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# 1. Diagram 1shows an experiment carried out to study the collision of a trolley with a wooden block.

The
experiment is repeated by increasing the gradient of the track.

2.
The result of this experiment is shown in Table 1
Number of wooden block / Gradient of the track Displacement of wooden block X /cm
One wooden block / Less steep 3.2
Two wooden blocks / Steep 6.4
a) Measure the displacement of wooden block X after the collision in Diagram 1.2 Write down the answer in
Table 1
b) State one observation about the displacement of wooden block X in Diagram 1.1 and 1.2.
the displacement of wooden block X in Diagram 1.2 is longer/further than the displacement of wooden
block X in Diagram 1.1
c) state one inference about the displacement of wooden block X in Diagram 1.1 and 1.2.
the displacement of wooden block X in Diagram 1.2 is longer/further than the displacement of wooden block
X in Diagram 1.1 because the higher the velocity of moving object, the greater the momentum

## d) State the variables in this experiment.

i) Manipulated variable:The number of wooden block / Gradient of the track
ii) Responding variable:The displacement of wooden block X
Iii) constant variable: The number of the trolley/ The mass of the trolley

e) Predict the displacement of wooden block X if three wooden block are used. 9.6 cm
f) State
a) Aim : to study the collision of a trolley with a wooden block

Hypothesis : 1) the higher the velocity of moving object, the greater the momentum
2) the higher the gradient of the track, the longer the displacement of wooden block X

b) The relationship between the displacement of wooden block X and the number of the wooden
the higher the gradient of the track, the longer the displacement of wooden block X

## c) State the operational definition of momentum

The momentum is the force that cause the displacement of wooden block X
1. Diagram 1 shows an experiment to study the relationship between the contact area and pressure.
Rajah 1 menunjukkan satu esperimen untuk mengkaji hubungan antara luas sentuhan dengan tekanan

Diagram 1
The two prisms of the same mass are dropped onto the plasticine. The depths of the dents formed are recorded in
Table 1.
Prism Depth of dent
A Deeper
B Shallower
Table 1

State:
a) observation ( Compare the force exerted by prism A and prism B on the plasticine )
The depths of the dents formed by prism A is deeper than prism B

The depths of the dents formed by prism A is deeper than prism B because the size of contact area of prism A is
smaller than prism B. The smaller the contact area, the higher/greater the pressure.

c) Variables:
Manipulated : The position of prism A and B/ The size of contact area
Responding : The depth of the dent
Constant: The mass/type of the prism
d) Aim :to study the relationship between the contact area and pressure.

d) Hypothesis : The smaller the contact area, the higher/greater the pressure.

## e) The relationship between the contact area and pressure.

The smaller the contact area, the higher/greater the pressure.

## f) State the operational definition of pressure.

The pressure is force that produced/formed the dent on the plasticine

4. Diagram 4 shows an experiment to study the effect of temperature on the growth of bacteria, Bacillus
subtilis.
Diagram 4
After two days, the appearance of the nutrient broth in each test tube is observed. The result recorded is
shown in Table 2.

State:
a) observation ( Compare the appearance of nutrient broth with temperature)
The appearance of nutrient broth at the temperature of 5 oC and 70oC is slightly cloudy while the nutrient broth
at the temperature of 37oC is cloudy
The appearance of nutrient broth at the temperature of 5 oC and 70oC is slightly cloudy while the nutrient broth
at the temperature of 37oC is cloudy because the optimum temperature for the growth of bacteria is 37 oC, the
bacteria become inactive at low temperature (5 oC) and are killed at high temperature (70oC)
C) Variables:
Manipulated : The temperature
Responding : The growth of bacteria / The appearance of nutrient broth
Constant : The volume of nutrient broth/ The type of bacteria/
d) Aim: to study the effect of temperature on the growth of bacteria

## h) The relationship between the growth of bacteria and temperature

The optimum temperature for the growth of bacteria is 37 oC

## i) State the operational definition of bacteria.

The bacteria is a microorganism that cause the nutrient turns cloudy

2. Diagram 4 shows an experiment to study the effect of vinegar and ammonium solution on latex.
Rajah 4 menunjukkan satu eksperimen untuk mengkaji kesan cuka dan larutan ammonia ke atas
lateks.
Diagram 4 Rajah 4
State:
a) observation
The vinegar causes the latex to coagulate while the ammonia solution causes the latex still maintain in liquid
form
b) Inference
The vinegar causes the latex to coagulate while the ammonia solution causes the latex still maintain in liquid
form, because vinegar is an acidic substance and ammonia solution is an alkaline substance. Acidic substance
causes the latex to coagulate while an alkaline substance prevent the latex from coagulates.
C) Variables:
Manipulated : The type of solution / The vinegar and ammonia solution
Responding : The coagulation of latex
Constant : The volume of latex
d) Aim : to study the effect of vinegar and ammonium solution on latex.

## To study the effect of acid and alkali on latex

Hypothesis : Acidic substance causes the latex to coagulate while an alkaline substance prevent the latex from
coagulates.

## j) The relationship between the vinegar and ammonium solution on latex

Acidic substance causes the latex to coagulate while an alkaline substance prevent the latex from coagulates.

## k) State the operational definition of acid.

Acid is a substance that causes the latex to coagulate
l) State the operational definition of alkali.
Alkali is a substance that prevent the latex from coagulates.
State the operational definition of vinegar
Vinegar is a substance that causes the latex to coagulate
State the operational definition of ammonia solution
ammonia solution is a substance that prevent the latex from coagulates.