and t ?

Given , P 100kN e 100mm

L1 200mm L2 100mm

Fy 235MPa Fu 400MPa FEXX 400MPa

P P

e
Page 70
w E
P P

w E

Centroid axis of weld


L2

E w

Metal plate
L1

Solution 08:

Factor moment

M P e M 10 kN m

Moment inertia of weld

2
L2 cm
4
Ix 2 L1 Ix 100
2 mm

The shearing stress


2
mm
A 2L1 A 400
mm

P
fv fv 250 MPa mm
A

The maximum tensile stress from the flexural moment

L2
c c 50 mm
2

M c
ft ft 500 MPa mm
Ix

The maximum resultant stress of two components

fr fv2 ft2 fr 559.017 MPa mm

Page 71
Size of weld

fr
w 4.393 mm

0.75 0.707 0.60 FEXX
Balance equation Rnw = Rnb

0.707 w 0.60 FEXX


0.60 Fy
t min 3.106 mm
0.707 w 0.60 FEXX

0.60 Fu

choose : t max( t w) 4.393 mm

Minimum of weld

wmin return 1
in if t
1
3.175 mm
in
8 4
return 3 1
in if t in

16 2
return 1 3
in if t in

4 4
return 5
in otherwise
16

Maximum of weld

1
wmax t if t in 4.393 mm
4
t 1 in otherwise
16

side_weld "is correct" if wmin w wmax "is correct"

"check again" otherwise

Page 72
FASTENERS

8.1. TYPE OF FASTENERS

The fasteners have two types

1. Rivets

2. Bolts

1. TYPE OF RIVETS

Page 73
2. TYPE OF BOLTS

8.2. TYPE OF BOLT CONNECTION

Page 74
The bolts connection have two types

1. Normal strength bolts

2. High strength bolts

8.3. FAILUR MODE

Page 75
8.4. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN FOR FILLET WELDS

Safety provision

Rn Ru


Rn = min Rnw Rnb
where =0.75 resistance factor (strength reduction factor)

Rn = nominal strength of weld

Ru = factored load.

8.5. SIMPLE CONNECTION OF FASTENERS

1. SHEAR STRENGTH OF FASTENERS

The design shear strength of LRFD, divice two parts.

1. Shear strength is considered on non threads(shank) in shear planes.

2. Shear strength is considered on threads in shear planes.

A. NON-THREADS IN SHEAR PLANES

Nominal shear strength in shank area


Rns = 0.75 n s Ab 0.50Fub

Example 01:
2
( 16mm)
Given Ab Fub 400MPa n s 1
4

Find Rns

Solution 01:

Nominal shear strength in shank area


Rns 0.75 0.50 Fub n s Ab Rns 30.159 kN

Page 76
Example 02:

Given Pu 100kN Fub 400MPa n s 1

Find Ab

Solution 02:

Shank Area bolt Ab

Pu 2
Ab Ab 6.667 cm

0.75 0.50 Fub n s

2
( 16mm) 2
Asb 4 Asb 8.042 cm
4

B. THREADS IN SHEAR PLANES

Nominal shear strength in thread area

Rns = 0.75 n s Ab 0.40Fub

Example 03:
2
( 16mm)
Given Ab Fub 400MPa n s 1
4

Find Rns

Solution 03:

Nominal shear strength in thread area


Rns 0.75 0.40 Fub n s Ab Rns 24.127 kN

Page 77
Example 04:

Given Pu 100kN Fub 400MPa n s 1

Find Ab

Solution 04:

Thread area bolt Ab

Pu 2
Ab Ab 8.333 cm

0.75 0.40 Fub n s

2
( 16mm) 2
Asb 5 Asb 10.053 cm
4

2. TENSILE STRENGTH OF FASTENERS

Nominal tensile strength of fasteners


Rnt = 0.75 0.75Ab Fub

Example 05:
2
( 16mm)
Given Ab Fub 400MPa
4

Find Rns

Solution 05:

Nominal tensile strength in thread area


Rns 0.75 0.75Ab Fub Rns 45.239 kN

Page 78
Example 06:

Given Pu 100kN Fub 400MPa

Find Ab

Solution 06:

Area bolt Ab

Pu 2
Ab Ab 4.444 cm
0.75 0.75 Fub

2
( 16mm) 2
Asb 3 Asb 6.032 cm
4

3. BEARING STRENGTH

The bearing strength Rb


Rb = 2Lc u = 2t Lce 0.60 Fu
or
Rnb = 0.75 1.20 Lce t Fu

dh
where Lce = Le
2

Page 79
Nominal bearing strength of standard hole

1. Bearing strength from edge bolt to edge metal plate

2.4d t Fu
Rnb = min
1.20 Lce t Fu

2. Bearing strength from center to center spacing

2.4d t Fu
Rnb = min
1.20 Lci t Fu

Where, = 0.75

u = ultimate shear stress of plate material u = 0.60 Fu

Fu = tensile strength of plate material

dh
Lce = clear distance from edge bolt to edge metal plate Lce = Le
2

Lci = clear distance from center to center bolt Lci = s d h

Le = distance from edge bolt to edge metal plate

s = distance from center to center bolt

dh = diameter of hole bolt

t = thickness of metal plate

Page 80
4. COMBINATION SHEAR WITH TENSION STRENGTH

Interaction equation combination shear and tension strength

2 2
ft fs
F F = 1
t s

Where ft = tensile stress due to factored service loads

fs = shear stress due to factored service loads

Ft = tensile strength of bolt material

Fs = shear strength of bolt material

Simplify equation of AISC Specification

ft fs
= constant = 1.3
Ft Fs

Ft
So, ft = 1.3 Ft f
Fs s

The tensile strength in the bolt must satisy

Ft
F' nt = ft = 1.3Ft fs Ft
Fs

Note:

Ft = Fub Fs = Rns

Page 81
Example 07:

Find : Tensile strength in combination tensile with shear stress F' nt of bolt A307

Given : A307 tensile strength of bolt Ft 60ksi 414 MPa

Solution 07:

Tensile strength in combination tensile with shear stress F' nt of bolt A307

Ft
F' nt = 0.75 1.3Ft f 0.75 Ft
0.75 Fs s

Shear strength include thread area

Fs 0.40 Ft Fs 165 MPa

U.S. unit system

0.75 Ft 45 ksi 0.75 1.3 Ft 59 ksi

Ft
0.75 f 2.5 fs F' nt = 59 2.5fs 45
0.75 Fs s

S.I. unit system

0.75 Ft 310 MPa 0.75 1.3 Ft 403 MPa

Ft
0.75 f 2.5 fs F' nt = 403 2.5fs 310
0.75 Fs s

Example 08:

Find : Tensile strength in combination tensile with shear stress F' nt of bolt A325

Given : A325 tensile strength of bolt Ft 120ksi 827 MPa

Solution 08:

Tensile strength in combination tensile with shear stress F' nt of bolt A325

Ft
F' nt = 0.75 1.3Ft f 0.75 Ft
0.75 Fs s

Page 82
Shear strength included thread area

Fs 0.40 Ft Fs 331 MPa

U.S. unit system

0.75 Ft 90 ksi 0.75 1.3 Ft 117 ksi

Ft
0.75 f 2.5 fs F' nt = 117 2.5fs 90
0.75 Fs s

S.I. unit system

0.75 Ft 621 MPa 0.75 1.3 Ft 807 MPa

Ft
0.75 f 2.5 fs F' nt = 807 2.5fs 621
0.75 Fs s

Shear strength excluded thread area

Fs 0.50 Ft Fs 414 MPa

U.S. unit system

0.75 Ft 90 ksi 0.75 1.3 Ft 117 ksi

Ft
0.75 f 2.0 fs F' nt = 117 2.0fs 90
0.75 Fs s

S.I. unit system

0.75 Ft 621 MPa 0.75 1.3 Ft 807 MPa


Ft
0.75 f 2.0 fs F' nt = 807 2.0fs 621
0.75 Fs s

Page 83
Example 09:

Find : Tensile strength in combination tensile with shear stress F' nt of bolt A490

Given : A490 tensile strength of bolt Ft 150ksi 1034 MPa

Solution 09:

Tensile strength in combination tensile with shear stress F' nt of bolt A490

Ft
F' nt = 0.75 1.3Ft f 0.75 Ft
0.75 Fs s

Shear strength included thread area

Fs 0.40 Ft Fs 414 MPa

U.S. unit system

0.75 Ft 113 ksi 0.75 1.3 Ft 146 ksi

Ft
0.75 f 2.5 fs F' nt = 146 2.5fs 113
0.75 Fs s

S.I. unit system

0.75 Ft 776 MPa 0.75 1.3 Ft 1008 MPa

Ft
0.75 f 2.5 fs F' nt = 1008 2.5fs 776
0.75 Fs s

Shear strength excluded thread area

Fs 0.50 Ft Fs 517.107 MPa

U.S. unit system

0.75 Ft 113 ksi 0.75 1.3 Ft 146 ksi

Ft
0.75 f 2.0 fs F' nt = 146 2.0fs 113
0.75 Fs s

S.I. unit system

0.75 Ft 776 MPa 0.75 1.3 Ft 1008 MPa

Ft
0.75 f 2.0 fs F' nt = 1008 2.0fs 776
0.75 Fs s

Page 84
TABLE J3.5 : Nominal Tension Stress (Ft), ksi(MPa)
Fasteners in Bearing-type Connections

Description of fasteners Threads Included in Threads Encluded from


the Shear Plane the Shear Plane

A307 bolts 59 2.5fs 45


A307M bolts 171 2.5fs 310
A325 bolts 117 2.5fs 90 117 2.0fs 90
A325M bolts 807 2.5fs 621 807 2.0fs 621
A490 bolts 147 2.5fs 113 147 2.0fs 113
A490M bolts 1010 2.5fs 779 1010 2.0fs 779

STANDARD HOLES

1
dh = db in for STD (Standard hole)
16

3
dh = db in for OVS (Oversized hole)
16

MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCE

TABLE J3.4M : Minimum Edge Distance,


From Center of Standard Hole to Edge of Connected Part

Nominal Rivet or At Sheared Edges At Rolled Edges of Plates,


Bolt Diameter (mm) Shapes of Bars, or Gas Cut Edges

16 28 22

20 34 26

22 38 28

24 42 30

27 48 34

30 52 36

36 64 46

Over 36 1.75d 1.25d

Page 85
MINIMUM SPACING

Lci.min = 3d

MAXIMUM EDGE DISTANCE

Lce.max min( 12t 6in)

MAXIMUM SPACING

Lci.max min( 24t 12in) for painted members

Lci.max min( 14t 7in) for member of weathering steel

Example 10:

P6 P5
Find Ab ? P4
P3
P2
P1
Given Fub 400MPa

Tension force Direction

560 40
560 2 48

P 560
kgf deg
55
1760 2 64
1760 69

1760 2 72

Solution 10:

8.787
Factor force 17.574

Pu 1.6 P Pu 8.787
kN
55.231
27.616
Summary of component forces
55.231
n rows( ) i 1 n

n
X = 0 Px
Pu i cos i Px 74.705 kN

i 1
n
Y = 0 Py
Pu i sin i Py 153.856 kN

i 1

Page 86
Area of bolt

Py 2
Require area As As 6.838 cm
0.75 0.75 Fub

2
( 14mm) 2
Provide area As 6 As 9.236 cm
4

Nominal tensile strength of fasteners

Shear strength

Fs 0.40Fub Fs 160 MPa

Tension strength

Ft Fub Ft 400 MPa

Factor of shear stress

Px
fs fs 80.883 MPa
As

The tensile strength with shear force

Ft
0.75 1.3Ft fs
F' nt min 0.75 Fs
F' nt 187.793 MPa

0.75Ft

Area of bolt that have shear force

Py 2
Require area As As 10.924 cm
0.75 F' nt

2
( 16mm) 2
Provide area As 6 As 12.064 cm
4

Page 87
8.6. ECCENTRIC BOLTED CONNECTIONS : SHEAR ONLY

Elastic analysis

The shearing stress by direction shear are

R
f'v =
Ab

Shear fastener

R' = f'v Ab

The component forces

R'x = cos( ) R

R'y = sin( ) R

Page 88
The shearing stress in each fastener can be found from the torsion formula

M z d
f''v =
J

Where, d = the distance from the center of the area to the point where the

stress is being computed.

J = polar moment of inertia of the area about the centroid.

Ad d
2 2
J= = A

M z d
f''v =

d
2
A

d = x
2 2 2
y

The force on fastener from bending moments

M z d
R'' =

x
2 2
y

The component forces

M z y
R''x =

x y
2 2

M z x
R''y =

x y
2 2

The resultant forces

2 2
R= Rx Ry

Rx = R'x R''x

Ry = R'y R''y

Page 89
Example 11:

Determination of component force of bolt due tortional moment M z 85kN m with

shear force Py 75kN.

Geometry of bolt

1 1 1
1 1 1

x 100 mm
Bolt 1 1 1
1 y 100
1 1

1 1 1

Solution 11:

Determination of component force R

Torsional moment M z 85 kN m

Vx 0.00 kN
Shear force
Vy 75

nx rows( Bolt) ny cols( Bolt)

i 1 nx j 1 ny

Page 90
nx ny
n
Bolt
i j
n 15
i 1 j 1

0 0 0
0 0 0

Vx
Nx Bolt Nx 0 0 0 kN
n
0 0 0

0 0 0

5 5 5
5 5 5

Vy
Ny Bolt Ny 5 5 5 kN
n
5 5 5

5 5 5

100 0 100
100 0 100


x j
( ny 1 )
X Bolti j X 100 0 100 mm
i j 100 0 100
2

100 0 100

200 200 200


100 100 100


y i Bolt
( nx 1 )
Y Y 0 0 0 mm
i j i j
100 100 100
2

200 200 200

42.5 42.5 42.5


21.25 21.25 21.25
M z Y
i j
Rx Rx 0 0 0 kN
i j nx ny nx ny
21.25 21.25 21.25
ij Yij
2 2
X
i 1 j 1 i 1 j 1 42.5 42.5 42.5

21.25 0 21.25
21.25 0 21.25

M z X
i j
Ry Ry 21.25 0 21.25 kN
i j nx ny nx ny
21.25 0 21.25
ij Yij
2 2
X
i 1 j 1 i 1 j 1 21.25 0 21.25

Page 91
The resultant force
45.501 42.793 49.953
26.751 21.83 33.773


Rxij Nxij Ryij Nyij
2 2
R R 16.25 5 26.25 kN
i j
26.751 21.83 33.773

45.501 42.793 49.953

Ru max( R) 49.953 kN

Area of bolt

Ru 2
Require area As As 4.163 cm
0.75 0.40 Fub

2
( 25mm) 2
Provide area As As 4.909 cm
4

8.7. ECCENTRIC BOLTED CONNECTIONS : SHEAR PLUS TENSION

Elastic analysis

The shearing stress by direction shear are

R
fv =
Ab

Shear fastener

V = f'v Ab

The tension and compression stress in each fastener can be found from the benidng moment

formula

M c
ft =
I

Where, c = the distance from the center of the area to the point where the

stress is being computed.

M = bending moment.

Page 92
Ad d
2 2
I= = A

M d
ft =

d
2
A

The force on fastener from bending moments

M d
T=

d
2

The resultant forces

2 2
R= V T

Example 12:

Determination of component force of bolt due bending moment M x 75kN m and

shear force Vy 50kN.

Geometry of bolt

1 1
1 1

x 100 mm
Bolt 1 1
1 y 150
1

1 1

Solution 12:

Determination of component force R

Mx 65
My 0.00
Bending moment kN m

Vx 0.00
Vy 50
Shear forces kN

Page 93
nx rows( Bolt) ny cols( Bolt)

i 1 nx j 1 ny

nx ny
n
Bolt
i j
n 10
i 1 j 1

0 0
0 0

Vx
Qx Bolt Qx 0 0 kN
n
0 0

0 0

5 5
5 5

Vy
Qy Bolt Qy 5 5 kN
n
5 5

5 5

50 50
50 50

( ny 1 )
Xc x j Bolti j Xc 50 50 mm
i j 50 50
2

50 50

0.3 0.3
0.15 0.15
( nx 1 )
Yc y i Bolt Yc 0 0 m
i j i j
2 0.15 0.15

0.3 0.3

43.333 43.333
21.667 21.667

M x Yc
i j
Tzx Tzx 0 0 kN
i j nx ny
21.667 21.667
Ycij
2

i 1 j 1 43.333 43.333

Page 94
0 0
0 0

M y Xc
i j
Tzy Tzy 0 0 kN
i j nx ny
0 0
Xcij
2

i 1 j 1 0 0

The resultant forces

0 0
0 0


Qxij Tzyij
2 2
Px Px 0 0 kN
i j
0 0

0 0

43.621 43.621
22.236 22.236


Qyij Tzxij
2 2
Py Py 5 5 kN
i j
22.236 22.236

43.621 43.621

Pu max( Px Py) 43.621 kN

Area of bolt

Pu 2
Require area As As 3.635 cm
0.75 0.40 Fub

2
( 22mm) 2
Provide area As As 3.801 cm
4

Page 95
LATERAL-TORSIONAL BUCKLING OF BEAMS

9.1. INTRODUCTION

9.2. LATERAL SUPPORT

Page 96
9.3. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN

Safety provision

Mn M u

Where b = strength reduction factor for flexure = 0.90

Mn = nominal moment strength

Mu = factored service load moment

1. Compact section members bending

For Lb Lp ( Plastic hinge formation )

Mn = 0.90 M p

For Lp Lb Lr ( Inelastic lateral torsional buckling)

Lb Lp

Mn = 0.90 Cb M p M p M r 0.90 Mp
Lr Lp

For Lb Lr ( Elastic lateral torsional buckling)

Case I-shaped members and channels


EI G J
2
Mn = 0.90Cb E I C 0.90 M
L y L y w p
b b
Case solid rectangular bar and symmetric box sections

57000 J A
Mn = 0.90 Cb 0.90 M p
Lb

ry

Page 97
2. Non-compact section members bending

For Lb L'p ( Flange or web local buckling )

p
Mn = M'n = 0.90 M p M p M r
r p


M p M'n

where, L'p = Lp Lr Lp
Mp Mr

For L'p Lb Lr ( Inelastic lateral torsional buckling )

Lb L'p

Mn = 0.90 Cb M p M p M r 0.90 M'n
Lr L'p
For Lb Lr ( Elastic lateral torsional buckling)

Case I-shaped members and channels

2
EI G J E I C 0.90 M'
Mn = 0.90Cb L y w
L y n
b b

Case solid rectangular bar and symmetric box sections

57000 J A
Mn = 0.90 Cb 0.90 M'n
Lb

ry

Page 98
Structure shape Lp Lr

ry ry X1
I-Shape section and 300 1 2
1 X2 Fy Fr
Fy Fy Fr
Chanels
E G J A
X1 =
Sx 2

2
Sx
Cw
X2 = 4
Iy G J

ry J A ry J A
Solid rectangular bars, 3750 57000
Mp Mr
symmetric box sections

Note: All stresses have units of ksi.

Page 99
Modification factor for non-uniform bending moment Cb

12.5M max
Equation 1 Cb =
2.5M max 3M A 4M B 3M C

2
M1 M1
Equation 2 Cb = 1.75 1.05 0.3 2.3
M2 M2

Where, M max = maximum moment in the unbraced segment

MA = moment at 1/4 point of unbraced segment

MB = moment at midpoint of unbraced segment

MC = moment at 3/4 point of unbraced segment

Page 100
Table : Comparison of Cb for linear moment variation

M1
Cb Equation 1 Cb Equation 2
M2

1.00 1.00 1.00

0.75 1.11 1.13

0.50 0.25 0.30

0.25 1.43 1.51

0.00 1.67 1.75

0.25 2.00 2.03

0.50 2.17 2.30

0.75 2.22 2.30

1.00 2.27 2.30

Page 101
Page 102
Example 01

Both end fixed support of steel beam I-section H-500x200x10x16 that have span length
kN kN
L 6.00m . it`s carry uniform dead load wD 12 and uniform live load wL 15 . Find
m m
of norminal strength of beam with yieding strength of beam Fy 235MPa. Modul elastic and
Shear modulus of steel are E 29000ksi and G 12000ksi .

I-Shape section H-500x200x10x16

h 500
b
200 mm
tf 16
t 10
w

2 2 2 2
Ag 112.2 10 mm Aw 54.01 10 mm

4 4 4 4
Ix 46810 10 mm Iy 2138 10 mm

3 3 3 3
rx 204.2mm Sx 1872 10 mm Zx 2130 10 mm

3 3 3 3
ry 43.6mm Sy 213.8 10 mm Zy 332.8 10 mm

Solution 01

Combination factored load

kN
wu 1.2wD 1.6wL 38.4
m

Equation of bending moments

M u ( x )
wu
12
2
6 L x L 6x
2

Page 103
Equation of shear forces

Vu ( x ) wu x
L

2
L
0 L
32

Diagram of Bending Moments


100
Mu (kN.m)

50

0 2 4 6

50

L (m)

Diagram of Shear Forces


100
Vu (kN)

0 2 4 6

100

L (m)

Factored load

Maximum of bending moment factored M max M u ( 0 ) 115.2 kN m

Maximum of shear force factord Vmax Vu ( 0 ) 115.2 kN

Page 104
1. Norminal of plastic strength M np

Slenderness of flang and web

b 65 141
f 6.25 pf 11.134 rf 28.731
2 tf Fy Fy 10ksi
ksi ksi

h 640 970
w 50 pw 109.624 rw 166.149
tw Fy Fy
ksi ksi

Section "Compact" if f pf w pw "Compact"

"Non-compact" if pf f rf pw w rw

"Slenderness" otherwise

Compression residul Fr 10ksi

Plastic moment M p Zx Fy 500.55 kN m

Residual moment
M r Sx Fy Fr 310.85 kN m

Unbracing length Lb L

Lb
M max M u ( 0 ) 115.2 kN m M A M u 14.4 kN m
4

Lb
M C M u Lb 14.4 kN m
3
M B M u 57.6 kN m
2 4

12.5M max
Cb 2.381
2.5M max 3M A 4M B 3M C

3 3
2b tf h tw 5 4
Torsional constant J 7.128 10 mm
3

2 3
tf h b 12 6
Warping constant Cw 1.333 10 mm
24

Page 105
2
E G J Ag 4
Cw Sx
X1 1.365 10 MPa X2 4
Sx 2 Iy G J

ry X1 rx
Lr 1
1 X2 Fy Fr 2 7.001 m Lp 300 10.493 m
Fy Fr Fy
ksi

Mp


M p M p M r
f pf

M'n min rf pf 500.55 kN m



w pw
Mp Mp Mr
rw pw


M p M'n

L'p Lp Lr Lp 10.493 m

Mp Mr

M np if Section = "Compact" 500.55 kN m


M p if Lb Lp

Mp

min Lb Lp if Lp Lb Lr
Cb Mp Mp Mr L L
r p
Mp

min
otherwise
2
E
Cb E Iy G J L Iy Cw
Lb b
if Section = "Non-compact"
M'n if Lb L'p

M'n

min Lb L'p if L'p Lb Lr
Cb Mp Mp Mr L L'
r p
M'n

min
E I C
2 otherwise
b
C E Iy G J L y w
Lb b
"Increase thickness" otherwise

Page 106
2. Norminal of shear strength

h 418
Web "Shear yielding" if "Shear yielding"
tw Fy
ksi
418 h 523
"Inelastic shear buckling" if
Fy tw Fy
ksi ksi
523 h
"Elastic shear bucking" if 260
Fy tw

ksi

Vn 0.60 Aw Fy if Web = "Shear yielding" 761.541 kN

418 tw
0.60 Aw Fy if Web = "Inelastic shear buckling"
Fy h
ksi
132000ksi Aw
if Web = "Elastic shear buckling"
2
h
t
w

Vn 0.90 Vn 685.387 kN

Example 02

Both end fixed support of steel beam I-section H-500x200x10x16 that have span length

L 6.00m . it`s carry concentroid dead load PD 60kN and concentroid live load PL 80kN

with secondary beam at middle span. Find of norminal strength of beam with yieding strength

of beam Fy 235MPa. Modul elastic and Shear modulus of steel are E 29000ksi and

G 12000ksi .

I-Shape section H-500x200x10x16

h 500
b
200 mm
tf 16
t 10
w

Page 107
2 2 2 2
Ag 112.2 10 mm Aw 54.01 10 mm

4 4 4 4
Ix 46810 10 mm Iy 2138 10 mm

3 3 3 3
rx 204.2mm Sx 1872 10 mm Zx 2130 10 mm

3 3 3 3
ry 43.6mm Sy 213.8 10 mm Zy 332.8 10 mm

Solution 02

Combination factored load

Pu 1.2PD 1.6PL 200 kN

Equation of bending moments

L Pu L Pu
M u ( x ) x ( 4x L) x ( 3L 4x )
2 8 2 8
Equation of shear forces

L Pu L Pu
Vu ( x ) x x
2 2 2 2
L
0 L
32

Diagram of Bending Moments

100
Mu (kN.m)

0 2 4 6

100

L (m)

Page 108
Diagram of Shear Forces
100

Vu (kN) 50

0 2 4 6
50

100

L (m)

Factored load

Maximum of bending moment factored M max M u ( 0 ) 150 kN m

Maximum of shear force factord Vmax Vu ( 0 ) 100 kN

1. Norminal of plastic strength M np

Slenderness of flang and web

b 65 141
f 6.25 pf 11.134 rf 28.731
2 tf Fy Fy 10ksi
ksi ksi

h 640 970
w 50 pw 109.624 rw 166.149
tw Fy Fy
ksi ksi

Section "Compact" if f pf w pw "Compact"

"Non-compact" if pf f rf pw w rw

"Slenderness" otherwise

Compression residul Fr 10ksi

Plastic moment M p Zx Fy 500.55 kN m

Residual moment
M r Sx Fy Fr 310.85 kN m

Page 109
L
Unbracing length Lb
2

Lb
M max M u ( 0 ) 150 kN m M A M u 75 kN m
4

Lb
M C M u Lb 75 kN m
3
M B M u 0 kN m
2 4

12.5M max
Cb 2.273
2.5M max 3M A 4M B 3M C

3 3
2b tf h tw 5 4
Torsional constant J 7.128 10 mm
3

2 3
tf h b 12 6
Warping constant Cw 1.333 10 mm
24

2
E G J Ag 4
Cw Sx
X1 1.365 10 MPa X2 4
Sx 2 Iy G J

ry X1 rx

2
Lr 1 1 X2 Fy Fr 7.001 m Lp 300 10.493 m
Fy Fr Fy
ksi
Moment for non-compact

Mp

f pf
M p M p M r
M'n min rf pf 500.55 kN m

w pw
Mp Mp Mr
rw pw

M p M'n 10.493 m

L'p Lp Lr Lp
Mp Mr

Page 110
M np if Section = "Compact" 500.55 kN m
M p if Lb Lp

Mp

min Lb Lp if Lp Lb Lr
Cb Mp Mp Mr L L
r p
Mp

min
otherwise
2
E
Cb E Iy G J L Iy Cw
Lb b
if Section = "Non-compact"
M'n if Lb L'p

M'n

min Lb L'p if L'p Lb Lr
Cb Mp Mp Mr L L'
r p
M'n

min
E I C
2 otherwise
b
C E Iy G J L y w
Lb b
"Increase thickness" otherwise

2. Norminal of shear strength

h 418
Web "Shear yielding" if "Shear yielding"
tw Fy
ksi
418 h 523
"Inelastic shear buckling" if
Fy tw Fy
ksi ksi
523 h
"Elastic shear bucking" if 260
Fy tw

ksi

Page 111
Vn 0.60 Aw Fy if Web = "Shear yielding" 761.541 kN

418 tw
0.60 Aw Fy if Web = "Inelastic shear buckling"
Fy h
ksi
132000ksi Aw
if Web = "Elastic shear buckling"
2
h
t
w

Vn 0.90 Vn 685.387 kN

Page 112
COMBINED BENDING AND AXIAL LOAD

10.1. INTRODUCTION

10.2. LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN CRITERIA

Safety provision

required strength
1.0
available strength

Pr Mr
Only axial bending 1.0
Pc Mc

Pr Mrx Mry
Biaxial bending 1.0
Pc
M cx M cy

Where, Pr = required axial strength

Pc = available axial strength

M r = required moment strength

M c = available moment strength

Page 113
Load and Resistance Factor Design in LRFD-H1 prescribes the following for compression

and bending moment.

Pu
1. For 0.2
c Pn

Pu 8 Mux M uy
1.0
c Pn 9
b Mnx b M ny

Pu
2. For 0.2
c Pn

Pu Mux M uy
2 c Pn
M M 1.0
b nx b ny

where, Pu = factored axial compression load

Pn = nominal compressive strength

c = 0.85 strength reduction factor

b = 0.90 strength reduction factor

M ux = factored bending moment acting about the x-axis, including second-order

effects

M nx = nominal moment strength for bending about the x-axis

M uy = same as M ux except referred to the y-axis

M n.y = same as M nx except referred to the y-axis

Factored bending moment including second-order

M u = B1 M nt B2 M lt

Page 114
The non-sway magnifier factor

Cm
B1 = 1.0
Pu
1
Pe

where Pu = factored axial compression loads

KL
Pe = Euler load, using c = for the axis of bending.
r

2
E Ag Ag Fy
Pe = =
2 2
KL c
r

The sway magnifier factor B2

1
B2 = 1.0
Pu
1
Pe

Page 115
2. For braced frame member having end moment without transverse loading

M1
Cm = 0.6 0.4 ( M 1 M 2)
M2

M1
where, 0 for single curvature
M2

M1
0 for double curvature
M2

Example 01

Steel frame structure that have span L 6.00m and 4 storeys. it`s carry uniform dead
kN kN
load wD 12.5 and uniform live load wL 15 with lateral wind load Pw = 15kN. Find
m m
of norminal strength of column frame with yieding strength of column Fy 235MPa. Modul
elastic and Shear modulus of steel are E 29000ksi and G 12000ksi .

Section properties

hc H4
350 3.50
bc H3
350 mm 3.50 m
For column
19 3.50
tcf H2
12 4.50
t H
cw 1

2 4 4
Acg 173.900cm Icx 40300.000cm Icy 13600.000cm

3 3
rcx 15.2cm Scx 2302.857cm Zcx 2545.213cm

3 3
rcy 8.8cm Scy 777.143cm Zcy 1178.576cm

Page 116
hb
450
bb 200 mm
For beam L 6.00m
14
tbf 9
t
bf

2 4 4
Abg 96.760cm Ibx 33500.000cm Iby 1870.000cm

3 3
rbx 18.6cm Sbx 1488.889cm Zb x 1679.055cm

3 3
rby 4.4cm Sby 187.000cm Zb y 290.915cm

Solution 01:

1. Analysis of frame structure

= +

Combination load Diagram of combination laod Diagram of Wind load


(non-sway of frame) (Sway of frame)
1.2DL 1.0LL 1.6W 1.2DL 1.0LL 1.6W

Page 117
The resultant of bending moment

M1nt 34.87kN m
For 1.2DL 1.0LL
M2nt 0

M1lt 244.52kN m
M2lt
For 1.6W
0

The resultant of axail forces

P1nt 525.89kN
P2nt 525.89kN
For 1.2DL 1.0LL

P1lt 156.00kN
For 1.6W
P2lt 156.00kN

2. Design of norminal strength of column

Effective factor of connection beam-column

Icx Icx

H1 H2
End top column GA 3.67
Ibx

End bottom column GB 0

Moment magnification-nonsway magnifier B1

K factor for braced frame

tan
GA GB 2 GA GB K

2K 1
F( K) 1
4 K 2 tan

2K

K

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ab
Bisection1( a b ) c
2
return c if ba
return Bisection1( a c ) if F( a) F( c) 0
return Bisection1( c b ) otherwise

K Bisection1( 0.5 1 0.000001) K 0.673


M 1 min M1nt M2nt 0 kN m
M 2 max M1nt M2nt 34.87 kN m

M1
Cm 0.6 0.4 0.6
M2


Pnt max P1nt P2nt 525.89 kN
Plt max P1lt P2lt 156 kN

Pu Pnt Plt 681.89 kN

2
E Icx Cm
Pe 86686.919 kN B1 max 1.0 1.00
K H12 Pu
1
Pe

Moment magnification-sway magnifier B2

K factor for unbraced frame GA 3.666 GB 0

2
GA GB 36

K
F( K)

K



6 GA GB tan

K

ab
Bisection2( a b ) c
2
return c if ba
return Bisection2( a c ) if F( a) F( c) 0
return Bisection2( c b ) otherwise

K Bisection2( 1 1000 0.000001) K 1.422


Pu 2 Pnt Plt 1363.78 kN

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2
E Icx
B2 max 1.0 1.04
1
Pe 2 38817.809 kN
K H1
Pu
2
1

Pe

Adjustment axial laod

Cm
Pu B1 Pnt B2 Plt 687.57 kN B1 max 1.0 1.00
Pu
1
Pe

B2 max 1.0 1.04


1
Pu 2 B1 Pnt B2 Plt 1375.14 kN
Pu
1

Pe

The maximum magnified moment M u


M nt max M1nt M2nt 34.87 kN m
M lt max M1lt M2lt 244.52 kN m

M u B1 M nt B2 M lt 288.37 kN m

Norminal of axial compression strength

Slenderness of flang and web

bc 95
f 9.211 rf 16.272
2 tcf Fy
ksi

hc 253
w 29.167 rw 43.336
t cw Fy
ksi

Minimum of gyation ratio


rmin min rcx rcy 8.8 cm

K H1 Fy
The slenderness parameter c 0.79
rmin 2
E

Page 120
K H1
Pn if 200 3139.297 kN
rmin

if f rf w rw

c
2

0.658 Fy Acg if c 1.5
0.877 F Ac otherwise
y g
c2

"Increase of thickness flang or web" otherwise
"Reduction of height column" otherwise

Pn 0.85 Pn 2668.402 kN

Norminal of bending strength

Slenderness of flang and web

bc 65 141
f 9.211 pf 11.134 rf 28.731
2 tcf Fy Fy 10ksi
ksi ksi

hc 640 970
w 29.167 pw 109.624 rw 166.149
t cw Fy Fy
ksi ksi

Section "Compact" if f pf w pw "Compact"

"Non-compact" if pf f rf pw w rw

"Slenderness" otherwise

Compression residul Fr 10ksi

Plastic moment M p Zcx Fy 598.125 kN m

Residual moment
M r Scx Fy Fr 382.395 kN m

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rcx
Unbracing length Lb H1 4.5 m Lp 300 7.811 m
Fy
ksi

M n if Lb Lp 598.125 kN m

M p if Section = "Compact"

Mp


M p M p M r
f pf

min rf pf if Section = "Non-compact"



w pw
p p
r

rw pw
M M M

"Increase thickness" otherwise
"Reduction of height column" otherwise

Mn 0.90 M n 538.313 kN m

Safety factor for combination axial load with bending moments

Pu 8 Mu Pu
FS if 0.2 0.73
Pn 9 Mn Pn

Pu Mu
otherwise
2Pn Mn

Page 122
Reference

1. STEEL STRUCTURES Design and Behavior / Charles G. Salmon, Jonh E. Jonhson, -


Fourth Edition. HarperCollins College Publishers, 1996. 1010 p.

2. LRFD Steel Design / William T. Segui Third Edition. THOMSON Brooks/Cole, 2003.
580p.

3. STEEL STRUCTURES Behavior and LRFD / Sriramulu Vinnakota, First Edition.


McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2006. 893p.

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