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Uploaded by Mikaella Tambis

Mapua Institute of Technology
PHY11L / A1
Prof. Sarkhan Baun

- E4. Torque; Second Condition of Equilibrium
- Phy11l e201 Work Energy and Power (Final)
- PHY11L - E203
- E206: Archimedes' Principle
- PHY11L A4 E206
- E204
- Phy11L E02
- E205: Hooke's Law
- PHY11L A4 E202
- phy11L e204.docx
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- PHY11L A4 E204
- E206 Archimedes Principle
- PHY11L Experiment 1
- Conclusion E105
- e202
- PHY12L-E305-2Q1516
- Experiment 202 Fe Anne
- E205

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different things. We talk about going to work, doing homework, working in

class. In Physics, work is said to be done if a force acting on its body is able

to actually move it through some distance in the direction of the force. Work

is defined as the product of force and its distance. Power is the time rate of

doing work while Energy is the capacity or ability to do work in which it has

everal forms. The law of conservation of energy states that Energy is

neither created nor detoryed but is just changed from one form to another.

In this experiment we learn that work and energy are closely related to

Newton's laws of motion. when object A transfers energy to object B, the

energy of object A decreases by the same amount as the energy of object B

increases, we say that object A does work on object B. Lifting objects or

throwing them requires that you do work on them. Objects or systems must

have energy to be able to do work on other objects or systems by

transferring some of their energy.

are defined in this experiment. Work is defined as the force applied to move

an object in a certain displacement. In addition, work is also defined as the

energy transferred to or from an object by means of a force acting on the

object. Work is expressed in Joules (J), Nm or kgm^2/s^2 . Power is the

time rate of doing work. It is expressed in Watt (W), or J/s. Energy is a scalar

quality associated with the state or condition of one or more objects and is

the capacity or ability to do work. From these definitions, the concept is

clear that power depends on work, and the work depends on energy.

This experiment is divided into two parts. The first part deals with

determining the force, work and power of the fan cart. According to the

theory, the work is defined as the dot of the force that is applied to an object

and the displacement of the object due to the applied force. Force and

displacement are both vector quantities. A dot product between two vector

quantities, force and displacement, produces a scalar quantity which is the

work.

In the first part of the experiment, the force F and the displacement S

have the same direction, theta ( would be zero and therefore the work

done by the force would be maximum.

Mathematically:

W=F s eqn. 1

Since we are only concerned in the work done by the force along the x-axis

eqn. 1 can be written as:

W =Fcos S eqn 2.

In eqn. 2, is the angle between the direction of the force and the

direction of the displacement while S is the magnitude of the displacement.

Power is defined as the work done per unit time, or mathematically:

Work

Pavg= eqn 3.

time

Like work and energy, power is also a scalar quantity. When the rate

of work is not constant, the power may be computed instantaneously. To

compute for the power at an instant, we set the value of the change in time to

a value very close to zero or simply we just get the limit if the change in

work over change in time as the change in time approaches zero, or

mathematically:

W dW

P=lim = eqn

t t dt

4.

and Power where we discussed the relation of Work, Power and Energy to

each other. In this experiment, the definition of work shall be defined in a

more precise manner and that the work shall be computed for a curved path.

The objectives of this experiment are:

work and the enrgy conservation principle.

our professor as shown in Figure 1. For equipment, avoid touching the blade

of the fan cart when in operation. Turn-on the fan cart only when performing

the experiment. It is advisable to attach a string to the fan cart with the other

end of the string connected to a fixed object to avoid having a run away fan

cart.

FIGURE 1.

B. Fan Cart

C. Iron Stand

D. Mass with string

E. Mass hanger

F. Protractor

G. Meter Stick

H. Set of Mass

I. Dynamics track with accessories

J. Iron Clamp

K. Spring Balance

FIGURE 2

The first part of the

experiment is determining

the Force, Work, and

Power of the Fan Cart. In

order to start the first part

of the experiment, we

gathered enough data to

find the Force of the Fan Cart. The magnitude of the force of the fan cart

was obtained by adjusting the value of the weight on the pan attached to the

fan cart by a string that passes over a small and frictionless pulley. This was

done while the fan is working as shown in Figure 3.

If the fan cart moves in the direction away from the pan, it means that

the force of the fan cart is greater than the weight of the fan, conversely

when the fan cart moves in the direction towards the pan, it means that the

weight of the pan is greater than the force if the fan cart. So, to be able to get

the magnitude of the force of the fan cart, the fan cart must not move or the

fan cart and the pan must be in equilibrium as shown in Figure 2.

connect it to the smart

timer and make sure that

the sensor will detect the

fan cart as it pass through

the photogates, as shown

in Figure 4. There were

four trials in the first part,

and value of the displacement is

initially 0 and was increased by 10

cm in each trials. The time it takes

for the fan cart to travel different

displacement was recorded and

compared. Since the value of the

force, displacement and time was

obtained in this part, as shown in

Figure 5, the work and power can also be obtained using eqn. 2 and 3.

Table 1 shows the results of the first part of the experiment. From the result,

the time increases as the displacement increases by 10 cm in each trial.

Similarly, the Work also increases. This result is consistent with the theory

because work is directly proportional to the product of the force and the

displacement. Even though the force is constant, still, the displacement is

increasing so work is expected to increase also. Also, FIGURE 5.

from the result, the value

of the power is increasing

but with a very little

difference with each other.

Power is directly

proportional with the work

done and is inversely

proportional with the time.

That is, the power

increases with work but as

the time increases the power decreases and vice versa. Based in the result,

we can see that the time increases but the power also increases, this is

because the work increases also. The power increases with a very little

difference so from that result, the power is constant.

Table 1. Determining the Force, Work and power of the Fan cart.

Force of the fan cart = weight of pan + weight added = 3.43 Newtons

sec

2 0. 30 m 0.4819 01029 Joules 0.21353 Watts

sec

3 0. 40 m 0.6079 0.1372 Joules 0.22570 Watts

sec

4 0. 50 m 0.7190 0.1715 Joules 0.23886 Watts

sec

Graph 1 shows the relationship of work, time and power. Since the

speed of the fan cart is constant, the time needed for it to go from the first

photogate to another increases as the displacement increases. Also, the graph

shows that the value of the slope at a certain point is equivalent to the power

at that certain time by dividing the y-component by the x-component. So, the

graph also proves that the result of the experiment is consistent with the

theory that the instantaneous power is equal to the derivative of work with

respect to time or the slope of the line at a certain point.

GRAPH 1.

measuring the initial height (ho) tying the mass to the end of the iron stand,

we also measured the length of the string hanging on the iron stand. The

spring balance is hooked on the end of the hanging body in order to pull the

hanging body and have a horizontal force; by doing this, we measured the

FIGURE 6.

final height (hf ) of the mass and read by the F as stated in the spring

balance. We performed several trials increasing the height by 0.02m until

the string is horizontal.

By applying the horizontal force F, we took extra care not to apply too

much and barely raising the height with the spring balance. We used a

protractor to obtained the angle ( by using a protractor as shown in

Figure We computed the work done by using eqn 9. Lastly, we computed

for the increase in the Gravitational Potential Energy of the mass for each

trial using eqn 8.

FIGURE 7

done by a force on a curved path can be

derived. We cannot use eqn. 2 since the

force in this case is a variable force,

which means to say that a force F is

changing in magnitude and direction

while being applied on a body moving

on a curved path. As shown in Figure, the instantaneous displacement also

has changing magnitude and direction.

dW =Fcos dS eqn. 5

we assume that the summation of x and summation y components of the

force are zero. Solving for x and y components,

x: FTsin=0 eqn. 7a

y: Tcosw=0 eqn. 7b

W = ( mg ) rsin d eqn.8

0

W = ( mg ) (r )(1cos ) eqn.9

Using eqn. 9, the formula for the work done by a force on a curved

path can be obtained. It is consistent with the theory that the potential energy

due to position of a body or height or simply the gravitational energy is

directly proportional to the product of the mass and the height, with the

gravitational acceleration, g, as the proportionality constant.

Mathematically,

PE=mgh eqn.10

Table 2. The second part of the experiment deals with the work by a force

on a curved part. The theory behind was demonstrated using a mass that was

attached at the end of a string tied to an iron stand. The force was applied to

the mass and was measured using a spring balance. The required data were

obtained by measuring the initial height, length of the string, final height,

angle, and displacement. From that, the work done and the gravitational

potential energy were also determined.

Length of string L= Weigth of mass, w = 2.94N Initial height

0.29m, ho=0.20m

height, in X

hf height, h

1 5.6 N 0.24 m 0.04 m 50 0.205 m 0.3046 0.1176 J

J

2 6N 0.26 m 0.06 54 0.220 m 0.3515 0.1764 J

J

3 6.2 N 0.29 m 0.08 57 0.235 m 0.3832 0.2352 J

J

4 7.1 N 0.30 m 0.10 66 0.250 m 0.5058 0.294 J

theory further, when an object was dropped at a certain height, the initial

velocity increases, starting from zero, which implies that there is an increase

in kinetic energy. Conversely, when the objects height increases, the

mechanical energy due to position also increases. When the object was

dropped from a certain height, it gains more energy that produces more

work. When the second object was dropped at a height lower than the first

object, its gravitational potential energy is also lower than the first object.

From that, when an object is dropped, its gravitational potential energy

decreases with height while the kinetic energy increases until such time that

it reaches the ground. That supports the Law of Conservation of Energy

which states that in an isolated system, the total energy is constant and is just

changing from one form to another. As the object moves downward, its

gravitational potential energy is being transformed to kinetic energy. The

same thing when the ball is thrown upward, the kinetic energy is being

transformed to gravitational energy until such time that it reaches its

maximum point when the velocity is zero.

GRAPH 2

In addition, from graph 2, it is also observed that the computed value for the

work is equal to the value of the gravitational potential energy obtained,

which is consistent with the theory.

CONCLUSION

In E201: Work, Energy, and Power, besides doing the said experiment,

we learned the concept of the Work, Energy, and Power in order to fully

understand these topics in Physics and be able to apply it to real life. Work is

said to be done if a force acting on its body is able to actually move it

through some distance in the direction of the force. Work is defined as the

product of force and its distance. Power is the time rate of doing work while

Energy is the capacity or ability to do work in which it has everal forms.

these theories from Work, Energy, and Power that are defined in the

experiment. The force in part one was proven to be correct from the

experiment since the fan cart was not moving along the dynamics track

when turned on when the added weight on the pan. The data we gathered

made sense because as shown from Table 1, that as the displacement

increases, the value of work done also increases. They have a directly

proportional relationship. The data we gathered made sense because as

shown from Table 2 tells us that as the height increases, applied force also

increases, and so are the other components such as angle, displacement, and

work increases. They are all directly proportional.

energy increases as the increase in the height increases. It is consistent with

the theory that the potential energy due to position of a body or height or

simply the gravitational energy is directly

concepts of Work, Energy, and Power. I could honestly say that the errors

that might have been committed were very least especially in the first part.

The possible sources of error for the first part can be the inaccurate

measurement of the displacement of the photogates since it is placed

manually and the inconsistency of the smart timer since some trials we did

gave us results that were not close to the previous time so we had to run a

test again. I believe that the second part of the experiment is much likely to

have an occurrence of errors because the data gathered is based from

measurements that was done manually. Incorrect measurement can have an

effect to the data. We could recommend that obtaining the measurements

should be done carefully and accurately. Getting the measurements on eye

level can be helpful.

APPLICATIONS

knowledge and appreciation about the concepts of work, energy, and power.

According to the language of physics, a person who strains without success

to pull a rock out of the ground has done no work, whereas a child playing

on a playground produces a great deal of work.

Energy, which may be defined as the ability of an object to do work, is

neither created nor destroyed; it simply changes form, a concept that can be

illustrated by the behavior of a bouncing ball. When a force displaces an

object by acting upon it, it is taken that work is done on the system. Force

should be connected to displacement causally for work to take place. Daily

life offers some good examples of work being done on a system - a horse

pulling a cart through the road, a person lifting weight in the gym, a hospital

staff pushing the mop across the floor, a batter hitting the baseball etc. In

every situation described, force exerted by an agent is doing work on a

system.

The experiment can also help the students understand on how the

displacement of an object is important in determining the amount of work

done.

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