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are occupied by lakes marshes containing floating Papyrus vegetation. Their upper portions are
dry and do not contain water even after the occasional heavy rain showers.It is evident that the
drainage system is a very old one and predates the present tectonic and climatological
situation.The rivers entering the northward stretching Akanyaru Valley in the west,once drained
northwestwards into the East African Graben.At present the water of the Akanyaru join the
Nyabarongo River (one of the headwaters of the Nile), which loops round the northern and
eastern sides of the Bugesera (fig.4.4). This complite change in drainage direction and the
formation of the above-mentioned lekes is due to the combined effects of a general eastward tilt
of the rift structure and an important fluvial sedimentation in the Nyabarongo Valley near the
confluence of the Akanyaru (Verstappen,1963,1967).

The absence of running water in the upper parts of the fossil valleys and the low relief of
most of the geomorphological units distinguished,render it likely that most of the rainwater
falling on thr gentle slopes is absorbed by the soil and subsequently largely evaporates. Only
some slight infiltration my occur.No construction of (earthen) dams in these valley for the
purpose of collecting surface water seems justified.Only near the Akanyaru Valley,where more
relief occurs,do active gullies and valleys occur.They are rather short and important surficial run-
of is unlikely.Cattle raising is only possible in broad zones around the lakes and marshes.The
water in the wells near the lake levels and saline,due to evaporation. A number of small
pools,occurring locally on quartzites or lateritic crusts may be improved to some extent and
could contribute to the poor surface water condition of the higher parts of the area.

It is obvious that surface water resources of the area need further development.This is
particularly so because the existing rock types are not very favourable to groundwater
development and the few water borings executed had little success. Water circulating in colluvial
materials may be of some use.

4.3 Groundwater Resources

For evaluation of groundwater resources,a geomorphological terrain classification

leading to the delineation of hydromorphological units is useful,taking both morphological and
lithological factors into consideration (Anon.,1973;Fisk,1951;Freers,1970). The aquiferous
areas,zones of groundwater emerges from springs should be mapped.In fact, many factors
mentioned in the previous sub-section also affect the groundwater situation (Williams, 1970).
The infiltration should be estimated,using as main criteria matters such as; permeability of

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