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a) Definition
i. Steels (2007) definition of (academic) procrastination is to voluntarily delay an intended course of action despite expecting to be worse off
for the delay (as cited in Grunschel, Patrzek & Fries, 2013, p841)
ii. Procrastination is the failure to take action, to make something happen (Lively,1999 ,p7).
iii. A lack of self-discipline (Johnson & Bloom, 1994, p131)

b) Descriptions on procrastinators

i. Using a model profile analysis of a variety of measures from both university students and nonstudents, Lay (1987), identifies four different
groups of procrastinators. The groups shared some characteristics (such as disorganization), but each also has some relatively distinctive
ii. One "self-engaged but independent" group was high on private self-consciousness and low in concern for what others thought (Day,
Mensink, OSullivan, 2000, p122)
iii. About 50% of students listed themselves as procrastinators, and about half of the time or more they procrastinate on academic tasks. (Ferrari,
Johnson & McCown, 1995,p13)

b) Causes
i. Grunschel, Patrzek & Fries (2013): There are more internal reasons (eight main categories) than external reasons (three main categories) for
academic procrastination.
ii. Students with high amotivation who had no sense of control over their learning processes reported high procrastination tendencies (Lee,
2005, p12)
iii. High procrastinators were more likely to be concerned with what others may have been thinking of them, how they were presenting
themselves, and about their performance during the learning process (Lee, 2005, p13). To achieve perfectness, they procrastinate.
iv. There is a strong body of evidence that lower levels of self-regulating behaviours are related to higher levels of procrastination (Krauchuk
& Rahani, 2007, p917)
c) Effects
i. Grunschel, Patrzek & Fries (2013): sleep-related problems, lengthened study course and a restricted future perspective are the potential
severity of academic procrastination.
ii. By procrastinating, students cloud the causal factors involved in poor performance to lack of effort rather than to low ability (Lee, 2005).

d) Thesis Statement: This paper will present solutions in reducing procrastination among students.

a) Educators (lecturers and teachers) play a huge role in helping to solve students procrastination.
i. Provide explicit instruction and deadline for assignments:
Lecturers could pay attention to setting fixed deadlines and to being organized to support students in reducing academic
procrastination. (Grunschel, Patrzek & Fries, 2013, p858)
Instruction in task analysis, time estimation, time planning and other study skills could help someone overcome excessive
dependence on others for structure (Day, Mensink, OSullivan, 2000, p132)
If students were not confused about what was expected or what they needed to do in order to succeed, they were more motivated to
get started. (Faculty Focus)

ii. Teachers should be sensitive to the balance between students skills and the challenges of the task. (Lee, 2005, p13)
Teachers need to help students to have clear goals in their work, to concentrate on the task at hand, and to not be excessively self-
conscious in learning. (Lee, 2005, p13)
Use real and realistic projects, assignments that develop practical professional skills (Ackerman, D. S. and Gross, B. L.,2005,p8 as
cited in Faculty Focus)
Interdependence Breaking large assignments down into interdependent parts and requiring completion of those parts got students
working on larger assignments earlier and kept them working more consistently. (Faculty Focus)

iii. Teachers should choose tasks should have personal relevance to students
Rewards and incentives: Studies found that students get started earlier when there were rewards and incentives for doing so, which
include points, or even encouraging written comments from teachers on work in progress. (Faculty Focus)
b) Strategies student counsellors can use to help preventing procrastination among students.
i. If students lack study and organizational skills as reasons for academic procrastination, student counsellors could generate working steps for
academic tasks with students. (Grunschel, Patrzek & Fries, 2013, p858)
ii. Counsellors could coach students on time management and goal setting techniques. (Grunschel, Patrzek & Fries, 2013, p858)
iii. To improve students self-regulation, student counsellors could convey strategies to enhance self-motivation and to encounter distractions
(Grunschel, Patrzek & Fries, 2013, p858)

c) Procrastinator can also get help from peers around them.

i. Students could develop a peer feedback system with their friends. When students first receive help from their peers, they reduce the need to
rely on lecturers (Grunschel, Patrzek & Fries, 2013)
ii. Make Someone else manage your to-do list (Gelman, n.d., Reader Digest)
d) Some individual approach can be done in reducing procrastination.
i. Improve mind-set:
It gives an internal support system that could set aside hopelessness and other form of negative thinking (Lively,1999).
Treat every success positively as repeated successful experience demonstrates the benefits of the successful strategy use (Krauchuk
& Rahani, 2007)

ii. Set Priorities and make schedules on all tasks that need to be done (Lively,1999)
Do task analysis into task components (small sequential steps) and practice goal-setting - very useful when discouragement is related
to task difficulty (Day, Mensink, OSullivan, 2000, p132)
Observe active external structuring (such as in following a daily routine or maintaining a journal of prioritized tasks) (Johnson &
Bloom, 1994, p132)
Metacognitive strategy training may assist students in knowing what to do and how to do it (Krauchuk & Rahani, 2007, p928)
Learn concrete strategies for structuring time and developing techniques for maintaining on-task behavior. (Johnson & Bloom,
1994, p132)

a) It is difficult to completely cure procrastination
i. As Procrastination is a very human quality (Lively,1999,p3)
b) Nonetheless, with motivation and guide that are received from educators, counsellors and peers including some individual approaches that are used,
procrastination can be greatly reduced.
i. As procrastination is generally a motivational problems or lack of motivation (Ferrari, Johnson & McCown, 1995,p82)



The outline has mostly citations from texts that students refer to with some students own sentences perhaps only 1.5 mark?


Contents are sufficient and precise enough and support the topic
Contains sufficient specific citations and quotation relevant to the topic perhaps only 4.5 marks?

Thesis statement:

Given, and is consistent with the topic of paper, but a bit too simplistic perhaps 1.5 marks or 2?


Headers and hierarchy of information is clearly shown

The 3 sections are clearly shown so perhaps 1 mark

So the total that the above outline should receive: 1.5 + 4.5 + 1.5 (or2) + 1 = 8 (or 9)
[2 marks] Varied sentence structure, types and Lacks variety of sentence structure, types Limited variety of sentence structure, types Very limited variety of sentence
length and length and length structure, types and length
Excellent, varied and suitable choice of Appropriate choice of vocabulary Limited or inappropriate choice of vocabulary Use inappropriate or incorrect
vocabulary Contains few errors in spelling, punctuation Contains numerous errors in spelling, vocabulary
Almost entirely free of spelling, and grammatical items. punctuation and grammatical items that at Contains frequent errors in spelling,
punctuation and grammatical errors. times make reading difficult punctuation and grammatical that
impede meaning
[5 marks] Contains very precise, detailed and Contains sufficient information that is Lacks precise and detailed information that is Lacks or contains minimal
sufficient information that is essential to essential to the topic but not precise and essential to the topic information that is essential to the
the topic detailed enough Contents are usually overlapping many of topic
Contents are not overlapping each main Contents are sometimes overlapping the main topics address similar ideas Contents are always overlapping and
topic addresses one distinct idea some main topics may address similar Contents are often incoherent many redundant
Contents are coherent subtopics clearly ideas subtopics may not relate to the Contents are not linked - subtopics
relate to the corresponding major topic Contents are mostly coherent some corresponding major topics do not support to the corresponding
Contains sufficient specific citations which subtopics may not relate to the Lacks specific citations which are attributed major topics
are attributed to sources with proper APA corresponding major topics to sources and proper APA or similar Lacks or contains no citations and
or similar parenthetical documentation Contains specific citations which are parenthetical documentation is with many quotations which are attributed to
attributed to sources but may not be errors sources and if applicable proper APA
sufficient, and occasionally have problems or similar parenthetical
with APA or similar parenthetical documentation is with many errors

[2 marks] Thesis clearly states the problem and the Thesis clearly states the problem but the Thesis does not clearly state the problem Thesis does not state the problem
possible solutions [ for problem solution possible solutions are not / Thesis clearly and the possible solutions [ for problem and the possible solutions [ for
paper] states the possible solutions but not the solution paper] problem solution paper]
or problem [ for problem solution paper] or or
Thesis clearly shows the writers stance or Thesis does not clearly shows the writers Thesis does not show the writers
and proposes an arguable point which Thesis proposes an arguable point which stance as well as the arguable point which stance and does not propose an
readers could reasonably agree or readers could reasonably agree or disagree readers could reasonably agree or disagree arguable point which readers could
disagree [for argumentative paper] but does not clearly show the writers [for argumentative paper]
reasonably agree or disagree [for
stance [for argumentative paper]
argumentative paper]


Format [1 Contains headings that are clear and Contains headings that are not very clear nor
mark] informative informative
Shows clearly the thesis and the 3 sections The thesis and the 3 sections i.e.
i.e. Introduction, body and conclusion Introduction, body and conclusion are
Shows clearly the hierarchy of information somewhat clear
Hierarchy of information is somewhat clear

OVERALL: EXCELLENT: 9.5 10 GOOD: 7.5 8 FUNCTIONAL: 5 5.5 marks POOR: 2 3.5 marks