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Definition of correlation

Correlation is a statistical measure that indicates the extent to which two or more
variables fluctuate together. A positive correlation indicates the extent to which those
variables increase or decrease in parallel; a negative correlation indicates the extent to
which one variable increases as the other decreases.

Properties of correlation
1. Properties of correlation
2. The correlation coefficient is symmetrical with respect to X and Y
3. The correlation coefficient is the geometric mean of the two regression
4. The correlation coefficient lies between 1 and + 1.

The difference between Correlation and Regression

The most commonly used techniques for investigating the relationship between two
quantitative variables are correlation and linear regression. Correlation quantifies the
strength of the linear relationship between a pair of variables, whereas regression
expresses the relationship in the form of an equation. For example, in patients attending
an accident and emergency unit (A&E), we could use correlation and regression to
determine whether there is a relationship between age and urea level, and whether the
level of urea can be predicted for a given age.