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her-December, 1937
published as the Journal of the U. S.Artillery from 1892 to 1922



INDUSTRIAL PREPAREDNESS 451 By Major William Sack ville
By Honorable Louis fohnson NOTES ON THE 155-mm. GUN 505
GUNS IN SPAIN 453 By Captain C. E. Rothgeb
By An American War Correspondent
MASTERY OF THE FUTURE 458 By Captain Burgo D. Gill
By Major Generalf. G. Harbord
By Major General Heinz Guderian
The Chiefs Office - Fort Monroe - Hawaii-
SCHLIEFFEN 469 Corregidor - San Francisco - Fort Barrancas-
By H. A. DeWeerd West Point - Galveston - 519th CA.
By Major William C. Braly
TELEVISION IN WAR 4S0 One Corps-One Magazine-Election of Officers-
By Major Edwin C. Mead Training Opportunities-New Plans for Award of
Trophies-Cover and Fan Mail-First U. S. AA
DEFENDING OUR HARBORS 483 School-Recent Experience of Air Attack-Train-
By Colonelf. A. Green ing Movies-Moving a Giant Gun-AA Guns
Develop Fast-Ground vs. the Air-Bilbao Ques-
TOWARD AN IDEAL 487 tionnaire-Legion Defense Program-Army In-
By lm'ictus creases-Heat Detector for Spotting Planes-GHQ
Air Force Lessons-Bark Worse Than Bite-Mine
BIL1BIDS' GUARD BATTALION 489 Sunk Espana - Spanish Military lessons - AA
By Lieutenant Colonel R. T. Gibson Gun-AA Automatic Cannon-Camera Records
-Balloon Barrage.
By Lieutenant Colonel fohn S. Wood COAST ARTILLERY BOARD NOTES 529



By Major E. G. Cowen INDEX, 1937 543


~s expressed and conclusions drawn in articles are solely those of the authors and are in no sense official.
~ should not be considered as those of the Chief of Coast Artillery or any other branch of the War Department.

TH,E.COASTARTILLERY JODtNALpays for original articles upon publication. The COASTARTILLERY JOURXAL does not carry paid
~slng. Published bi-monthly under the supervision of the United States Coast Artillery Association for the information of the
~ Artillery personnel of the Regular Army, National Guard and Organized Reserves. Publication Offices, 1406 East Franklin
,.'l? Richmond, Virginia; Editorial Offices, 1115 17th Street. N.W., Washington, D. C. Terms: $4.00 per year. (Coast Artillery
~tion members, $3.00 per year.) Single copies, 75 cents. Entered as second class matter at Richmond, Virginia. under the Act of
~ 3, 1879,for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 412, Act of October 3, 1917. Copyright, 1937, by the
~ States Coast Artillery Association.
Industrial Preparedness


The Assistant Secretary of War


learned from their experiences on the Western Front,
the tremendous importance of supply to the Sllccess of
reserve of manpower that can be released for war effort.
Since our plan of preparedness is surely defensive in
character, our program of mobilization of manpower fol-
thcir operations. Certainly we agree that without rations. lows the same general pattern. With a small force of less
.11Illl1unition,gas masks and other supplies, all our expert than one-half million men ready in case of immediate
<Tunner)' and ballistics would have availed us
::; emergency, we can not afford to rush them all out at
nothing. once. \Ve are confident, however, that if war should come
To conduct a modern war successfully, a nation must tomorrow, we would be ready to put into the field 300,000
provide for three basic factors. First, the fighting man- of them to resist the first shock of invasion.
power must be raised and trained; second, the fighting Thirty days later, we hope to have available a force of
manpower must be equipped and supplied with fighting 500•000. At the end of four months, we expect that
nwerials and transportation; third. the fighting man- 1.230.000 men will be in uniform and under arms.
power must receive the loyal and wholehearted support How long these soldiers could be maintained prcsents
of the civilian population behind the lines. National de- another problem. With the beginning of war shoes wear
feflSe, therefore must include a plan to provide for each out, buttons fall off, tools break and other incidents of
of these three essential and interdependent requirements. wear and tear occur.
Lct us now consider to what extent the War Depart- Due to careful planning, we have enollgh of the ordi-
ment has covered each of these three necessary objectives. nary.supplies to take care of our soldiers for a period of six
First, let us consider manpower. In this phase of na- months. The same can not be said, however, of weapons
tional defense, the United States is potentially the strong- and equipment developed since the World War, such as
est among the nations of the world. By manpower, we airplanes, antiaircraft and long-range guns, gas masks and
mcan something more than mere .numerical supremacy. other more modern and essential accoutrements of an
If numbers alone counted, the history of the last few efficient military machine.
months in the Orient might never have been written. Our efforts must be directed to build up. in time of
Only ll1en of strength, of intelligence, and of skill should peace, a reserve of raw and fabricated war materials suf-
be included in measuring manpower. ficient to take care of our army in all its needs until in-
Due to our training and our education, we have men of dustf)" mobilized for war purposes, can convert plow-
J high degree of intelligence. Due to our scientific agri- shares into swords and pruning hooks into spears. The
cultlJral methods, we can spare a greater human reserve change of indllStry from a pe3ce to a war basis is slow and
for militarv effort than anv other nation. To feed our- difficult. It will take weeks, perhaps, and in some cases
selves, the' United States r~quires for work on the farm it may take a year or more to produce some of the deli-
but twenty-two out of every one hundred of its population. cate machinery required in the production of war materiel.
To keep from starvation, Germany needs thirty-eight The effort to build up reserves is part of the program of
OUtof every one hundred, France forty-five, Italy sixty- industrial mobilization which represents the second of the
livc. Japan seventy, Russia eighty, and China eighty-five basic considerations in any national defense plan.
to ninety. In short, we excel I the world in the potential The War Department has made a survey of American
resources and has found that we are provided by nature Navy. Certain articles, such as armed vessels, torped~
with the strongest reserve of raw materials of any nation. and depth bombs, only the Navy needs. Plants manufac_
We have in this country ample resources for our full mili- turing these items have been assigned exclusively to the
tary and civilian requirements of food, coal, petroleum, Navy. Factories making mobile antiaircraft guns, 155-
power, iron, steel, machinery, chemicals, copper, lead, mm. guns and howitzers and their ammunition, products
nitrates, silver, zinc and phosphorous. No nation in the strictly for Army use, have been allocated to the Army.
world can match this list. Facilities for the manufacture of machine tools, propella~ts
We found, however, that certain raw materials essential and explosives, shoes, blankets and other items needed by
to the needs of the fighting forces of our nation are either both the Army and Navy, have been distributed betwec~
entirely lacking or are produced in very limited quantities, the services so that each may have its requirements filled.
incapable, in time of war, of marked expansion. We need Ten thousand manufacturing plants of the country have
manganese, a metal used in modern steel making for the been allocated, or assigned, to one or more of the ~upph
purpose of cleansing and deoxidizing machine steel. We branches to produce military necessities. Each has bee~
are short of chromium, a mineral essential in the manu- given a wartime task. Factors of time and quantitv have
facture of rust-resisting alloys. We lack tungsten, which been fully considered. The majority of these plants have
is indispensable to the production of high-speed tool steel. agreed to perform the allotted work. The agreement has
Our supply of tin, necessary for solder, bearings, and no legal status and is binding neither on the government
linings for metal containers, is inadequate. For these, and nor on the industrial plant. It simply means that the plant
a few other items, we must depend upon foreign sources. has cooperated with the government in studying and
In the event of war, our access to these supplies may be analyzing the war load that may be placed upon it and is
cut off. Consequently, every effort must be made to con- prepared to carry this load in time of war.
serve and build up a reserve of these strategic materials. There are other details to the industrial mobilization
Our national efforts along this line include an act of plan which I have not the time to develop. Let me merel\'
Congress forbidding the export of scrap tin. We look to add that we plan a super-agency, national in character and
the accumulation of discarded tin cans as our best second- administered by outstanding civilians, to coordinate this
ary source of this strategic item of supply. Congress also tremendous industrial effort. The War Department is un.
has authorized the Navy to purchase some strategic ma- alterably opposed to the militarization of industry.
terials for purposes of reserve. The Military Affairs Com- In developing our plan for this phase of mobilization.
mittee of the House of Representatives has acted favorably the War Department has received the hearty cooperation
on a similar provision to acquire manganese, chromium, of both industry and labor. If war should come, we feci
tungsten and tin for the reserve of the,War Department, confident that this friendly relationship will continue.
and I trust this bill, so essential to our program of in- United, we may reasonably expect to realize the thire!
dustrial preparedness, will be passed during this session. of our major objectives in our program and receive the
After a study of the production capacity of twenty- wholehearted support of our civilian population.
thousand individual plants, we have found that we also The principal obstacles that warring nations in the pasl
possess the strongest industrial structure in the world. have encountered toward the mobilization of a unitec
Those engaged in the manufacture of food, clothing, public opinion behind the lines, has been the matter 01
shoes, automobiles and similar products in ordinary use, excess profits. In war, the increased demand and compe
can meet the increased demand of war by speeding up tition between government agencies usually has resultcc
production and by a certain degree of expansion. Factories in higher prices. Higher prices with a rising markel
employed in the production of articles not essential in brought undue profits, not only for industry but for even
time of war, can be converted for the manufacture of holder of anv material used by the nation. There ha\'(
guns, recoil mechanisms, ammunition and similar items been undue profits in food, in farm products, in raw ma
not strictly commercial in their nature. For the production terials and in the manufacture of munitions.
of explosives, propellants and the assembly of ammu- Competition between government agencies for n13
nition, for which there are no comparable peacetime ac- terials, as a factor in excess profits, will be eliminated b,
tivities, an entire industry may have to be built. On the our method of allocation and distribution of procurement
whole, it is safe to say that American industry is capable When supplemented by fair government contracts. to
of bearing the load of any major war effort. gether with the power of price-fixing and a fair e~cess
Our problem, therefore, becomes the distribution profits tax, the possibilities of profiteering in war WIll bl
among our manufacturing plants of this load without con- reduced to a minimum. Without profiteering, the pros~c
fusion, delay and uncertainty that the absence of a defi- of maintaining a high morale among the civilians behtnc
nite plan entails. We must always keep in mind our pri- the lines appears excellent.
mary purpose, to save valuable time, which in turn will In conclusion, let me say that, although we have ~or~ec
save millions of dollars and thousands of precious lives. out the general provisions of our plan for the mobiltzatlOI
Our plan of distribution takes full cognizance of both of manpower, and of industry, and of public opinion. 'WI
civil and military demands in time of war. It considers all sincerely hope and pray that the occasion may neve
not only the needs of the Army, but also those of the arise when it will have to be put into full effect.

"THREE-HUNDRED yards be:'ond the next intersec- tall:' using the the:ltre of war as a proving ground for other
tion are the Red trenches," said the driver of the press elL weapons which have had no prior battle test. One might
We were doing a forty-mile clip on a one-way road through mention also the Italians, linked with the Nationalists,
:I steep valley. Theoretically, we were in Nationalist ter- who content themselves by backing up infantry with field
rirorv. but we wondered just how sure the driver was of guns of the same make and calibre used by the [talian
his distances. In too many transportation pools we had army during the \Vorld War.
seen cars with windshields pockmarked by bullet holes- [t will be remembered that since the end of the \Vorld
a grim reminder to be sure of where you were going. \Var, Spain had been involved in severe conRicts in Moroc-
A quick t11fust of the driver's foot, brakes screamed- co and in a consequence had assembled a considerable
we came to a back-jerking halt. In a grassy hollow to the amount of artillery. These guns were still on North Afri-
right we caught, amid the camou- can soil when the present strife be-
gal1. After Alfonso was deposed Gen-
flage of green branches, a Rickering
glimpse of a six-inch howitzer, its
FRANCO eral Franco went to Nlorocco to reor-
crew stripped to the waist. Beyond ganize the army under the Republic.
lay other guns. 50 outstanding was his work that the
\Vhang-woosh-oom-oom! Nladrid government transferred him
One gets an uncontrollable hol- to the Canary Islands as Governor
lowness at the beltline when unex- General, for fear he might start some-
pected firing occurs right within ear- thing in Nlorocco. The gesture was
shot. However, quick echoes from fmjle because when the industrialists
all sides made that first single shot and financiers of Spain decided in
sOllnd like a popgun. Fieldpieces 1936 to do something to halt the left-
roared a stead v crescendo. Such was ish trend, they sent for Franco. He
m\' introduc~ion to war-War In Rew from the Canary Isles to Nloroc-
Spain. co, where he found 18,000 troops
ready to obey. At once he began the
The Spanish \Var offers many con- transfer of men and guns to West-
trasts, but nowhere are these so ern Spain.
strange as in artillery practice and At the time of this writing, Gen-
weapons. For instance, in the Na- eralissimo Franco commands 400,000
tionalist army we find some artillery- men, and additional Spanish recmits
men depending on light fieldpieces, join him daily. This tabulation in-
long-range riRes, mountain guns, cludes both combat and labor eche-
and heavy howitzers, of designs in lons, and his allies. Numbered
Use ~ quarter of a century or more. among his allies arc 60,000 Italian
Agall1, we see the German allies of troops - infantrymen, artillerymen,
the Nationalists, traininO" younO" transportation and aviation person-
gunners In the use of the most modern nel. The German forces include 10,-
antiaircraft quick-firers and, inciden- 000, divided among artillerymen,

aviation, transporration, communication and technical per- ;1I1din places as many as eight lines deep. Stroncr-poliltS
sonnel. included reinforced concrete machine-gun posts ~nd nfk
The rough terr;lin makes the mountain batteries the pits. Barbed-wire fences and entanglements ringed the
most popular and most used. These shorr-range weapons W.l0I Ie area. ~
are known as "four-mule"-the number of animals need- Plans for this attack on the Bilboa defenses were worked
ed ro convey a team from fight ro fight. One full-sized our b:' General Emilio ~vlola, commander of the Arnw of
army mule carries the five-inch rube, another the trail, a the Norrh, in conjunction with technical advice fro~l a
third the breech, the fourth the wheels. Other mules carn' German arrillery general. After all was in readinessl there
supplies and ammunition. Once the guns are in positio~ came a period of foggy weather with visibility zero in the
the ammunition is brought forward by oxcart from the mountain are:1S. The bad weather ended after two weeks'
nearest head of motor transportation. Although mountain and the guns which had been lined up almost hub.to-hub:
guns played an important part in the advance on Toledo opened up on the first clear morning. Fire was directed
and Madrid, they played an even greater role in the on a section of the ring between Larrabezua and Golda-
Bilbao campaign, for Bilbao is nestled in mountains that ClIl0. The defenders rook it for granted that an attack
range twenty ro thirr:' or more miles in ever:' direction. was to be bunched on the norrh of Larrabezua and rushed
The defenders dug in and resisted at crest after crest, only men ro that VICIIHty. However, after an hour of fire,
bombing planes destroyed J
section of the ring near
Goldacano, and the Nation-
alist infantry walked through
virtually untouched. This
phase ~f the attack lasted
less than twenty minutes.
The penetrating force spread
our, attacked trenches from
in rear, and within a few
hours three or four miles of
this great system of defense
had been taken.
Other Spanish guns sup-
port the balance of the 700 l
miles of front. In the hold. I
ing operations before i\fa.
drid, heavy batteries-both
riAe and howitzer - are so'
l\!Olll/laill balleries ell rOllle 10 Ibe trolll
well camouAaged that a visi.
tor to the famous Cerro de
ro be driven out by the accurate hre of Franco's mountain las Angelas, (tluee kilometers south of Madrid) has dif.
batteries. One of the major counterattacks by the defend- ficulty in locating the positions. The Cerro itself holds a
ers rook place at Nlount San Pedro late in NIay. Over few mountain guns, kept in reserve against an attempt ro
2,000 Basque and Asturian troops of President Aguirre's srorm the hill, but thus far the Madrid forces, recognizing
army attacked at dawn and might easily have broken the inevitable losses attendant upon the long advance
through the small force of Nationalists but for the con- across open country necessary to reach the Nation:Jlist
centrated fire of a battalion of mountain guns. Those who front-line, have made no attempt upon the Cerro.
reached the wire were met with the bayonet and hand- At Toledo, more or less continuous counter-battery
grenades. None got through .. goes on. The front is but eight miles east of the "city on
It was in the Bilbao campaign that the largest concentra- a hill." For several months the lines were closer and rht'
tion of Spanish Nationalist artillery occurred thus far. inhabitants soon became accusromed ro stray shells. \Virh
Nforocco had been drawn on for batteries of six- and eight- the fighting now out of machine-gun range, no one pays
inch howitzers, light fieldpieces and six-inch long riAes. attention to Nationalist shells roaring overhead on rhelr
These were supplemented by Italian and German guns way ro the Government trenches. Motion picture th~aters
and enabled Franco ro destroy or force the retreat of de- give two shows a night, three on Saturday, the street Itghts
fending batteries in every battle. It was reported that burn all night, and life goes on in its accustomed way ..
in organizing the major position for the attack on the It is obvious, however, that much of the line in inacrJ\<{
so-called "Iron Ring" of Bilbao forts that the Nationalists areas is held only by riAe units, augmented by machine.
had sixty batteries in support of its storm troops. The gun detachments. Activity in these areas is met by bom
guns were in position two weeks before the attack.
The Iron Ring was a circle of trenches from three ro six
'General l!ola lost his liie while flying irom Victoria to Bur~
beiore the attack was launched.
1937 GUNS IN SPAIN 455
100" raids from near-by air fields. The use 0..:£ planes to assist piece. The Rame was bright as a magnesium Rash and faintly
th~ O"roundtroops m~de possible the concentration of Na- tinged with green. There was an immediate echo for each
shot almost equal in volume (O the original detonation. The
tion~list artillery in the Bilbao campaign.
echo apparently came from the ground in front of the gun.
Officers of the Army of North pay high tribute to their and at a distance gave the impression of twenty-four shots
German allies and credit their antiaircraft artillery with instead of tweh'e.~A most impressive sight. '
• t>
enemy• aviation at Bilbao. The G~rmans These guns were then firing at a land target. The Span-
Jre 31socredited with supplying a battery of heav~' how- ish officers report that their vertical range is over 20,000
itzers which played 3n important part in bombardmenr fcet and their horizontal range over 16,000 meters.
, of Strong-points. The one handicap of the 88-mm. gun is that apparently
During the early part of the campaign the defcnders of it cannot be hidden because of the Aaming discharge.
Bilbao h3d 3n air force, but it was non-existent when the Against an alert ;1I1dstrongl~r-armed opponent it would
CIty fell. The business men of the captured city told the be necessary to frequently movc the batteries to avoid
story of what happened. The defense planes were being their being the object of coumer-battery fire or acrial raids.
Ro,,:n bv French aviators. To begin with, the Frenchmen unless Aashless powder or flash hiders are used.
were li,;inCT at a hotel south of the Nervion river and came Persons other than Germans are brusquel~r ordercd to
10 for criticism, because they dined on beefsteaks 3nd full

course dinners at a time th~

stay away from thc batteries and the order is enforced.

rest of the soldiers and civil-

i3/lSin the beleaguercd city
were on rations. Shordv af-
ter the c3mpaign sta'rted,
Nationalist 3irplanes beg3n
J d3\\'[Ho-d3rk watch of the
Bilb30 airport, and news of
eVerY Govcrnment take-off
was;nstandy radiocd to artil-
le~' headquartcrs in Vic-
toria. Thus warncd, Gcr-
man anti3ircraft crews were
on the 3lert and opencd a
withering fire upon the first
sight of the fliers. Planes
came down out of control,
some in fl3mes. Later on
when thc defenders aband-
oned the offensive in the air, A field bailer)' ill tlclion.
thev nevertheless still made
eJf~rts to Spot Nationalist batteries by the use of observa- Supplcmental German eqll1pment includes commul1l-
tIOn aviation. Then the batde was carried right to the cations trucks with telephone, radio, and telegraph ma-
Government airdrome and bomb attacks destroyed the terial and wire and cable-laying equipmcnt of thc latest
planes before they could leave the ground. Aftcr that dcsign. Reels of gutta-percha covercd cable containing
Bilbao was without "eyes in the air." several wires cnable rapid establishment of multiple tele-
An examination of Nationalist air defense showed sev- phone service between batteries and hcadquarters. The
eral types of AA guns. There are two sizes of rapid-fire reels have two compartments, the larger of which carries
cannons, said to be 20-mm. and 38-mm. respectively. [00 meters of cable with male connections at each end.
But most interesting, and claimed to be the most effective, The smaller compartmcnt holds a double female connec-
Ire batteries of 88-mm. quick-firers, which are the guns tion enabling an instant hook-up between sections.
r:edlted with forcing Government aviators to avoid Na- T wistcd feeder wires lead from the end of a cable to vari-
tto.nallSt positions. An appreciation of their value may be ous batteries and observation posts. One of these com-
~lI1ed from the following description by an eye-witness: munication trucks was operated as a combination radio,
The sound of distant firing convinced the correspondents telephone and telegraph exchange, providing instant com-
that at least twenl)'-four guns were firing. The location of munication between observation planes and O.P's, the bat-
these guns seemed to be about a mile in the rear of the obser- tery commanders, and higher headquarters.
vation post. Passing through the support lines only a single Air fields along the main highways from Victoria to
~our-gun battery was found, four miles back. Actually the
Caceres are protected by 20-mm. and 38-mm. AA rapid-
attery had fired twelve shots every four seconds. The firing
-as so rapid that it appeared td be in rotation; 1,2'3>4,- fire automatic cannon. These smaller guns are found
1,2,3,4.-[,2,3+ Each blast was accompanied by a Rash of either in pardy camouAaged positions or our in the open.
cUo",. Rame extending sixty feet from the muzzle of the They are equipped with range finders with a mirror ar-
rangement so that the gunner looks directly ahead through very few of the Spanish artillerymen had steel helmets,
a wide eyepiece instead of at the plane. He sits in a swing but those who did had laid them aside when in the heat
seat with his feet resting on controls which are part of the of steady firing.
aiming devices. An ammunition handler feeds shells into Now, let's take a look at the guns of the Government
a frame-work hopper from which they go into the firing forces.
chamber in the manner of a machine-gun feed. The For the reason that most of Spain's artillery was on duty
38-mm. guns were mounted on small caterpillars and are in Morocco, at the outbreak of hostilities the Gover~-
apparently mobile enough to be quickly transferred to ment found itself with comparatively few cannon. More
new positions. serious, however, was the lack of experienced gunners.
The 88-mm. quick firers observed were usually in semi- Artillerymen of the regular army were either with General
fixed positions, surrounded by sand-bags for defense Franco or in defending groups in the several Alcazars2
against rifle or machine-gun fire and were well camou- under siege in various cities. Regardless of their enthusi-
flaged to avoid detection from the air. However, it is evi- asm, the young militiamen recruited by the Madrid gov-
dent that on account of the tell-tale flashes described, it ernment did not know how to handle the few pieces of
is difficult to hide positions of this gun for long, either artillery available.
from enemy lines or from spies. This is borne out by the The heroic seventy-day defense of the Alcazar of Toledo
following incident related by various officers in an effort is a monument to the futility of artillery fire by untrained
to spur a continuous search for spies. men. The area was bombarded continuously. Three huge
A bombing attack at an airport near an important city mines were exploded under the walls and hundreds ~f
resulted in such damage that the AA batteries were ordered bombs were dropped on the ruins. So wild was the at-
to new positions. The change of position was to take place tackers' fire that buildings in a block-wide area around the
between S:30 and 6:30 on a certain morning. While the Alcazar were as thoroughly wrecked as the great structure
movement was going on enemy planes bombed both city itself. The defenders sniped at attacking columns, day
and airport from an altitude so low that the authorities and night, throughout the siege, in spite of heavy salvos
were convinced the fliers knew the AA batteries were be- of cannon-fire directed at their posts. An artillery in-
ing moved and were temporarily out of action. structor among the defenders kept accurate tally on the
Because this conflict stretches over 700 miles and be- attackers' gun-fire and his tabulations are shown below:
cause of the constant movement of guns from sector to SEVENTy-DAY ARTILLERY ASSAULT ON ALCAZAR OF
sector it is not possible to estimate the numbers of the TOLEDO
German AA guns, but the impression gained is that there Number of Guns Calibre Shots Fired
are not enough of the 38-mm. and the 88-mm. guns as are ls.s-cm. 3,300
needed to provide complete protection. There seemed
4 lo.s-cm. 3,000
ample number of the 2o-mm. guns at Nationalist air-
7 7.s-cm. 3,Soo
ports to make the Government fliers keep away, barring ? so-mm. mortars 2,000
an occasional surprise attack. Enemy patrols give a wide
berth to towns protected by these types of guns. Another interesting sidelight on guns used by the
Examination of the bases of the 20-mm. and 38-mm. Government was noted on the Bilbao front. A keen-eved
AA guns show that although they were standing on the Basque observer, not in sympathy with the action of 'the
ground or emplaced in fixed positions, they could be "Separatists" who joined with their Asturian neighbors
mounted on motor trucks. The guns said to be 88-mm. to fight for autonomy for the provinces of Northern Spain,
were all mounted on two-wheeled trails. The guns of one kept close tab on Russian equipment delivered to President
battery, seen en route, were being carried on low-bed Aguirre's army. This happened in the early days of the
pneumatic-tired trailers, each hauled by a Diesel driven Bilbao campaign and before the International Patrol tried
truck with facilities for carrying ammunition-in effect, to shut down on outside nations selling arms to the bel-
a caisson and truck combined. ligerents. He said that the Russian guns he had seen bore
The Italian guns noticed were so well camouflaged as dates-1902. When the Asturians retreated from Bilbao,
to make any detailed study impossible. One large group they took their artillery along.
of Italian artillery seen on the move included batteries of In summing up the marked difference in results ob-
light field guns of about four-inch calibre; batteries of tained by Nationalist and Government artillery, it must
howitzers of six-inch calibre and one battery of long rifles be reiterated that training and obserwtion facilities are
of the same calibre. The gun crews were well equipped. the governing factors.
It is interesting to note that of the three nationalities In the rough terrain of northern and eastern Spain, g~ns
serving guns in the Nationalist army, the Italians were are of little avail unless batteries are in constant touch WIth
most consistent in the wearing of steel helmets while in their air and land observers. Time and again, shells fired
action. On the other hand, the Spanish and German gun- from Government batteries were seen to break far from
ners tend to go bare-headed. The Italians were almost the target, mainly because there was no air observation
always fully clothed while the Germans and Spaniards and the land observer was unable to see them. On the other
stripped to the waist. However, it must be noted that 'Fortresses.
1937 GUNS IN SPAIN 457
hJnd. Nationalist batteries, manned by veteran gunners unsympathetic to his aims he confered with his advisors
Il1 dose touch with observers in the air, made evel\' shot and determined to do something about control of the sea
count. The outstanding opportunity to compare ~esults trade entering the }Ylediterranian; for munitions and sup-
was in the Bilbao campaign. Here, the defenders, lack- plies were going through the Strait for delivery to the
ing air observation, were unable to hit, or even locate, large opposition. Selecting a place where the waterway is only
concentrJtions of troops. Except for crude efforts to locate seven and a half miles wide he chose locations for forts on
batteries by gauging the direction of the gun-fire and both north and south shores. At these points the Na-
rimincr rhe interval between explosion and arrival of a tionalist forces are reported to have mounted the guns
shellclley seemed helpless. From a road intersection north necessary to control the Strait.
of Bilbao a Nationalist howitzer battery fired at the inner Foreigners living in nearby Spanish cities have con-
ring of forts from an open position for two days-without firmed the fact that guns were taken to the new posi-
camouflage. Buildings nearby were full of ammunition. tions. A road has been built south from the Algeciras-
Often the roads were jammed with trucks bringing up T arifa highway over which mortars and rifles were hauled
supplies. Hundreds of infantrymen watched the show. to positions on the North shore. Guns were also moved
Bur no counter-battery shot fell near this target. To the westward from Ceuta in Morocco. The first public notice
correspondents the activities resembled a school for artil- of the matter came when Anthony Eden, Foreign Min-
lervmen rather than war. ister for Great Britain, spoke about keeping open the road
Two davs later Bilbao was taken. and artillery com- to India. Autoists have noted the sentry posted at the
manders nished forward to check the results of thei~ work. entrance to the new road east of T arifa and sightseers are
They found that the forts had been pounded to pieces. ordered to move on. It was noised about that the Rock of
So accurate had been the fire of the Nationalist batteries Gibraltar had lost some of its importance since it is east
that only duds (which bounced off concrete emplace- of the narrower section and at a place where the Strait is
ments) had gone into the city proper although it was twentv-two miles wide .
right below the crests and less than a mile beyond. The . * * *
effort to destroy the defenses without damaging Bilbao If it be true that the War in Spain is of the test-tube
had been successful. variety, the lessons learned will be seen in what the in-
The great concentration of Nationalist artillery at Bilbao terest~d powers do by way of modification or change in
is a thing of the past. The guns, both old and new, now materiel and organization within the next few years. If,
roar on other fronts. But the most important batteries in for example, a leading army radically modifies an antiair-
Spainand Spanish Morocco have yet to speak. craft machine-gun sight, we would not go far astray in
* * * assuming tl1at the modification was dictated by battle ex-
Midway between T arifa and the port of Algeciras, on perience. Again, if large numbers of tanks are suddenly
the southernmost tip of Spain, are the most talked of guns junked by a major power and the manufacture of dif-
in Europe. Across the Strait of Gibralter under the frown- ferent types is initiated, we may be justifie9 in a belief
~ngcliffs of the Atlas Mountains are other guns of equal that the test of war showed a necessity for the change.
Importance. These have not been seen in position, ex- Hence, for the next few years the student will do well
cept perhaps by an intelligence agent of an interested to keep his scrutiny fixed not so much on the Spanish
power who has wormed his way past alert sentries and armies as on those of the nations who appeared to have a
then gotten safely back home to report. But it is known major interest in the Spanish War, although not officially
that the batteries are there. engaged in it. What the larger armies do--or do not do
When General Franco found certain of his neighbors -wiII indicate what they learned.

IT IS DIFFICULT for an officer of high rank to get an opinion out of a subordinate. In

the first place, the chances are that the subordinate has his mind on something else-
that is, he is worrying about not having on his best clothes, or not being shaved, or
not having his shoulders back or not having come as soon as he was sent for. Or it may
be he is wondering why the general sent for him at all, whether he has done some-
thing wrong, whether there is any catch to the question, and what sort of an impres-
sion he is making with his answers. And then, in the second place, like a subordinate
in any walk of life, he wants to give an answer that is pleasing to his superior.-GEN-

TODAY, through my officewindow on the fifty-third If the Allied armies had not known how to block the
floor, I hear from the trenches formed by New York's advance of a war machine in 1918, the lives of millions of
buildings the rumble on that front of a war that goes on people living today would have been darkened. What-
forever in every corner of the earth. Few of the millions ever disillusionment we suffer in contemplating the exist-
engaged in it in one way or another think of their part as ing world as compared with what idealists hoped for after
more than "filling a job." Except perhaps in their rare the Armistice, the fact remains that without an Allied
romantic moments, it does not occur to more than a hand- victory some countries that are free now would not be.
ful that this universal war, seldom free from monotony, Europe's most liberal nations would have seen their bor-
is making history . Yet it does have tremendous signifi- ders pushed in. And our own republic could quite con-
cance, for it is the eternal fight of mankind to supply his ceivably be hedged on every land frontier by a ring of
wants; the struggle along the frontiers of environment. hostile steel.
It began in the era of that cave man who first tried to Overcoming those real threats still seems as important
devise ways of making his shelter more habitable. It will to many of our citizens now as it did in 1917 and 1918.
never cease because human needs and hopes can never While concentrating attention on the effort to overthrow
all be satisfied. environmental handicaps and threats, I am willing to let
A little while ago I stood with many others on one of the results of the World War speak for themselves.
the world's great military battle boundaries. It was the How far and how fast civilization moves against its
front of the nearest German advance on Paris in 1918. limiting obstacles depends in large part upon the quality
We had assembled there to dedicate a memorial to Ameri- of its men. In everyday progress personal valor becom~
can soldiers, who were the final factor in deciding that this a comparatively small factor, for the simple reason thar
historic line should run exactly through that point-and we are not dealing with a frontier on which guns roar.
no closer to the heart of France. The advances here may stir a few prejudices and conflict-
The battles that take place on physical fields like that ing claims and cause some pulling back by those re-
and the struggle the rumble of which we hear daily along luctant to abandon old ways. But by and large the un-
symbolic frontiers have much in common. Their simi- conquered areas of science and technology go--amid ap-
larities exist despite the great difference between them plause from every side-to anyone who can take and hold!
made by our belief--or vain hope-that all physical wars them. It is in the other qualities, aside from bravery, thar
could be avoided, if all men in all warlike countries would are displayed in everyday life as well as on the battle-
be wiser than they show any promise of being. Lives are field, that the hope of the world lies.
freely given in both the military and the peaceful engage- I happen to have had the high honor of commanding
ments; in building bridges, driving delivery trucks, and typical cross sections of American men during a critical
through sickness contracted in laboratories where the period in France, and I know from personal observation
con<;luestof disease goes on, as well as before the guns of that those necessary qualities were there, besides unques-
armIes. tioned valor. They might be summed up as a combination
Failure to take or hold a line against an environmental of well placed self confidence, concentrated energy, fOrt!.
enemy may decide the future of as many behind that tude, flashes of vision, humor, and realistic doubt.
line, as it ever does in actual warfare. American soldiers did not think of themselves as heroes.
If the scientists contesting the advance of influenza They were not romanticists. You did not hear from their I

across America in 1918 had known how to halt this in- lips ringing phrases like "a war to end all war" and "a war
vasion finally and conclusively wherever it hit, more than to make the world safe for democracy." They had a few ~
a quarter of a million Americans would have been saved expressions that had a ringing sound, all right, in ccrtaJn
in that one year. Research men still are working to devise situations, but these remarks were not intended for the
a strategy that will defeat this malady. Some day they history books. Fine sayings were tossed aside in the
will learn the way. Their success against other diseases trench area, and left to be repeated in safety by some at
which once rook terrific toll is their memorial, marking a home whose idea of the importance of their work did not
decisive step in the long, slow advance toward better, permit them to go to war ..
safer living. The boys on the line thought of their work as a Jobto

Wars are still won by soldiers with their Feet on the
be done. First they had to stop an enemy. Then they technical staff in the New York City area, many things
had to go forward and take objectives. Accomplishing have been learned that are VItalto the creation of depend-
those two things was what demanded the belief in them- able "sight transmission." At the same time the engi-
selves,the concentrated energy, fortitude, Hashesof vision, neers devoting themselves to the problem-as realistic as
the humor, and realistic doubt of highHown dreams; as doughboys-are searching out every difficulty and flaw.
well as bravery. They will stick to their job until television reaches a
The part these factors play in ordinary life is easily stage at which it is ready for use by the public.
'seen by a contemplation of the history of progress. My The story of communications is typical of those in other
'interest in radio communication naturally turns me in that sectors where advances are being made. First come the
direction for an illustration. Before the day of Marconi, many centuries during which there seems to be little pos-
men had done much talking about the theoretical possi- sibility of gaining desired objectives; the era of formu-
bility of sending messages over a distance without wires. lating a vague hope for the advance, sometimes of making
So~e of the principles had even been worked out on paper. a few basic inventions. Next the men of action step into
The young Marconi saw wireless communication as a the field and things begin to move. Slowly the advance
task to be accomplished, not as abstract theory alone. He comes in the early stages, but finally with increasing
believedhe had the ability to do it, and he had the other rapidity. In modern times there has been such a culmina-
essential qualities. The result was that he marked a new tion of scientific and technological achievements that there
frontier of science. sometimes seems to be no chance of going much further.
Previous movements along the front on which Marconi Always the building is done upon the solid foundation of
gained this height had been exceedingly slow. Between the experience of the past. And always-as in the case
the ancient days of the signal fire, the runner, and the of radio-the unconquered territory ahead of the in-
tom-tom, and the year 1844 when the telegraph invented vestigators holds promises of new wonders.
by Morse was put to work, men had done practically Not so long after Columbus in a hazardous sailing boat
nothing to speed the transmission of messages. After discovered America, the briliant Leonardo da Vinci as-
the new impetus had been given by the land wire tele- serted that it was possible for a machine heavier than air
graph, the determination of Cyrus W. Field laid the first to fly. He not only discoursed on the theory-painting,
transatlantic cable. Bell's telephone was not introduced perhaps, the while, on the smile of Mona Lisa-but also
until 1876. Americans who are now little more than mid- drew a diagram indicating what he believed this con-
dle aged can remember when telephones were a novelty in trivance might be like. Four hundred years dragged by
mostparts of the United States. before the first plane of the Wright brothers hopped off
Men who doubted when Marconi announced at the under its own power and skimmed a few hundred feet
turn of the century that he had succeeded in receiving a through the thin atmosphere above Kitty Hawk, North
feeble wireless signal across the Atlantic, have lived to Carolina.
see this day in which reliable radiotelegraph communica- A little more than a decade after Orville Wright made
tion connects America with the most distant parts of the that first jump, planes were swift, staunch, and depend-
world and with ships on every sea. The first American able enough so that aviators were tilting against one
owned radio company capable of meeting foreign compe- another in them, high above the fields of Europe upon
tition and guaranteeing our nation her rightful place in which knights in armor, mounted on mailed horses, had
the use of this new medium was organized after the World fought a few centuries before. Today, less than thirty-five
War with the encouragement of our Government. Events years after the historic demonstration at Kitty Hawk, air-
of the war years had shown the necessity for such an planes fly through ocean lanes, and maintain regular
organization. passenger and mail schedules across and between conti-
Beliefin the possibilities of radio, research, and energy, nents. Pilots guide their course on radio beams and carry
added rapidly to knowledge. They led not only to the on radiotelegraph and radiotelephone communication with
presenthigh efficiency of shore to shore and marine radio- land stations and with other planes in Hight. Yet those
tdegraphy, but also to the introduction and perfection who are in the best position to know, assert that the day
of broadcasting, which has pushed back the horizons of of the plane's full glory lies still ahead,
homes in every city and remote section of the United Only a comparatively short span separates the present
Statesand in nearly every other part of the world. era from that when the best available doctors, half realistic
Work in laboratories in America and elsewhere con- searchers after truth and half voodoo artists, resorted to
tinuesconstantly, pressing forward into still unconquered bleeding as a practically universal cure-all. The mastery
ground of radio science. Every year sees strategic out- of yellow fever by the research of an American Army
~ attained-all of which will contribute their part surgeon is only one of an impressive array of victories by
ultimatelyin widening the daily lives of men. Television, modern medicine. Yet a vast expanse of territory remains
lor instance, has been taken into the field by the Radio to be taken in this field too-a positive cure for cancer
~ration of America for a test under actual working and other highly dangerous diseases, the discovery of the
~di~ons. In the tests, through reception checked on true function of all the glands, even a never-failing rem-
IrPenmental receivers in the homes of members of our edy for the commG 1 cold. The unconquered area in medi-
cine, despite the brilliant accomplishments of our genera- practically every man engaged in it and would leave no
tion, is a very large one. important building standing in the combatant COUntries.
Some grandsons of American pioneers who endured That was put to a test on a large scale in the World War.
privations and at times a scarcity of food blame part of The losses in men and property mounted to totals that
their present trouble on a strange new economic ill called were terrible to contemplate. But the casualties in pro-
"over production." The capacity to turn out food, houses, portion to the number of men in the armies and the de-
clothing, and other things for which men have always struction of property in relation to the entire physical
sought, was increased so rapidly by the machine age that property ~f the embattled nations were far below that of
distribution was thrown out of gear. While some alarm- many anCient wars.
ists cry that we already have reached a situation in which For every device of offense produced in a scientific and
millions must be permanently kept out of employment, mechanistic age, knowledge and skill soon creates a coun-
faster and more efficient machines are being perfected. teractir:g met~od of defense. Bomb proof shelter~ keep
In every aspect of human achievement carping critics pace with the Increased power of bombs. If motonzation
find something to deplore. Moans about the "impossi- enables an army to assemble troops and strike quicker
bility" of offsetting the harm that "over production" from a greater distance on land than ever before, radio in
brings with its blessings are matched by the unmanly observation planes-the commonest of its many possible
whines of those who assert that all the advances of science uses in war-forewarns against the impending attack.
and technology come to naught, in the last analysis. They Against the increasing speed and range of invading air-
speak as if this old world had run down and there were craft is set the invention of new guns to protect against
no future in employing the virtues or following the paths an invader. It has been made known publicly that defense
that have brought success in the past. At one extreme are guns which are now under test employ a radio principle
those who are willing to halt where they are, accepting to keep their muzzles aimed straight at the roar of a
the best terms that will be granted them and sacrificing plane's motors. In practice, it is revealed, they make the
gains for which other men have died. At the other ex- number of hits scored by antiaircraft arms in the World
treme are the radicals who believe they have the panacea War look like the target record of a nearsighted dowager
in a departure from all previous experience-the vision- dragged into a shooting gallery to try her luck for the
aries who see impossible cloudlands ahead, to be attained first time. The advantage still remains with the defense.
by untried methods only. Just now the increased power of the air seems to guarantee
"Suppose medicine has found a way to prevent plagues," that the great conscript armies of 1917-18 have disappeared
say the advocates of the "world-is-run-down" philosophy. from the battlefields of the future. They can no longer be
The plagues that once decimated populations were na- assembled or supplied in such masses. Coordination of
ture's device for weeding out those who were not fit to sur- movements on such a scale is no longer possible.
vive. Continue to protect the susceptible and the in- Another precept of warfare that continues to be tnIe
competent until they reach maturity and have children although aviation gets more headlines, and probablY
and you will develop a race that is pitifully vulnerable to always will, is that wars still are won-fin ally-by sol.
disease. Some day pestilence will find a foothold in this diers with their feet on the ground, who take and
throng of weaklings and mow them down. Then, in the hold territory. No military invention, however ingenious.
absence of law to prevent the reproduction of the incompe- can ever take the place of soldiers. When the line does
tent, the so called "backward races" will inherit the earth. not hold or when an expected advance does not material.
"Human progress is only an illusion," the most ex- ize, the failure can be traced to human beings. Modern
treme iconoclasts continue. "What we have attained is equipment is necessary to win a moderate engagement.
only a surface glitter. The experience of countless men but there must be men of stamina there who know how to
who have lived and died before us has taught us nothing use it to fullest advantage.
really fundamental. In that sense, all men have died in Turning to peaceful pursuits we find a comparable
. "
vaIn. situation. It is generally in our failure to make best us.e
Without tracing in detail these complaints against of scientific and technological advances that the fault ulti-
the contributions of those who believe in themselves and mately lies if such advances leave us disappointed. A~\'
do things, the fact exists that the temporaty upsets that conceivable forward step in peaceful knowledge and skill
come incidentally with the advancement of experience is a good thing if we know how to apply it rightly, and
and knowledge are offset in the long run by wider knowl- if we acquire the knowledge and skills that should come
edge itself. Granting even the doubtful premise that pro- with it to defend ourselves against its doubtful by-
tective medicine will leave us open to fatal attacks by epi- products.
demic disease, it must also be apparent that the increased Our civilization is not in reverse, nor do we need to
skill of medicine provides new ways of fighting them. turn to a new direction to assure its future progress. What
When they hear these predictions of woe, military men is demanded is more of the well placed self confid~~ce.
can think of a comparison in their own field. For years we the concentrated energy, fortitude, flashes of VISiOn.
heard the forecast that the mechanisms of destruction had humor, and realistic doubting of dreams, already men-
reached such perfection that anothe war would kill tioned. We need a large proportion of readiness to do the
job that is in front of us, the capacity to face unadorned vances. We cannot disavow the lessons of the past while
facts; and less talk based on romanticism and abstract we look toward the future, a tendency never yet success-
theon'. If we apply those qualities in full measure, the fuL Men have given their lives fo~ the liberty repre-
expeiience and achievements of all the men who have sented in the various republics. Men have lived their
died before our day and the work of the men who are lives-and sometimes sacrificed them-in bringing us
strivinu in the present can be put to their fullest use. from the perilous existence of the jungle prowler, looking
A b~lief of individuals in their own abilities and their merely for food and shelter, to our present wider outlook
own responsibilities, and a critical appraisal of alluring and greater safety and comfort.
theories, would counteract the trend toward trust in dicta- Paths ahead will be opened by men unwilling to barter
tors that has left only a few republics on earth. The citi- the possibilities of days to come for the false promise of
zens of the regimented nations should have realized present security held out by totalitarian states, whose rest-
before they submitted to the loss of their freedom that less dream is based upon the denial of all conclusions of
the solution of economic maladjustment cannot come from their predecessors.
magic governmental formulas.
History along environmental frontiers will continue
In the great republics like ours the characteristics that
to be made by those with enough sense of reality to reject
make for real advances remain unfettered. They still have
a ringing catchword, and enough sense of humor to laugh
a free press, scientific research that is free from racial
at it, while they hold a threatened strategic line or advance
prejudice or political hindrance, and greater freedom in to anew one.
business opportunity than exists in other parts of the
The heroes of the push beyond existing boundaries of
world. Our own nation has set an example in developing
environment and thought will not be led into the illusions
radio, the most modern means of mass information, as an
that come with thinking of themselves as heroes of an
independent enterprise, thus far unmenaced by govern-
impossible, mythical "new dawn." Backing up their
ment ownership. The greatest hope of future conquests
occasional flashes of vision of the romance and ultimate
in the region beyond the present frontiers of general
knowledge, science, and technology seems to me to exist purpose of their work will be a willingness and prepared-
in the remaining democracies. ness to meet situations as they rise. They will be men of
To lead the march beyond existing environmental boun- stamina with their feet on the ground-the type that has
daries, the citizens of these countries must hold to the met the test in all ages on all battle lines, symbolic as
virtues that have formed the background of previous ad- well as physical.


13-15-mm. 20-25-mm. 37-40-mm.
Vickers Hotchkiss Madsen Bofors Solothurn Schneider Vickers Bofors
Caliber .................... 12.7 13.2 20.1 25 37 37 40 40 mm.
.. 1 ve 1OClty . ............. 910 800 885 900 840 900 750 900 m/s.
Projectile weight ............ 44.7 52 112 250 625 800 900 955 g.
Effective range .............. 1,500 1,500 2,500 2,500 3,200 4,300 4,300 4,700 m.
Maximum rate of fire ........ 400 400 360 180 150 180 200 120 per/min.
Practical rate of fire ......... 200 200 250 160 110 120 120 100 per/min.
Weight in firing position ...... 283 200 480 1,020 1,700 1,200 1,632 2,000 kg.
! eight in travelling position .. 350 250 700 1,020 2,400 1,675 1,962 2,000 kg.
By .
Alajo'l t!flnfl'lall!fllnJ' t!tuJfI'llan, German Army"

* Cooperation Between Armored Forces and Other Arms ~

INFANTRY are suited for habitual cooperation with tanks. On this

In the matter of cooperation between mechanized forces point the German training regulations state:
and other arms there exist two directly opposing views. The commander must synchronize tank operations and
The advocates of one contend that the infantry is the their support by the other arms. \Vithin the tank zone of
principal arm, and that all others merely exist to serve it. attack the action of the other arms depends upon that of the
They believe that the tank must move no faster than the tanks.
foot soldier. In a sense it should constitute a moving shield The British regulations say, in substance:
for the infantryman who is unable The conception that armored cars must
to attack in the face of hostile ma- always operate in close liaison with cav.
chine-gun fire without this protec- airy or infantry is obsolete; armored cars
tion. The inherent speed of the tank
.. lan!cj cannot ta!c~ are weapons of opportunity. They can
exploit their inherent strength best at the
is not to be exploited For the sake
of the infantry, the adherents of this c>v~t tlz~ .!Jnbantt'f.j time and place and with the combat
methods that best suit their character.
conception are willing to accept the IS tics.

considerable tank losses which these to/~ In com6at The British point Out that the
tactics make inevitable. Thev take direction of an attack is selected with
little account of the strategic 'poten- regard to its tactical results, regard.
tialities of a speedy armored force. The protagonists of less of whether or not it runs parallel to that of the infan-
the other school look far in the future. They are not try. The German regulations say much the S;lI11ething in
much inclined to cooperation with other arms. They pre- a different way:
fer to combine the armored forces in purely mechanized The ground is of decisive importance [for the direction
units and use them primarily against the enemy's flanks of the attack]. Close contact with the infantry will depnve
and rear, or on large-scale raids that reach far into hostile the tanks of their advantage in speed and possibly sacrifice
territory. By taking the defense by surprise they would them to the hostile defense.
overcome road obstructions, difficulties of the terrain, and Of late there has been a return to the conceptions that
fortifications. They expect this method of employing the prevailed during and shortly after the World War. In
mechanized arm to decide the war. Great Britain, the maneuvers of 1935 were marked by
In point of fact, various unresolved technical difficulties close teamwork between tanks and infantry. The rank
handicap this adventurous conception to such an extent brigade was divided and a tank battalion attached to cae?
that, for the time being, it is better to compromise between infantry division, despite the fact that the British tank IS
these two schools of thought. Therefore, we seek a solu- not ideal for joint action with infantry. The British ve.
tion that will permit the mechanized force to support the hicles, on the whole, are too speedy and too large, and
other arms, and at the same time take full advantage of their armor is too weak for this purpose. Tank units larp~r
its strategic and tactical potentialities. Above all, we than the battalion were not used. Because of this diVI-
must be careful not to hamper the development of the sion of strength, the effect of the tank was neglig!~Ie.
mechanized arm by adopting a rigid and inflexible organi- Nor did the motorized infantry brigade play a deCISive
zation or by saddling it with obsolete tactical conceptions. part in these maneuvers, for it operated in close contact
Cooperation is necessary for, like any other arm, the with the foot troops.
tank is incapable of solving all combat problems by itself.
The British explain this return to Vi orld \Var tactics
This necessity for cooperation imposes certain obligations
by claiming that the introduction of a heavily armored.
both upon the armored forces and the other arms. These
low-speed accompanying tank would materially red~ce
obligations are especially binding upon the arms which
the disadvantages cited and permit close cooperation WIth
'"Translated from the German by Fred 'V. Merten. the infantry. However, in order to be proof against the
mtnimum caliber (25-mm.) antitank gun, armor must the technical development of the tank as of the final phase
exceed a thickness of 30 mm. The weight of such armor of the World War. For instance, light tanks are given a
would require a much bigger power plant, hence a much maximum speed of 7 km.p.h.; a combat speed ob km.p.h;
brger tank. And the cost of producing such tanks in large and an average speed on tracks of 3.5 km.p.h. In other
numbers would be tremendous. Yet only a large number words, the regulations treating of cooperation between
could effectively support infantry. infantry and tanks refer to an old equipment whose speed
But even disregarding the cost, there are important in combat is no greater than that of the infantry.
strategic and tactical objections to the organization of The French call for close teamwork between the two
separate low-spee? tank units for ~he infantry. The tank arms and make it a rule to subordinate the tank units to
units that are deSigned for strategic purposes may also be the infantry. Infantry and tanks both are assigned the same
used tactically, either as entire units or divided. On the objectives. The tanks are to withdraw rather than to ad-
other hand, it would be impracticable to combine the divi- vance independently beyond the objectives of the infantry.
siontank battalions for strategic employment. Aside from As a rule, the attack of an infantry company is to be sup-
the fact that their equipment is not suitable for missions ported by a platoon of tanks, that of a battalion by a com-
of this kind, the combined force would lack the requisite pany of tanks.
headquarters and could not produce them at will. The The principles governing the employment of the mod-
O'reaterthe speed of an arm on the march and in combat, ern French tanks have not yet been released. According to
~hemore important that it and its commanders be trained a number of statements published in the French press, the
in units that are organized in peace the same as they would modern French tank is more heavily armored, carries more
be in war. In this respect, we have a valuable lesson in the powerful guns and is a good deal faster than its W orid
misfortunes suffered by the German cavalry in 1914 as a War forerunner. Discussions of the new Tank D in cur-
result of untrained staffs, poor communications, inade- rent publications indicate that, despite these technical im-
quate equipment, and faulty march technique on the part provements, the French continue to rely mainly on close
of large units: all of this can be attributed to its pre-war cooperation between tanks, infantry, and artillery. This
organization. With the exception of the Guard Cavalry conception, however, is not without opponents, even in
Division, the cavalry was parceled out to the infantry di- France. For instance, Colonel de Gaulle in his book Vers
visionsby brigades-a peacetime practice that had an un- I'Armee de MCtier has this to say:
favorable influence on the early operations of the large The tanks, usually divided into three waves, form for at-
cavalry units. This error should not be repeated with our tack a favorable distance to the rear. The first wave is made
armored forces. Slow infantry tanks, even though their up of light tanks whose mission it is to establish contact with
the enemy. The second or combat wave is composed of the
armorbe reinforced, will be unable to execute their mission mediums and heavies.... Finally, comes the reserve wave
in infantry combat if speedier hostile tanks are encount- which is designed to relieve the forward waves or to exploit
ered. The slow tanks have no chance against a similarly their gains.... Leaving the line of departure at a high rate
armed opponent of greater speed. In this connection, of speed, the light tanks make the initial attack. Then, organ-
Major General J. F. C. Fuller says: ized in large groups, the combat wave enters the battle ....
The direction of attack will usually be oblique to the hostile
... infantry cannot under their own fire attack infantry front, so that resistance may be taken in flank. The advance
equipped with magazine rifles and machine guns .... They must not be unduly delayed by the time-killing task of clear-
can do so only when supported by a dense shell bartage or ing the zone of attack. ... In other words, the forward waves
when led forward by tanks, in which case they are but a drag must merely clear a passage for themselves and then push on
on the free movement of these machines. To give them to their objectives as rapidly as possible. As soon as the tank
special tanks for this purpose is merely to restrict the value attack shows results, the infantry, too, will gain ground. The
of these weapons ... (The Army In My Time). infantry may advance either by cross-country vehicles or on
In an article published in The Army, Navy & Air Force foot. Its mission is to occupy the ground that the tanks have
Gazette of September 26, 1935, General Fuller says: seized. In many cases, it may be necessary for the infantry to
wipe out the final vestiges of resistance; to do this, it will have
Even if the frontal attack is persisted in, and even if infan- to put its accompanying guns into action.
try are to continue to assault-seeing that most enemies we
shall meet in the next war will possess three to four times the Modern tank forces must not be developed merely with
number of machine guns they did in 1918; will have an artil- the object of using them in direct support of the slow,
lery designed and trained in antitank tactics; and will be labotious attack of the infantry. On the contrary, there
equipped with fast-moving tanks (the most effective of anti-
tank weapons)-is it sane to suppose that in this war a slow
must be tests to see whether it is possible to utilize the
machine will be superior, even as a protective weapon to in- characteristics of the tank more fully, so that its effect
fantry, to a fast machine? It will have more machine guns may be more beneficial to operations as a whole. Several
to destroy and more antitank projectiles fired at it, and if at- countries, for instance, are conducting expetiments to
tacked by fast-moving tanks it will be bunkered. discover ways and means of increasing the infantry's bat-
Although certain British views lean toward independent tlefield mobility, thus enabling it to keep up with a
employment of tank forces, the French continue to demand faster tank attack. There are several methods of accom-
closest cooperation between infantry and tanks. The plishing this. One is to issue the soldier a lighter-weight
latest edition of Reglement d'Infanterie, Deuxi'eme Partie uniform and to remove his pack. Another is to motorize
(Combat), I935, cites tank figures that are based upon those rifle units designed for permanent cooperation with
tanks. This method has already materialized in France in barrage, but today the high rate of speed of a tank attack
the form of the dragons portees. The dragons portees are prohibits this method of support.
largely equipped with Citroen-Kegresse cars-half-track When tank units attack as part of an army, the division
vehicles of considerable cross-country ability. A number artillery assists mainly by firing a preparation; in this it
of these are now protected by light armor, proof against must put forth its utmost effort. The shorter the artillery
small arms. preparation, the more effective. If enough artillery is n~t
Cooperation between tanks and infantry may be carried available in the zone of attack, and if the concentration
out in a number of ways: of adequate artillery and ammunition is so conspicuous
( I) The tanks attack in advance of the infantry. The and involves so much time as to render a surprise effect
infantry follows, taking advantage of the neutralizing doubtful, it is advisable to dispense entirely with the
effect of the tank attack upon the hostile infantry and ma- preparation. In event of this the artillery will be charged
chine guns. The infantry supports the tanks by assaulting with guarding the tanks and firing on any targets that
positions known or suspected of harboring hostile anti- might endanger their attack.
tank guns. This situation will occur if the attacking As a rule, the artillery must shift its fire out of the
~orc.ehas to cross large, exposed areas in gaining its ob- zone of attack simultaneously with the opening of the
JectIve. tank assault. It may then box off the Ranks of the zone of
(2) The tanks attack simultaneously with the infantry. attack, shell suspected antitank positions, or engage locali-
In this case, the infantry supports the attack in the same ties unsuitable for tank attack, such as woods and steep
manner as above. This method is suitable if the enemy is slopes. These tasks may be carried out partly with high
close and the terrain favorable for the attack. explosive shell and pattly with smoke projectiles. While
this requires great attention and expert fire control, it is
(3) The inhntry attacks in advance of the tanks. In
facilitated by modern means of communication, especially
this case, the infantry must be initially supported by
other arms, especially by artillery and combat engineers.
This type of support does not reach very deep into
This method should be used if obstacles, such as rivers
the hostile zone of action. Furthermore, it is impossible
or blocked roads, prevent the immediate employment of
for the artillery observation posts to keep up with the rapid
tanks, and if bridge-heads or passages must first be es-
development of the tank attack. And, finally, an aggres-
sive artillery would not be content to see itself limited to
(4) The tanks, jumping off from a different zone, such a small battle role. Actually it is the aim of the
attack obliquely to the direction of attack of the infantry. artillery of all armies to participate in the tank attack and,
This method is contingent upon a suitable terrain. with this end in view, to motorize its components. Motor-
In crossing the hostile zone' of combat, the tanks must ized artillery may be either motor-drawn or self-propelled.
dear a path for the infantry by destroying recognized Drawn artillery has been the rule so far. Its advantage
targets-primarily antitank guns, heavy arms and ma- lies in the divisibility of gun and tractor; the tractor can
chine guns-and neutralizing suspected localities. Merely be easily exchanged and does not have to be taken into
to push through the hostile combat zone with the idea the firing position. The question of weight is of little con-
of shattering the enemy's morale is not enough; the tanks sequence in motor-drawn artillery.
must break the enemy's strength by the full use of their The self-propelled mount is something new; it possesses
weapons and open a gap in the hostile defense system. the advantage of constant readiness for fire, combi~ed
Rarely, if ever, will the tank attack completely wipe with constant readiness to move. It gives a great radIUS
out the resistance of the hostile infantry. Individual ma- to the individual gun and to the entire battery. It also h~s
chine guns will remain undiscovered or come to life again. a certain degree of armor protection. Self-propelled a~ll-
Tanks can materially facilitate infantry action and, in lery seems to be a desirable companion of tank ~n1ts.
many cases, will be indispensable in preparing the in- Great Britain has employed several types of this artillery
fantry attack, but they cannot take over the infantry's role for some time, and both the United States and the
in combat. The infantry's job lies in an immediate ex- U.S.S.R. are experimenting with it.
ploitation of the tank attack by a rapid advance. Nor As to the tactics employed by this artillery, Colonel
does the foot soldier pause until the ground seized by the de Gauille says: ..
tanks is definitely cleared of the enemy. The rapid development of combat will not permit an:lIery
While advancing with tanks, the infantry must main- to carry out missions in the manner customarily establtsh~
for the opening of an attack. It cannot be assigned defirutt
tain formations that permit it to move rapidly, and must zones of fire as in position warfare; not can its firing data be
display signs that will enable the tanks to identify it as prepared with mathematical accuracy. On the contrary, as soon
friendly infantry, especially in twilight and fog. as the hostile position is taken, the artillery fire must keep
up with the rapid development of events. In other words, ~
ARTILLERY artillery must tread closely upon the heels of the attacki;ng
elements not only with its guns and combat trains but wJlh
Ar.mored forces have also created new tasks for the its observation and communications sections as well. Thus. the
artillery. In the World War, for example, it was practi- artillery itself becomes a masse mouvante whose comr.Jllen~
cable and advisable to cover a tank attack by an artillery on their own initiative, select the most favorable poSlOOUS III
accordance with the needs of the situation and deliver their ~arshes an~ soft ~ound, and in removing obstacles, par-
fire from all angles on the most fleeting of targets. When it is ticularly mmes. 1vfmortasks of this nature may be carned
equipped with antitank weapons and machine guns the artil-
out by the regimental pioneer sections, but major obstacles
lery can protect itself. It compensates for lack of established
position, inability to deliver indirect fire, and the loss of uni- will usually require entire units of specially trained and
fonn fire control by its mobility, direct observation and in- specially equipped combat engineers.
herent independence. Several countries, notably Great Britain and the U.S.
In this description Colonel de Gaulle gives his idea of 5.R., have produced amphibious tanks that have proved
an ideal artillery. He calls upon it to discard habits ac- highly satisfactory for crossing unfordable streams. It is
quired in a long war of position, with its reliable firing to be assumed that these will be used for reconnaissance
bases, its careful, studied survey methods and its abund- and for the establishment of bridge-heads.
ance of time, in order to be capable of speedily following Bridging material must possess a high carrying capacity
the tank attack. because of the tremendous weights it is to support. On the
CHEMICALS other hand, bridges designed only for the accommodation
Smoke screens are becoming more and more important of tanks do not require full decks.
as an adjunct to the tank attack. Three main forms of Engineer units must be specially trained to recognize
employment can be recognized: (I) smoke projectiles obstacles and schooled in ways and means of removing
fired by artillery in position during the preparation and them. Particular emphasis should be placed on the removal
at the beginning of the tank attack; (2) smoke projectiles of mine barriers.
fired by self-propelled artillery accompanying the tank at- Where engineers work in cooperation with tanks their
tack; and (3) smoke produced by the tanks themselves. jobs will ordinarily have to be accomplished in great
There is nothing new about the first method. It is used haste and in sight of the enemy. If they are to reach their
to blind enemy observation. So, too, screens are laid down place of activity and be effective, they must be protected
between the advancing tanks and localities suspected of by tanks. Some countries, especially Great Britain, have
harboring enemy troops or antitank guns. This enables introduced bridge-carrier tanks and mine-sweeper tanks
the tanks to approach the enemy unobserved or outflank and placed them at the disposal of engineer units designed
and invest him without drawing fire. Smoke may also for cooperation with tanks.
be used for purposes of deception. J
Combat engineers will find another field of activity in
When smoke is fired by self-propelled artillery accom- operations against hostile field fortifications. A tank attack
panying the tanks, the fire is executed by platoons or bat- on field fortifications can be successful only if the size
teries. These guns travel immediately in rear of the for- and strength of the obstacles do not exceed the capacity
ward tank waves and seek to blind any antitank guns that of the tanks. Whatever the obstacle, both the heavy and
put in their appearance. Smoke projectiles are fired by medium tanks are capable machines. For instance, the
trench mortars or by guns of lOs-mm. caliber or larger. French heavy tank can negotiate a 13-foot trench; a
In England, light, medium and "close-support" tanks slope of 4S 0; a vertical wall of 6 feet; a stream 7 feet
are combined into companies with the object of assuring wide; and trees up to 3 feet in diameter. If the tanks
teamwork between tanks and accorr,panying artillery. are unable to negotiate the obstacles, the engineers must
Originally great results were expected from the m~thod go into action. Frequently they will be employed in
of tanks concealing themselves by self-produced smoke. advance as a precautionary measure. During the World
It. was soon found, however, that ewing to the con- War special anchors were constructed for the removal
spicuousness of its source, the smoke tends to reveal the of wire entanglements, and fascines were carried along
position or course of the tanks. The tanks travel either to be used in crossing trenches. There will be frequent
within the smoke, or-still worse-are clearly outlined by calls for demolitions and excavations for the purpose of
the screen they have just laid. Therefore, it is only under overcoming obstacles or enabling stalled vehicles to move
the most fav~rable weather conditions that this "method on.
can be used in the attack. On the other hand, it may All of these tasks require training which in many
serveto facilitate a withdrawal. respects goes far beyond the former sphere of action of the
T~nk crews are relatively immune to ~as. This applies engineer soldier. Therefore, cooperation between tanks
particularly to corrosive gases used in the contamination and engineers will be most successful if the latter are
of an area. Protection is furnished either by the gas mask familiar with the characteristics of the tank and possess the
or by the over-pressure maintained in the interior of the requisite equipment. Irrespective of this requirement,
~nk. Some countries are trying to make tanks that are however, the entire corps of engineers must train for co-
Inherently gas-proof; others are experimenting with filters op~ration with tanks in offensive as well as in defensive
to p.urify th~ incoming air. The U.S.S.R. mentions tanks actton.
~ulpped With a gas-blower apparatus. SIGNAL CORPS
The width and depth of tank units and their motorized
ENGINEERS support weapons on the march and in combat, the dust
The tanks have given the combat engineer some knottY douds raised by them, smoke, fog, and rough or covered
problemsto solve, especially in getting them over stream;, ground, prohibit the use of visual signals in controlling
units larger than a company. The swift maneuvers over sages either by radio or motor vehicle. At present the
wide areas, which the tanks must execute even in combat, demand for speed is best met by wheeled vehicles al-
make it impracticable to employ the field telephone except though their cross-country performance is inferior to 'that
in quiet periods and during approach marches behind the of track-laying types. Of course, wheeled vehicles are
front. Therefore we find that all command tanks carry more sensitive to obstacles.
radi? transmitters and even the light tanks carry radio Combat aviation can lend considerable support to a tank
reCeivers. atta~k. As early as August 8, 1918, British airplanes e£-
Signal troops designated for cooperation with tanks fectlvely supported the advance of tanks by bombing and
will therefore consist primarily of radio elements. Their machine-gunning Ge:man batteries, re~erves and troop
task is to maintain communication from the commander columns. Today, owmg to the great Improvements in
of the tank unit down to the regiments and independent antita~k defense and to the mobility of the enemy's
detachments, with adjoining troops, with the air service motonzed and armored reserves, the employment of air
and, in certain cases, with the next higher commander in forces against ground targets becomes increasingly im-
the rear. Abbreviated codes and special signals must be p0rtant. By attacking such targets as mentioned and
used in order to assure the speedy delivery of messages lines of communication, known locations of troops and
and orders. To this end, signal detachments permanently headquarters, air forces will render it practicable for the
assigned to tank units must receive special equipment ground attack to speedily penetrate the hostile zone of
and training. defense. Particular pains must be taken however, to syn-
Maneuver being rapid and it being necessary for the chronize the actions of the two arms both in time and
commander of a tank unit to be at the head of his com- space.
mand, only armored signal vehicles that possess a high The U.S.S.R. is working toward a still closer teamwork
mobility and full cross-country ability can meet his between air and ground forces, specifically the landing of
demands. AIR CORPS infantry contingents by parachute. Landed in proper
time, parachute troops may seize vital points in rear of the
Information is valueless unless it be delivered to the hostile front and then establish points of support and sup- .
commander in time for him to act on it. This means that ply bases to assist the break-through by the tanks. Para-.
reconnaissance elements must be speedier than the troops chute troops working in cooperation with tanks may seri-
following them and must possess highly effective means ously damage and interfere with the hostile services of
of communication. These two basic requirements throw supply
into sharp relief the difficulties that beset tactical and com- ANTIAIRCRAFT
bat reconnaissance for speedy tank forces. Since tanks will quickly attract the attention of hostile
Aerial reconnaissance promises the best results. As early aviation, an antiaircraft defense must be provided. Tanks.
as the World War, the British High Command perma- can contribute substantially to this defense by an intelli-
nently assigned aviation to the Royal Tank Corps with gent use of their own weapons and by skillful camouflage.
good results. Air reconnaissance personally conducted by Though the danger is not to be minimized, only direct or
the commander of the tank forces before going into action very dose hits will destroy the modern tank and this is
may be of material advantage. not an easy thing to do when the tank is in motion. On
The reconnaissance aviator receives his instructions be- the other hand, an air attack that catches the tanks at
fore taking off; supplementary orders or changes may be rest with their crews dismounted ot-worse yet-while
transmitted by radio or pick-up. He q:p0rts either upon fueling, strikes them where they are most vulnerable.
arrival at his landing field, or by radio or dropped mes- Since most of the support weapons of tanks are not
sages. Of course, it must not be forgotten that the aviator armor-protected, separate antiaircraft weapons must. be
cannot maintain continuous contact with the enemy, and furnished them. This applies also to all combat trams.
that his ability to observe still depends on weather con-
ditions. SUPPLY
To allow for the high rate of speed of the tank unit, The supply problem is the ball-and-chain of the tank
instructions must be issued carefully before the move- commander. The more far-reaching the plan of ta~
ments begin. The reconnaissance air forces must be ac- employment, the more vital and the more d.ifficult.thIS
quainted with the plan of attack and, if possible, with problem becomes. Tank units cannot fight mdefinltely
the general course to be followed by the tank unit. Above without drawing ammunition, rations and fuel, nor can
all, they must be able to distinguish between friendly and they stay in action without medical service, repair shops,
hostile tanks. Even with this information, the aviator and replacements. It is of paramount importance that
may encounter difficulty in locating the tanks and estab- fuel and ammunition be supplied in proper time ..
lishing communication. He communicates by radio, by When operating as part of an army, tanks are supph~
dropped messages, or by landing in the zone of action. by the army; when operating independently, they requue
Training should be conducted in all three methods. a separate service of supply and a mobile base of ope~
Air reconnaissance must be supplemented by a fast, tions. And in this connection, it should be remembe
strong, ground reconnaissance force which relays its mes- that tank units will operate independently as soon as the
desired penetration is accomplished, and particularly, (3) The older arms cannot repulse the attack of
during an envelopment or investment of the hostile front. strong armored forces. Even a large number of antitank
Since a large part of the supply vehicles are unarmored, guns cannot strengthen the defense enough to frustrate
they require covering elements as soon as they enter the surprise attacks by large bodies of tanks. An attack of this
zo~e of hostile fire. Furthermore, since supply trains kind must be met by tanks.
offer a prime target for the enemy's armored attack, the (4) On the other hand, the increasing effectiveness of
attached coveting elements must have a liberal allotment the antitank defense calls for the utmost concentration of
of antitank weapons. On occasion it may even be neces- force on the part of the mechanized arm if decisive results
sary to withdraw armored cars or tanks from the front and are to be obtained. In order to be decisive; a tank attack
assign them a protective role with the trains. must be launched on a wide front; this is to prevent the
enemy from striking the spearhead of the attack in flank.
* * * The attacking forces must be organized in considerable
CONCLUSIONS depth in order to secure their flanks, effect a deep penetra-
Since the mechanized arm, its supplementary weapons, tion, and roll up the flanks thus created. To be decisive,
and its various counter-agents are still in a state of devel- an attack must cover much wider zones than can be occu-
opment, no final answers can be given to the problem of pied by a brigade. In 1917' at Cambrai, three brigades,
cooperation between armored forces and other arms. And each three battalions strong, fought in a zone 6 miles wide
vet, there are certain conclusions which may be drawn without any organization in depth. In 1918, at Soissons,
from the evolution of the mechanized arm to date. 16 battalions attacked in two waveS-12 battalions in the
First, there are a number of fundamental elements first, 4 in the second-on a 12-mile front. In 1918, at
which determine the construction, organization, training Amiens, 14 British and French battalions (two battalions
and employment of armored forces. These are: and several cavalry corps were combined in the second
(I) The materiel on hand and its past performances. wave) attacked in a zone about 11 miles wide. The widths
of the zones of attack employed in major operations during
(2) The domestic facilities for the manufacture of
the last year of the W orId War must now be regarded as
mechanized weapons.
minimum in view of the defensive powers of modern ar-
(3) The maintenance and supply facilities, particularly mor-piercing weapons and armored forces. In the future,
with regard to fuel. many times the number of tanks that fought in 1918 will
(4) The effect of the weapons fired from and against take part in battle.
tanks, as determined by experience gathered on proving (5) The tank attack must be carried out with the ut-
grounds. most speed in order to take advantage of the surprise ef-
(5) The organization of the command, a5 determined fect. It must drive deep into the hostile front, prevent the
by maneuver experience. reserves from going into action, and convert tactical gains
(6) The order of battle. into strategic ones. In other words, speed is the main
(7) The nature of prospective theaters of operations. requirement of armored forces. As the great Frederick
said, "The faster the attack, the fewer men it costs. By
(8) The armament of prospective opponents.
making your battle short, you will deprive it of the time
Although the various nations follow different routes in to rob you of many men. The soldier who is led in this
their development of the mechanized arm, they all move manner will gain confidence in you and expose himself
in a more or less common direction. This general trend gladly to all dangers." The swift execution of the tank
can be summarized somewhat like this: attack being of decisive importance, the auxiliary weap-
(I) The importance of aviation is incontrovertibly ons of tank units must be as fast as the tanks themselves.
established, and is admitted even by those who refuse, in Auxiliary weapons designed for cooperation with tanks
general, to accept the doctrines of the Italian General should be combined with them into permanent units com-
Douhet. The air forces require the support of a partner prising all modern arms. This should not be construed as
on the ground who is in a position to supplement and meaning that the whole army must be motorized. Never-
exploit the results gained by aerial reconnaissance and theless, it must be emphasized that armored forces with-
combat. This partner must be speedy, aggressive, and out speedy auxiliary weapons are incomplete and will not
strong . be able to realize their maximum potentialities.
. (2) The older arms lack the penetrative power, mobil- (6) Even in earliest times, armies included slow in-
~ty and speed to carry the attack so rapidly and deeply fantry and more mobile units such as chariots, elephants
mto the hostile front that the enemy will not have time and horsemen. The numerical relationship between the
to take counter-measures. On the one hand, the defensive two arms varied according to the ideas of the commander,
power of modern firearms, and on the other, the speed the ability of the arms, the technique of the weapons and
1Vi~ which motorized reserves may be shifted to critical the object of the war. In periods of indecisive position
~ts, prevent the older arms from decisively eXploiting warfare, the armies had to be content with a few mobile
gams. If the defense has motorized reserves at its disposal units. As a rule, such times indicate a decadence in the
the attack must also have motorized forces, and vice versa. art of war. Nobody desires them, but since nobody can
468 THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL f{ovenzber-l)ecenlber

predict them, they cannot be provided for. Great generals General von Seydlitz. As a rule, improvisations of mobile
have always aimed at decisive warfare which is another units and their commands have proved of little value.
way of saying mobile warfare. To that end they have seen Therefore, in the future, mobile forces should have a uni-
to it that the strength of their fast troops compared fav- form command even in time of peace and should be
orably with that of their slower ones. Alexander, at the formed in large units. The leaders of those forces will do
outset of the war against Persia, commanded 32,000 foot- well to recall the trenchant expression of Frederick the
soldiers and 10,000 horsemen. Hannibal, at Canna':, had Great: "Be active and indefatigable; cast off all indolence
40,000 dismounted and 10,000 mounted troops; Frederick of body and mind."
the Great, at Rossbach, went into action with 27 infantry
battalions and 45 cavalry squadrons. These few figures
* * *
It was my intention not to stray beyond the limits of
indicate that the great leaders maintained mobile elements the technical possibilities of today. Yet I could not deny
comprising one-fourth to one-sixth of their entire strength. myself the right to study new methods of employme~t
Similarly, modern mobile units can be of decisive value for new weapons. There will always be men eager to
only if their strength is in due proportion to that of the voice misgivings, but only he who dares to reach into the
whole army. unknown will be successful. The man who has been
As early as his campaign in Spain, Hannibal entrusted active will be more leniently judged by the future.
his gifted brother Hasdrubal with the training and com- "Until then, we, whose fate is spun without our being
mand of the mass of his cavalry. At Rossbach, Frederick conscious of it, are left to our own determination and
placed 38 of his 45 cavalry squadrons under the brilliant courage and are consigned to the voice of our inspiration."

THERE ARE VERY FEW good generals, because most of them see too much: either too
much danger or else too much success. Usually they lack a sober recognition of the
attainable. It is easy to issue orders for an "annihilation," but the question remains
whether or not it is possible. Next to a will for victory, the first and natural quality
a good general must possess is a sense for actualities-otherwise he is nothing but a
visionary. His other qualities must be courage and an ability to accept responsibility
to God and man, high and low, because a general is also responsible to those below
him and not only to his lVar Lord.-LuDENDORFF TO VON WENNINGER.

"There is required for the composition of a great com- boyhood da;'s. In 1844 :1t the :1ge of eleven, Schlieffen :1nd
mander, not only massive common sense and reasoning his comrades at Nieskv reen:1cted the b:1ttle of Kulm.
power, not only imagination, but also an element of leger- Glowing with pride h~ wrote to his mother: "Not till
demtlin, an original and sinister touch which leaves the we Prussi:1ns :1rrived did we deliver the fin:11battle." For
enemy puzzled as well as beaten.n-CHURCHILL. the rest, he impressed his teachers :1Shaving a keen but
lazy mind and marked talents for self-expression. He was
THE A~vlERICAN officer who is forced to acquire his painfully depressed by the political squ:1bbles in Prussia
military experience through study and maneuvers can find from 1848 to 1850' and he abandoned the idea of a career
instruction and inspiration in the career of Count Alfred at law for that of the army. This was done with some
\'on Schlieffen. Although he rose to prominence :1t a time rductance, for he feared that his faulty vision would hin-
when the Prussian army marched from victory to victory, der his chances for adnncement. Once having committed
Schlieffen's experience in combat was extremely limited. himself, however, his application to military study was
He never led a comp:1ny in action, never commanded :1 intense. He bec:1me a profound student of Hannibal,
brigade or a division in war, never conducted a single Frederick the Gre:1t, and Napoleon.
campaign. Yet his position among the military great of A term :1tthe Kriegsakademie prep:1red him for a minor
the twentieth century is secure. Handicapped in his early staff appointment. This caused him to be occupied with
years by bad eyesight and a shy, hesitant manner, he :1 map-making project while the Austro-Prussian armies
ultimately came to dominate struck down Denmark in
the thought of the great Ger- 1864. His letters show how
man general staff. Luden- eagerly he followed the events
dorff held Schlieffen to be of this camp:1ign, and how he
"one of the greatest soldiers chafed at the slow and costly
who ever lived." In his strug- frontal att:1cks of the German
gle against adversity and ob- allies.
livion, intellect and character
The idea of deep flank at-
were his sole weapons. t:1cks already dominated his
Schlieffen was born in Ber- mind. He saw action in 1866
lin on February 28, 1833, of at Sadowa as a member of the
a Pommeranian family which staff of Prince Albrecht's cav-
had .already distinguished it- alry corps, but his activity
self 111 the service of Prussia. was limited to carrying dis-
He was educated at the school
patches and participating in a
for the Moravian Brethren at
cavalry skirmish. For a few
Niesky, at the Joachimstahl
years prior to 1870' he served
gymnasium, and the Univer- as an assistant to Count Wal-
~ty of Berlin. Despite exist- dersee, the military attache in
Ing legends to the contrary, Paris.
~e s~owed few military traits When the long-expected
1I1 his youth; but an intense
war with France came in
p~t~iodsm and a keen appre-
1870' Schlieffen, much to his
Qatlo? of the greatness of Common Jense, reasoning pou'er, dismay, was detailed to guard
Prussia mark the letters of his and a s;ll;ster touch.
the coast at Hamburg. While
the German armies were making history at Spicheren, St. made him the logical successor to Waldersee as chief of
Privat-Gravelotte, and Mars-la-Tour, he fretted on the staff in r~l.
shore of the North Sea waiting for a French landing force ,He was now at the ~ummit of his powers. Self-po~d,
which never came. Released late in 1870, he took part in arIstocratic, and soldIerly, he appeared to combine the
the Loire winter campaign on the staff of Grand Duke qualities of a guard officer and a philosopher. No one on
Frederick Francis of Mecklenburg. the staff was left in doubt about the standard of work he
Here again bad luck dogged him. He happened to be required. Woe to the stuffed shirt or dilettante who tried
present when the Grand Duke's chief of staff, General to "get by" Schlieffen with a superficial knowledge of the
Krenski, made certain stupid decisions. Being new at his work at hand! Officers left his room breathless from his
post, and naturally tactful and diffident, Schlieffen did not reprimands. "Colonel, you made the same mistake two
question the decisions of his superior. Greatly angered, years ago," he might say. He would listen to a report with
Moltke immediately replaced Krenski, and although he half:-<=losedeyes, playing with a paper knife ..At the slight-
left Schlieffen at his post, he repeatedly showed his dis- est maccuracy; he would rasp out a correctIon and prove
trust of the young officer. At the end of the war Moltke the officer wrong on the spot. The range of his precise
reported that Schlieffen would probably make a gallant knowledge was disconcerting. He could speak with au-
commander in the field, but that he did not have the thority on the characteristics of French mountain artillery,
character and self-assurance required of a staff officer. It on the formation of a Russian infantry division, on the
was typical of Moltke's greatness that he later reversed training of the Italian Alpine corps, or on the armament
his opinion of Schlieffen. Fifteen years after this unfor- of British warships on distant stations. During the Moroc-
tunate incident he endorsed him as "fitted to occupy any can crisis of r905 an official from the Foreign Offce was
post in the German army." speaking before a council of German leaders on certain
Shortly after the close of the war another misfortune phases of the crisis. He mentioned the distance between
befell Schlieffen. The death of his wife, Anna, in r872, two rather unimportant towns in Morocco as being ISO
followed close upon his appointment to the staff of the kilometers. Instantly, but courteously, Schlieffen corrected
XV Corps. His marriage to his cousin Anna Schlieffen him. The distance was 130 kilometers. Irritated, the For-
was unquestionably a decisive event in his life. Her great eign Office expert called for large scale maps-which only
confidence in his abilities had inspired him to surmount proved Schlieffen right. A matter of twenty kilometers
many early difficulties. In their courtship days and might mean little to a diplomat, but it meant a day's
throughout their brief married life, she insisted that he march to Schlieffen with all its problems of transport and
would some day be chief of the general staff. Having felt, supply.
as he thought, the ultimate blow of fortune in her death, His memoty was unfailing; all his lectures and critiques
his career from that time on was marked by utter fear- were delivered without a note. In oral as well as written
lessness and unselfish devotion to the welfare of the Ger- expression he was brilliant and lucid. Those who have
man army. After her death Schlieffen never wavered over read the heavy-footed translation of his Cannae may smile
a decision, never softened his words, never curried favor at this observation, but many of his passages will stand
from anyone. His manner grew firm, his voice harsh, his comparison to the greatest classics in military literature.
touch cynical and sarcastic. He buried himself in his From his description of the pursuit after Leipzig, one can
work, driving himself and his subordinates with a kind of gain an impression of Schlieffen's powerful and figurative
dxmonic fury. For seven years, r876-r883' he was the language. He wrote:
much-feared and respected commander of the 1st Guard Even though Blucher's soldiers grew weary [of the pursuit].
Uhlan Regiment at Potsdam. the horsemen on the fallow steed did not. Hunger and sick-
ness gathered in a richer harvest than the edge of the sword
II would have been able to reap. Along the road, in the ditches
thousands of human wrecks terminated their agonized ex-
In 1883 Schlieffen was transferred to the 3d Section of istence.
the general staff concerned with information on France Though many of his works are not military history in
and Belgium. He found this assignment under his old the strictest sense, Schlieffen had the makings of a great
colleague Waldersee highly congenial. After a term in military historian. But his mind was too closely faste~ed
this department, he was appointed head of the 2d Section upon the task of serving the German army to allow hl~
in charge of Aufmarsch or mobilization plans. This gave the detachment of view required of a true military hIS-
him an opportuniry to become familiar with two of the torian. All the military aspects of a situation see~ed to
most important sections of the staff. range themselves in Schlieffen's mind automa~lcally.
On a long staff ride in 1886, the elder von Moltke put Should he be listening to a report on a tactical exerclse•.he
Schlieffen through an exhaustive examination on all mat- might interrupt with an apparently irrelevant observatIon
ters pertaining to the military problems of Germany. At about the tests of a new mortar. The astonished officer
the conclusion he reported that Schlieffen was fitted for making the report could hardly surmise that the c?ief bad
the highest officein the army. His application and indus- leaped far beyond the immediate implications of hiSreport
try coupled with his wide knowledge of military affairs and had already added a new factor to the problem.
His concentration on military matters was so great that Belgium and Luxemburg, Moltke would strike northward
it caused him to be regarded as mildly eccentric. Once, at their flank. Waldersee, who succeeded Moltke, found
while traveling through East Prussia by train, his atten- little to change in these plans; but he would not venture
non was called to a particularly beautiful stretch of an offensive in Russia during the wet seasons of the year.
scenerv. He gazed out of the carriage window for a mo- Such was the state of German military plans when Schlief-
ment 'and grunted: "The hills are not adaptable for de- fen took over the general staff in I~I.
fense, and the river is of slight value as a military ob-
stacle." III
Though apparently a harsh taskmaster and a stinging In I~ the Franco-Russian alliance made a war on two
critic, Schlieffeh, remembering his own unfortunate ex- fronts a certainty for Germany. The rapid development
perience in 187 I, was always careful in condemning an of the military establishments in both these countries plus
officer. His criticisms were made with a nice accuracy. the limitless manpower of Russia set the problem for
Now and then he atoned for his harsh words with a touch Schlieffen. In brief he had to fight a victorious war against
of humor. "Vexation and ill-humor," he used to say, "can superior numbers on two fronts. To be certain of his vic-
scarcelybe avoided in map !llaneuvers." Again he would tory, he had to plan for a quick annihilating battle against
assert: "For the purpose of judging others I have evolved one of his adversaries after the model of the classical vic-
a measuring stick from the consciousness of my own im- tories, Cannae, Leuthen, or Austerlitz. After this victory
perfections." His most common advice to young officers he would be able to concentrate all his power against the
was: "Be more than you appear to be." He rewarded his second antagonist.
favorites in strange ways-giving them special problems His first step was to increase the general staff from I 1
on their holidays l "Now you can give your whole atten- to 16 departments and the personnel from 50 to 162 of-
tion to the matter without !nterruption." Kuhl relates ficers. This gave him an instrument of great flexibility
that one Christmas Eve the old general presented him with and usefulness. Then he championed the introduction of
a Christmas present in the form of a difficult strategic heavy mobile field artillery in the German army as a coun-
problem; the requirement-an operations plan. Think- ter to the French fortification measures. Although a cav-
ing to salvage a few hours of the two-day Christmas break alry officer, Schlieffen showed a keen appreciation of the
to himself, Kuhl worked most of the n.ight and Christ- technical and mechanical aspects of modern war. As could
mas Day to complete his assignment. Schlieffen, much be expected, his heavy howitzer program met with stub-
pleased with his industry, rewarded him with a second born resistance from many old-line artillery officers. The
problem to solve on the following day! .,guns would be too heavy. They would lessen the mobility
During the years he was at the head of the General of units. Schlieffen asked them if they had seen the twelve
Staff, a corps of able officers: Fran~ois, Hoffmann, Dell- pounders of Frederick the Great. They were heavier and
mensingen, Seeckt, Hindenburg, Freytag-Loringhaven, more awkward than the projected weapons. If "Old Fritz"
Kuhl, Wetzell, von der Goltz, and Ludendorff came un- could move his pieces, they could handle the new guns.
der his stimulating influence. Once the heavy howitzer program was adopted, many of
Germany's military position in I~I was sufficiently dif- the protesting officers became enthusiasts. A vogue for
ficultto cause Schlieffen to regard his task as "a very heavy heavy and heavier artillery set in. Lesser officers talked
one." France was eager to avenge the defeat of 1870, and glibly of breaking through the Belfort-Epinal-T oul-Ver-
~erman blunders in diplomacy had almost driven Russia dun impasse. But Schlieffen was not interested in smash-
mto an alliance with Germany's traditional enemy. Until ing French masonry in the south; his heavy artillery pro-
1873 the elder von Moltke had been able to contemplate gram was conceived for quite a different purpose. With
an offensive against France and Russia simultaneously. this armament he hoped for a rapid break-through of the
But the rapid recovery of France and the construction of less heavily fortified area in the north: Liege-Namur-Mau-
fortified positions in the Bdfort, Epinal, Longwy, Toul, beuge, Antwerp.
and Verdun areas, with secondary positions at Besan~on, Schlieffen's plan for a decisive battle with France was
Langeres, Dijon, Rheims, Lyons, and Paris, made this evolutionary in"its development. His mind ran to the solu-
plan impractical. The only gap in the French fortified tion of his problem in something like the following fash-
line was the Trouee de Charmes, a sort of colossal booby ion: A campaign in Russia might, as in 1812, drag out
trap left intentionally open to trip up an unwary invader. endlessly due to the absence of decisive objectives and the
As a consequence of these developments and on account immense areas involved. France-the highly prepared
of the German-Austrian alliance, Moltke in 1879 made and aggressive enemy-must be struck down first. The
plans for an offensive against Russia with a defensive cam- great development in the size of modern armies, the rise
paign against France. He was willing to abandon Alsace of industrial civilization made it possible to place a great
and Lorraine and looked for a decisive battle against the part of a nation's manpower in the field. The network of
French in the I\1ainz-Frankfurt area after the enemy had railways in Germany and France made it feasible to trans-
been weakened by the investment of Metz and Strassburg port these masses to the battle area and supply them. If
and when their extended communications would invite a large masses of troops were simply thrown to the frontier
Bank attack. If the French invaded Germany by way of in approximately equal strength by both sides, senseless


6 A.D. r ARMY

8 AD. ~ ARMY ~.AD.

4 R.D.

e':> <>
/ 2 R.D ARMY
6 A.D.

f 6 AD.lsz ARMY
~ I 6 AD. l:szr

rC-:-.. 6~D'RD :lw ARMY


6 AD.
3 RD 1m ARMY AYMyl 8~ I 6 A.?:-:J
.. <;~.Q.1 ~jzllARMY



GERMAN CONCENTRATION IN THE W'EST. Ersatz, Landwehr, al/d lil/e of C01l11111m;cat;01/ troops I/ot SbOIl'II.

slaughter and stalemate were the only predictable results. should be so strong that the French and their Allies can be
The sole way to gain a quick ascendency over mass armies, driven against the rear of their fortress front and against the
thought Schlieffen, was to strike deep at their Ranks, en- frontier of Switzerland. Thus by a hu~e envelopment of the
French and British a colossal Canna; should be prepared.
dangering their vital communications, driving them,
Antwerp and Paris should be invested by Reserve and Ersatz
through their very size, into confusion and destruction. corps, but the decision lies not at these fortresses, bllt in the
These ideas were the fruits of his study of Hannibal, Fred- surrounding of the field army.
erick the Great, Napoleon. One distinguished American soldier bas described this
No minor victory was sought; Schlieffen desired nothina brilliant program as a "masterpiece of divination, abso-
short of the destruction .of the French field armies. To a~ lutely sound from any angle it may be approached."
tain these titanic results, immense risks had to be faced. It is somewhat misleading to speak of "the Schlieffen
The Russians were to be allowed almost free run in East Plan:'; it was in reality a military conception which was
Prussia. The French were to be deliberately baited into modified from time to time. There were twO principal
an offensive in Lorraine. The right wing of the German programs, that of 19°5-06 and that of 1912. They were
armies opposite the Dutch-Belgian frontier had to be made not plans in the sense that Germany had the necessary re-
as strong as possible. Belgium, Holland, and Luxemburg sources to carry them out at that time. Never, during
had to be used as a passageway for the armies in the north, Schlieffen's tenure as chief of staff did he have the troops
neutrality or no neutrality. As General Bliss said, "Schlief- reguired for the program of 1905, but he hoped they would
fen saw no hope, indeed there was no other hope but to be available before Armageddon came. One feature of
strike the French armies in the Rank." Once through Bel- both programs to which Schlieffen attached utmost im-
gium the German armies, pivoting on the line Metz- portance was the despatch of six Ersatz corps in the wake
Thionville, would out-Rank and outnumber the French of the I and II German armies. These troops were to be
armies in the north. The enemy would be forced to fight raised on mobilization, and their presence in the barde
under adverse conditions, their front reversed. In con- are~ would enable the armies of the right wing to de,,?re
fusion they would be driven to destruction in the Juras and their whole attention to the encirclement and destrucClon
against the Swiss frontier. To use Schlieffen's words: of the French field armies.
The Germans can feel assured, if they stick to their own He did not expect to achieve these great results wi.rh-
operations, that the French will quickly turn about (from out losses, but victoty would be certain if the right wlOg
theit invasion of Lorraine)-in the direction from which the was strong enough. The accompanying chart shows the
greater danger threatens. It is therefore imperative that the gradual increase in the number of troops allotted to the
Germans be as strong as possible on the right wing, for there
German armies in the north.' According to the program
the decisive battle is to be expected. The decision should fall
in northern France. The bataillon carre on the right flank 'Based on Boetticher, Der Lehrmeister des lIell:;eitliclten KritgtSo
1937 SCHLlEFFEN 473
of 1905-00, the German front on the 31st day of mobili- the success of Schlieffen's program. The Japanese army
zation would be Abbeville, Amiens, St. Quentin, Rethel, had just punctured the legend of Russian military prowess
Diedenhofen, Saarburg. The encircling program of the in lvlanchuria. The risks of an invasion of East Prussia
northern armies from that time on is shown in ?vlap 1.2 were sensibly lessened. The Austro-Hungarian armies
The German Reichstag commission which investigated could be expected to keep the Russians more or less occu-
the causes for the German collapse in 1918 shed some new pied. Schlieffen respected the French armies, but he did
liaht on the Schlieffen program of 1905-00. Dr. J. V. not over-value them. In the matter of heavy artillery and
B~edt, the chairman of one of the subcommittees, shows tactics, he knew them to be perfectly prepared in 1905
in his Die Belgiscbe N eutralit;it und der ScbliefJenscbe for the war of 1870' He anticipated the intervention of
FeldzlIgplan that Schlieffen fully appreciated the political England but felt that the British expeditionary force would
consequences of the violation of Belgian neutrality. But suffer the common fate of the French armies. The British
with a subtle approach, sadly lacking in the direction of Reet was a different matter. Unlike some "dry land" sol-
German affairs in 1914, Schlieffen planned to mass his diers, notably Foch and Joffre, who valued the British
armies on the Dutch-Belgian border wit bout a declaration Fleet as worth "less than one bayonet," Schlieffen regarded
of war. To this move the French could respond in only British sea power as an extremely important factor. This
one way. They would be forced to counter by occupying was particularly true in case the war dragged out. Then
the heights of the Ivleuse in Belgium as the only area suit- German commerce would be driven from the seas, and
able for defense. Thus France, not Germany, would ac-
the shortage of raw materials would slowly lower Ger-
tually be the first to violate Belgian neutrality. Schlieffen
many's fighting efficiency. In time he came to regard
believed that Holland could be won over by diplomatic
Italian aid in Alsace as an illusion.
means. This exceedingly subtle opening gambit was never
put to the test. It is known, however, that the variants Not all German soldiers could follow Schlieffen's flight
of Plan XVII envisaged the possible operation of French into the military stratosphere. He observed somewhat rue-
troops in Belgium and Luxemburg, so that one may con- fully that "orthodox soldiers generally prefer an orderly,
clude it had a reasonable chance of success. Had this efficient, frontal attack to all other tactical operations, no
aiaantic ruse de guerre been carried off, it would have
00 matter whether the enemy or position are weak or strong."
ranked among the great feats of military legerdemain in He complained that the idea of destruction which formed
historv. the basic principle of Napoleonic operations and predomi-
In ;905-06 there seemed to be little reason for doubting nated in the battles of Frederick the Great was being for-
'Based on Foerster, Graf SclzlicffclI r/lld der IVellkrieg. gotten in the Russo-Japanese \Var. He warned against





i\IAP'l--PROGRAM OF 1905-1906. "A buge e1lve/opme1lt ... a colossal Cd/lIlae."

474 THE COAST ARTILLERY ]OUlU'\JAL i\- ol'ember- December







MAP 2-THE CONCEPTION OF 1912. ScbliefJen was willing to gamble.

following what he called the precepts of the new gods in achieved in the first great effort at envelopment, Schlieffen
Manchuria. would say to the diplomats: "Make the best peace you
Schlieffen appears to be one of the first military thinkers can at once. "
to foresee the "total" war in which all the military. eco- IV
nomic, and industrial resources of a nation would be in-
In 1905 at the age of seventy-two Schlieffen suffered a
volved. This made him all the more eager to insure the
painful injury while riding. He recovered from this in-
success of his great envelopment program by keeping the
jury slowly and the Emperor began to consider his suc-
right wing strong. He wanted the strength ratio of the
cessor. In the main Schlieffen's relations with the Emperor
northern armies to the southern armies to be 7 to I.
were friendly but rather distant. He put his views of the
With remarkable accuracy he predicted what would hap-
requirements of the army before the civil government and
pen in case a quick decision was not reached against
defended them with all his power. But once their decision
France. He said:
was made, he accepted it without further question. He
Then the war will take a course in which the German forces
tried hard in the maneuvers of 1905 to get the Kaiser .in-
will move to and fro (from the Western Front to the Eastern
Front) pushing the enemy back here and there and again terested seriously in the military problems of the Empire.
yielding to the adversary. To sum up. the war would drag but the Supreme War lord remained incurably super-
on with disndvantages and growing disintegration to the Ger- , ficial when it came to military matters. It hurt Schlieffen
man forces and with the possible intervention of other to learn that the Kaiser had picked the younger Moltke
to succeed him before he resigned ..
His desire for a short war was based in part upon his After his retirement in 1906 Schlieffen tried to rdram
belief that the economic set-up of modern industrial states from comment on the work of his successor. but when
could not endure a long conflict. The World War demon- Moltke kept his major conception of an encirclement of
strated that in this particular Schlieffen was wrong, but the French armies and proceeded to weaken the vital right
almost every notable military leader in the world except wing, the old man could no longer hold his peace. In.a
lord Kitchener made the same mistake in 1914. Schlief- celebrated anonymous article in the Deutsche Revue 10
fen was willing to gamble with Germany's fate by stak- 1909 he called attention to the fatal consequences of th~
ing his pile on an overpowering right wing, but he realisti- steps and outlined what he considered to be a sound Im!l-
cally faced the possibility of failure. If success was not tary program for Germany. The article was so well wot-

tell and authoritative in character that it was widely be- heart. To a certain extent it was prepared for in his
lievedat the time to have come from the pen of Schlieffen. a maneuver of 1905 in which a smaller Red Army (IV
The article produced repercussions in France and Russia Corps Hindenburg-Fran~ois) defeated a larger Blue Army
as well as in Germany, but it did not change the program advancing from Leipzig in the direction of the river Saale.
of Moltke. Though Schlieffen had no opportunity to prove his mili-
In order to meet the new conditions arising from French tary qualities in battle, "there abided in him an incom-
military measures and the regeneration of the Russian parable military fire." His qualities as a commander are
army, Schlieffen in 1912 made his final revision of the most clearly revealed in his critiques and staff maneuvers.
program for destroying the French armies. He was now He was tireless in his effort to make clear the necessity
out of power.and his unofficial "plan" is based l~rgely ?n for and the means of attaining an annihilating victory. As
his conversatIOns with General von Hahnke, hIs son-ln- his program of encirclement developed, he stressed the. in-
law. Schlieffen proposed that the encircling stroke be made evitability, indeed, the desirability of a German WIth-
with a force of no less than 21 army corps between Abbe- drawal in the center and left flank so that the enemy would
ville and St. Quentin. He also advocated an attack in the be deeply committed and could not escape the net. But
south from the area Diedenhofen-Saarburg to complete he realized that patriotism and local interest would a~t
the disaster of the French. The Cannae then would be against even the temporary surrender of any German tern-
complete. To make these attacks possible Schlieffen tory to the enemy. Thus, in his war games of 1905, Schlief-
wanted to amalgamate the regular and reserve divisions fen, who wanted the French to make a deep penetration
and raise the army to the strength of 51 uniform corps. into German territory between Metz and Strassburg, or-
This 1912 program is illustrated by Map 2.40 dered the German army commander to retreat. After the
The question has often been raised as to whethet or n.ot French forces were irrevocably committed, he theoretically
the French military authorities were aware of the essentlal destroyed them by an attack against their flanks and rear.
features of the Schlieffen program. Maurice Paleologue In 1914 Moltke was willing to let the battle develop in the
writing in the Revue des Deux Mondes for October I, hands of his generals, timidly trying from time to time,
1932, declares that the French Intelligence Service ob- to keep them in line with directives. The reader is familiar
tained a copy of the Schlieffen plan in 1904 through the with what actually took place. 6
rreacheryof a high-ranking German officer. But since the To Schlieffen it was the business of the Chief of the
plan wa~ not completely formulated until 1905, one must General Staff of the Field Armies to command and not
conclude that M. Paleologue (known to historians for his to coordinate. He knew that a great Cannae could not be
lack of accuracy) is merely repeating hearsay. If the brought about by wishful thinking, that willful, self-cen-
French did have early knowledge of the program, they tered army commanders under the stress of a rapidly
did not alter their military dispositions on that account. changing battle are not likely to be controlled by the pos-
In 1909 Schlieffen's Deutsche Revue article told them all session of a common objective. For example, on the 22d
they needed to know about the program. As evidence that day of mobilization in the maneuvers of 1905 a gap ap-
the article was widely read in France, it may be pointed peared between the I and II German armies. In 1914
out that there was some talk of a French Schlieffen Plan (August 27), Moltke was content to make suggestions,
to meet the German one, but all this was forgotten in the but in 1905 Schlieffen ordered the III German army to
mysticdevotion to Plan XVII and to the offensive l' out- march against the rear of what appeared to be two hostile
,ance. a:mie~ (in 1914 the V French Army) and saved the
Some French writers, particularly General Dupont in sltuatIOn.
hisLe Haut Commandement Allemand en 1914, attempt As for drawing any troops away from the vital. right
to coverup the French miscalculation of the German forces wing, he told the German commander in East PruSSIan~t
westof the Meuse in 1914. But the report of the German to expect the transfer of a single corps from the west untd
orderof battle handed to Joffre by the French Intelligence after the decision had been reached. With rare foresight
Serviceshows that this miscalculation was very reaL5 One he warned against premature optimism which was certain
mustconclude, therefore, that if the French actually knew to follow the initial successes of the armies in the west.
about the Schlieffen program, they were so full of the He would have been the first to condemn the "hurrah
offensivespirit of Colonel Grandmaison that they did not mood" which characterized German GHQ in August,
carewhere the German troops were. 1914.
The Russians also studied the Deutsche Revue article, Schlieffen knew that there were few real Cannaes in the
for they held maneuvers after 1909 in which they at- history of the world. For such an achievement "a Hanni-
ttlnpted to avoid an encircling battle of the T annenburg bal was needed on one side and a T erentius Varro on the
variety. Between 1909 and 1914, however, they must other." He was particularly eager to have Germany face
have forgotren the formula. T annenburg was a typical her great military trial with a leader of unshakable resolu-

- Schlieffenvictory; it would have delighted his soldierly

. "Now included in Schlieffen's works under the title Der Krieg
III Ikr Gegenwarl .
:sed on Foerster, op. cit.
5Les Armees fran~aises dans la Grande Guerre, Tome I, Vol. L
Annex, Doc. 342.
•See Tindall, "The \Vill of the Leader," COAST ~-\RTILLERY
]OCRX.-\L. Xovember-December. 1930. ct scq.
476 THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL l\T ol'ember- Decemb~

tion, serenity, and iron will. "A great commander," he And yet after all is said Schlieffen did not fight his de-
used to say, "must be able to endure great blows with cisive battle with t?e French. \Vhat would have happened
steadfastness." "His inner fire should be lighted from the in the event remains now and must always remain in the
altar of the gods themselves." \Vith a sufficient knowledge reJlm of theory. His reputJtion rests exclusively on his
of the history and art of war, the great commander "would mJgnificent peJcetime achievements. The greatest of these
know how everything happened, how it was bound to was the plan he bequeJthed his country and the Cannae
happen, and how it would happen again." Sensing the indoctrination that accompanied that plan.
fact that Germany was hazarding her future on the ap- In the hands of Moltke the great plan fell to pieces; not
pointment of "a new Benedeck," his last days were ren- of itself but through a progressive emasculation. Only on
dered unhappy by the fear that the younger ?vIoltke would the Eastern Front, at T annenburg and at Lodz, was the
not measure up to the demands of war. Schlieffen concept brought to full flower. Today these two
On January 4, 1913' with Berlin under a blanket of battles are described as "the best conceived operations of
snow the old soldier lay dying. In his delirium he tried the whole war."
to communicate with the members of his family. Once Once the trench line closed its paralyzing grip on the
he became lucid for a moment but only delivered himself bmlefields of Europe, the inspired concepts of Schlidfen
of a platitude to the effect that great issues depend on little gave way to the squalor of siege war. In such a war intel.
things. Then, as the moment of release approached, he lect hJd little pbce. One writer has referred to it as a
raised himself with great effort and earnestly pleaded with coloSSJI inteliectuJI bankruptcy:
his son-in-law, General von Hahnke: "It must come to a
One that doomed millions of men for four years thereafter
fight. Make the right wing strong!" With this effort to to watch each other from burrows in the earth a few yards
foster the military warfare of the German Empire he died. apart, striking to kill now and again as the opportunity of.
fered, not in hate, but soberly, impersonally, with the sacred
V sense of duty which is the distinguishing badge of civilized
Since the war Schlieffen's reputation has steadily grown. war.

On February 28, 1928, Germany held a national festival It was to avoid just such senseless butchery that Schlief-
-Sch/iefJen Tag-in honor of the great soldier. At that fen conceived and elaborated his merciful stroke of an-
time General von Seeckt held him up as the model and in- nihibtion. For by his audJcity, in1Jgination, and states-
spiration of the new German army . Today, he is com- manlike vision he has earned his place among the military
monly referred to in Germany as "greater than the elder areal. Through sheer force of intellect, the soldier who
Moltke." ~ever fouaht
a battle stands with the immortals.
DOLLAR building houses
the ROTC unit at the Uni-
versity of California at
Berkeley. il10dern in design,
it easily accom modates the
2,500 students who are en-
rolled in the ROTC.


Several factors havc served rccendv to focus more than students each; of whom one is designated a group Icader.
usual attention on ROTC training if; our schools and col- He kceps a roster of his group and a small blank form, a
leges. Onc of these is thc Thomason Act, which provides la Leavenworth, on which to report absentees. Thus no
a ~'ears' active duty for 1,000 ROTC graduates, 50 of timc is lost calling rolls. At the opening of the period the
whom receive permanent commissions. Another factor is instructor lectures for perhaps fifteen or twenty minutes
the recent increase in Federal appropriations for the cs- on the lesson for the day. He then assigns a related sub-
tablishmcnt of 50 additional units, and a rcsumption of ject to each group for group discussion for which about
agitation by the cranks who imagine our educational sys- tcn minutes is allowed. During this time, members of the
tem is being ground under the iron heel of the military group go into a huddle over their subject, dccide what
and would thcrcforc abolish the ROTe. thcy want said and select a spokesman to say it. When
;v[ethods of instruction and thc facilities provided vary time is called, all facc the front and in turn each group
greatly at diffcrcnt ROTC institutions and many arc the leader rises, announces his subject and introduces his
ingenious devices that have been suggested to hold the spokesman who moves to the front of the room, faces the
student's interest and enable him to visualize problems in class and presents his discussion. He then endeavors to
the absence of modern materiel with which to work. This answer any guestions bearing thereon by othcr members
article will discuss methods of instruction now in use by of the section.
the ROTC at the Univcrsitv of California, and will de- Group leaders also distribute and collect guiz papers
scribe certain eguipment deviscd locally as aids to instruc- when reguired. The detail as spokesman is rotated through
tion in the Coast Artillery Unit. the group and group leaders are changed monthly. Thus,
ROTC units at California are very fortunate in being even in the classroom, large numbers of students are be-
housed in the big half-million dollar gymnasium for men. ing trained in the proper exercise of authority and dis-
E.xcellent offices, classrooms, and a fine armory are pro- charge of responsibilities. N[oreover, they are being taught
vided for a total strength of approximately 2,500 students. to think on their feet and to express themselves clearly and
The artillery gun park and the small-bore rifle range are forcefully. Believe it or not, the students like it.
near by, and the adjacent athletic field provides an excel- The Coast Artillery officers on duty at the University
lent drill and parade ground. of California are Lieutenant Colonel M. J. O'Brien,
It is gcnerally conceded that the military department of e.Ae., Unit Commander, Major \Villiam e. Braly,
a ~niversity offers greater opportunity for active leader- e.Ae., and Captain John F. Cassidy, C.Ae.
ship training than do the academic departments. In con-
nection with "leadership" one usually has in mind some
form of group instruction at infantry drill. However, EDITOR'S NOTE: The Chief of Coast Artillery, during
about two years ago the professor of military science and his recent tour of the West Coast fortifications, visited the
t~ctics at California, Colonel Elvid Hunt, Infantry, de- ROTC unit at the University of California. He especially
Cided to carry leadership training into the classroom and was impressed by the resourcefulness and executive enter-
there capitalize on the opportunity afforded the ROTe. prise displayed by the instructors and felt that the method
Here is how the California system works. of instruction had a good psychological appeal. It is his
The sophomore sections average about forty students. wish that more units employ similar advanced and effec-
Each section is subdivided into five groups of about eight tive means for training.
478 THE COAST ARTILLERY ]OURt'\JAL NOllember- Decembl'r


tern slides, a small portable
projector with a 4oo-watt
lamp is used and the room is
not darkened. This avoids
the drowsiness all too fre-
quent in a darkened room.

* * *
IN ORDER to make the artillery instruc-
tion more realistic, a miniature gun was
THE SAND TABLE is "H" shaped and is equipped with
several conveniently located power outlets for plugging in
constructed. The gun combines the idea of the towing device. This device consists of a small sewing-
a small boy's bean shooter with an infantry machine motor which operating through speed-reducing
machine-gun tripod. Steel ball bearings gears, rotates a spool, thus winding up the tow-line. A
('ioo) are used for ammunition and the rheostat controls the speed of the motor. The "aerial spot-
results obtained are surprisingly accurate.
ter," with the aid of a magnet, retrieves the ammunition
Except for the renewal of the strips of rub-
from the sand. This equipment is used regularly by stu-
ber tubing that constitute the propellant
dents with the standard position-finding materiel issued.
there is nothing to get out of order.

HERE IS AN ASSORTMENT of gadgets assembled ALL COAST ARTILLERY officers on

after visits to the five-and-ten, the junk yard, and an attic. ROTC dut)' are familiar with tbe difficulty
Tbe five diamond-shaped mica figures suspended on fine of securing a suitable target for antiaircraft
wires at left represent tbe symbols engraved on the reticules drill. The picture shows how this problem
of the stereoscopic height-finder. By means of a sliding ar- was met at California. The location of a
rangement, a miniature airplane may be moved forward or large five-story building, about 100 yards
to the rear to illustrate the method of establishing stereo- in front of the gun park suggested the so-
scopic contact. The ancient stereoscope has been found lution. The arrangement shown is located
useful to illustrate the principle of depth perception. on one corner of the roof of this structure.
In the center of the table may be seen a representation of Tbe 3/16-inch cable carrying the small
Case III pointing of an antiaircraft gun in elevation. This airplane passes around a similar sheave at
homely invention is used to clear up the mysteries of the tbe other end of the building. Starting the
"fol/ow the pointer" system. As the small hand wheelan motor starts the airplane on its course. The
the director is turned, the sight above it changes in eleva- whole arrangement is on rollers on a track,
tIon, and the inner disc (and pointer) at the gun rotates. As and a 15o-pound weight suspended over
the outer pointer is brought to match the inner, the gun a sheave from the large cable at the lower
changes in elevation. right of the photograph serves to maintain
On the right is an arrangement to illustrate the altimetric a constant tension on the airplane cable
roof and the altimetric triangle that must be solved. To regardless of tern perature or weather con-
make the idea more real a miniature born ber, antiaircraft ditions. The antiaircraft range section and
battery and searchlight are included. Protractors show the gun sections coordinate their drill on this
<1>, and <1>2 angles as used on the altimeters. target.

* * *
* * * * *
IN ADD1TION TO becoming a great medium of en-
8\f ?najo-t ~dwil1. ***
e. ?nead, (.A.C.
two years elapsed after this discovery before Carv in 18--
tertainment and education, television promises to revolu-
tionize military communication methods as we know them
prop~sed to imitate the human eye by constructing a n:~
saic consisting of a great number of minute selenium cells
today. The extent and variety of television applications upon which a light image could be projected. This light
are limited only by the fertility of the imagination. image would create in these cells minute electric currents
A device that will enable one to see objects or events which in turn would operate individual shut~rs in frOnt
normally'hidden from sight holds something of major im- of a bank of lights, thus reproducing the light image.
portance for the military man. Especially is this true when The method was an elaborate one, but the idea of con-
the promise that fog, smoke, or darkness cannot screen verting the illumination of each element into electric cur-
the eyes of television may be realized. The need for con- rents and sending each current through a separate wire
trolling wide envelopments and the far-off employment was good. However, it used too many wires and was there-
of motorized and mechanized forces lends new weight to fore not quite practicable. In order to simplify the prob-
the dictum that quickness and certainty in transmitting lem, Nipkow, a German, proposed in 1884 to send the
orders and information are paramount and tantamount to picture point by point in a definite order and put it to-
success. It is doubtful whether the communication systems gether again in the same definite order at the receiving
now in use are equal to the task. - end-with such speed that an observer would get the in~-
Television has reached the stage where it is possible to pression of seeing a composite and continuous picture,
transmit anything that can be photographed either by a exactly as in the movies of today. In other words, Nipkow
fixed or movie camera. It has some limitations, the greatest scanned the picture. As for the apparatus to accomplish
being the difficulty of transmission over ordinary wire- the task, this is roughly what he had in mind. A spiral of
lines. It is necessary to use coaxial cables and special ampli- holes was cut in a disc, and behind the disc a light source
fiers every 5 or 10 miles, depending upon certain technical was placed. As the disc was whirled the light would peep
conditions. Transmission by radio has been relegated to through each successive hole and scan a strip of the pic-
the ultra-high frequencies which are known to be incapa- ture. Each strip would be placed directly below the suc-
ble of dependable transmission much beyond the horizon ceeding one due to the spiral arrangement of the holes. In
as seen from the transmitting site. In spite of this and a this manner the entire scene was scanned. On the other
few minor other difficulties, a great many military uses for side of the disc a photo cell picked up the fluctuations of
television are possible. Before discussing these it might the lights and darks of each strip of the scene as scanned
be well to take a quick look at television history and de- with light by the disc. At the receiving end the process
scribe briefly the operation of a modern system. was more or less reversed. A light source was placed be-
As the name implies, the object of television is to effect hind a similar spiral-holed disc. This light was made to
a means of seeing objects or events at a distance. It also fluctuate in intensity in exact synchronism with the fluc-
may be used to show nearby objects which cannot be seen tuations of the photo cell at the sending end. The fluctu-
with the aid of the telescope or field glass. The discoveries ations when viewed through the holes of the whirling
and inventions which make television what it is today disc recomposed the scene. Of course, the disc had to be
were not necessarily evolved with the object of televisio~ whirled in exact synchronism with the sending disc; other-
in mind. Television has borrowed from many sciences and wise the fluctuations of the light which were supposed to
older types of communication systems. It can be justly be someone's head would wind up where his shoes should
stated that the following few discoveries established the be while his shoes poised gracefully at the top of the pic-
principles and formed the foundation for all practical de- ture, or some other similar nightmare would result.
velopments occurring in the field of television. Television progress has followed this basic principle ever
In 1817, Berzelius, a Swedish pharmacist, isolated the since Nipkow developed it. In the latest 1937 streamlined
chemical element selenium. Not until 1873 were the pe- model, the same general idea applies.
culiar photo-electrical properties of selenium discovered. The progress in television has been along the lines of
At that rime a transoceanic telegraph operator by the making the system less awkward, more dependable, much
name of May noticed the variation in the values of some more sensitive, and designing the whole works so that the
selenium resistors when the sun shone upon them. Only electrical impulses can be sent by radio instead of depend-


ina solelv on some type of interconnecting wire from send- plified many times over until it has sufficient magnitude
in~ end to receiving end. From the time of Nipkow's hey- to modulate a radio transmitter. The number of these fluc-
dJ~' to about 1929, the scanning mechanical methods of tuations runs into millions per second. It would take a
reieyision were varied and refined considerably, but machine gun firing 400 rounds a minute about 10 days to
seemed to have failed to produce a satisfactory number of fire as many shells as the number of impulses a television
picture elements and a sufficiently bright picture. There system has' to handle in one second.
were also some very limiting transmission difficulties. o The fluctuations leave the radio transmitter and are
Around 1929 the inventors began to experiment with picked up by the receiver in the form of radio waves some-
what is called the electronic system of television. We find, what similar to the wav we use them todav in the trans-
then, two periods of television apparatus design. The first, mission of sound via r~dio. The fIuctuatio~s are made to
the mechanical scanning era, dates from 1880 to around regulate the rate of flow of electrons from another electron
1929' We are now witnessing the initial serious outcome gun in the Kinescope (name of the receiving cathode
of the turn to electronic scanning, the second era. tube) of the receiver. This stream of electrons is swept
The operating difference between the two methods lies across the end of the Kinescope magnetically in exact step
in the fact that in the electronic scanning system, a quite with the stream in the Iconoscope tube in the television
inertia-lessbeam of electrons (particles of electricity) takes camera. The fluorescent material which is coated on the
the place of the whirl of motors, discs, drums and belts end of the Kinescope tube is caused to glow by the electron
which are identified with mechanical scanning methods. beam striking it, and the beam's fluctuations produce light
Because of the comparative ease of control and higher strips varying in brightness along their lengths. These
definition possible with the electron scanners, much more varying shades of brightness in the fluorescent material
satisfactorypictures are obtained. In addition to these de- reproduce the picture orginally focused on the Iconoscope
velopments on "end apparatus" (transmitters and re- plate. A nine-inch tube will give a 4~" x 6~" picture.
ceivers), engineers have recently made great improve- Interesting facts about a television system in general
ments on the "in between" business of television, that is, are that a television camera is portable and can be taken to
in ultra high-frequency broadcasting technique and trans- any place desired, limited by the length of cable attached,
mission-cabledevelopment. and by the portability of its associated radio transmitter.
Following the system of electronic scanning, the gen- It can operate at a speed equal to that of the motion-pic-
eral formula for a modern television system is as follows: ture camera. An interesting property of the Iconoscope is
At the sending end to convert a light image into electrical that it has a color response which enables it to be used not
impulses; send these electrical impulses via radio or coaxial only for transmission of pictures in visible light, but also
cablesto the receiving positions; at the receiving positions for' pictures not visible to the eye, as in cases where il-
convert the electrical impulse back into a light image. lumination is either by ultra violet or infra-red rays, so
Details of the system as a whole apply to the three basic that it may operate through darkness and smoke.
factorsmentioned. At the sending end there is a cathode There are other forms of picture transmission in use at.
~aytube known as the Iconoscope or eye of the system and present which can be adapted for military purposes. The
Its associatedscanning circuits and amplifiers. The Icono- general name for the process of transmitting a still photo-
scopetakes the place of the photographic film used in an onph is "facsimile process." Facsimile transmission may
everydav movie camera. The lens of the television camera be termed "delayed distant sight" utilizing either wire
fOClises the scene on to a plate in the Iconoscope tube. This lines or radio and suitable "end apparatus" for transmis-
plate is covered with thousands of tiny drops of silver sion and reception. The radio photos common at present
coatedwith ca:sium, a photo-sensitive material, each drop in the newspapers are examples of this type of picture
being electrically insulated from the others. As the light transmission. The operation usually consists of taking a
of the scene strikes this plate, each of the tiny drops gene- photograph of the de.siredscene, transmitting it p~eceme~l
rates a small charge of electricity. The strength of this as a series of electncal impulses, and reproducmg thIS
charge is proportionate to the strength of the light being photograph at the receiving end. Thus, the operations of
focus.edupon that drop by the camera lens system. It is television, as we have seen them, differ from those of facsi-
at thISpoint that the electrical impulse originates because mile in that no preliminary photograph is necessary. Di-
on the Iconoscope plate the scene is built up in terms of rect scenes are used in television, and at the receiving end
dectric charges. In the neck of the Iconoscope tube a instantaneous sight replaces photographic reconstruction.
sectioncalled the electron gun directs a stream of electrons Now what can be done with all this in a military way?
toward the plate. This stream of electrons is magnetically The following suggestions may stimulate other thoughts
draW.11 back and forth across the plate, scanning the entire on the utilization of this medium for military purposes:
atta 111 a series of horizontal stripes in somewhat the same
Jnanner that Nipkow's disc scanned the scenes back in TRANSMJTTING AIR VJEWS OF THE TERRAJN
J~. As this stream of electrons passes over the pro- With the present-day development of television it is
portIonalcharges built up on the plate by the light image, possible to install a transmitting setup in an airplane and
the charges are neutralized. The process of neutralizing send a regular motion picture of the terrain beneath, just
these charges produces a fluctuating current which is am- as it is now done with the movie camera. When we re-
member that anything that can be photographed can be TRANSMISSION OF ORDERS
transmitted, we can count on pictures from altitudes at the This seems to be a most important use of television
limit of visibility. It will now be possible for the com- Orders can be sent b;' radio or ~wire, using the facsimil~
manding general to sit b~ck in his headquarters and watch process, so that there will be almost no loss of time in
how his orders are being carried out. Another advantage distribution to all units. This should solve the problem of
will be the opportunity to correctly time any secondary control of fast tanks and units on the move. In stabilized
attacks in support of a wide envelopment. positions typewritten orders or operation maps can be sent
On the defensive it should be possible to locate hostile by wire-photo in secrecy and without detection by the
envelopments in time to send out a flank-protecting mo- enemy. Moreover, there is a simple system o~transmitting
bile mechanized and motorized force which will be able to weather maps that can be used both by wIre and radio.
strike the enveloping force at some critical point, and These methods do awav with noise. When television is
possibly break up the attack. If this cannot be done, the used the order is seen and read, and noise does not interfere.
flank-protecting force can operate between the enveloping
force and its objective in such a manner as to prevent, or
delay deployment for it will have the advantage of know- The location of transmitters at distant points along the
ing where the hostile force is and what it is doing at all shore or on islands will make possible the study of forma-
times. It seems as though television might bring back to tions adopted by a hostile fleet. Television can be used
the commander the personal visual supervision which the in the adjustment of fire on targets beyond the horizon
large modern armies have made impossible. as in land fire. Possibly it may have an under-water use,
with infra-red rays, to discover the approach of submerged
submarines, or in the firing of contact submarine mines.
This offers many possibilities. With a continuous pic- It is not assuming too much to say that television may be
ture being sent from the air, the battery commander can used for the rapid computation of ranges to targets behind
make his own adjustments and observe the effect of his smoke screens or crossing a salvo line.
fire. It will be an easy matter to improvise a grid or mil Of course the old radio-controlled torpedo plane idea is
scale, adjusted for the altitude of the plane, so deviations obvious. The installation of a transmitter aboard the
can be read directly. For fire on targets of opportunity it plane will make possible the attack of vessels, because
appears to open a new field, since it will be possible to fire the plane can now be steered by sight. Because television
on moving targets such as tanks, etc. operates in the dark and through fog it should do away
Another use is given by a German author in Item 47 of with sub-aqueous sound-ranging systems.
"Periodical Articles," of the Command and General Staff
School Quarterly Review of Military Literature for De-
cember, 1936. The author seems to believe that the photo- There are a number of possibilities. An excellent idea
phone (a sort of television apparatus) will in the future would be the use of a transmitter in the distant station
automatically replace the human observer. These phones with the receiver at the guns, adjusting fire as the bursts
(suitably camouflaged) can be established far in front of are seen by the battery commander. Transmitters placed
our lines, to work automatically. By sensitizing them to along routes of march may be used to give warning of the
infra-red rays they will pierce darkness and fog, and be approach of enemy planes. For the defense of areas at
free from hostile interference. It does not appear that this night, a study should be made of the use of the infra-red
author is too sanguine. It also seems possible that the use ray in conjunction with a receiver. This may be more effec-
of the infra-red ray, if transmitted parallel to the line of tive than the use of searchlights. Television can be used to
sight, will enable artillery pieces or machine guns to fire study approaching hostile formations from afar, thus
accurately on targets through smoke, fog or darkness. giving the battery more time to get on the target.
This discussion has dealt, in the main, with ideas.
NEUTRALIZING THE EFFECT OF SMOKE AND DARKNESS However, the future of television lies in the practical wo~k
If it is possible to see through smoke with the aid of in- now being done by the engineers and staffs of the. radIO
fra-red rays, use of television will surely stop an attacker. companies. In the case of radio, the work of the englOeers
With his fire effect reduced, and that of the defender not was assisted by the large group of eager amateurs-the
impaired, the problem is solved. However, if smoke is still "hams"-who tinkered on homemade sets; and were of
an obstacle, transmitters can be placed in front of the hos- considerable help in making radio what it is today.
tile smoke to cover avenues of approach at places where Television will no doubt follow the same trial-and-error
rifle and machine-gun fire can be laid down accurately. process, for a recent announcement says that small partS
Fire will be aided because the ranges are determined when will shortly be released for sale to the gadgeteers. The
the enemy enters the field of view on the transmitters. progress of television will be as swift as was radio's, as soon
Television can also be used for the gaining of information as the amateurs get hold of partially built sets and go co
for laying down protective artillery fires, and the fire of the spare-time experimentation ..
infantry weapons. At night infra-red ray outfits can be Would it not be well, then, for our Army laboratorIes
used to scan the front lines to discover attacks or raiding to concern themselves with television? A science that
parties. offers so much to the tactician should not be neglected.
Colonel J. A. Greenl C.A.C.
* *
EDITOR'SNOTE: Each year the Chiefs of the various
* *
maneuver. Even assuming that the Air Corps continued
Arms and Services address the students at the Army War to maintain control of the air at all times, many oppor-
College on matters that relate to the particular activities tunities probably would be afforded the enemy to pene-
of their respective branches. Due to the absence of the trate our harbors with destroyers or submarines and to do
Chief of Coast Artillery, the duty this year devolved upon immeasurable damage. Destroyers and submarines can
his Executive, Colonel Green. Colonel Green commented not do this as long as the harbor entrances are blocked by
to some extent upon the present state of development of mines and nets and as long as these installations are ade-
antiaircraftmateriel. He spoke principally, however, upon quately defended by gun hre.
harbordefenses and gave as his reason that this subject is If the fleet were to be charged with the defense of its
not taught to any extent at the Command and General own bases and all other coastal harbors, material additions
Staff School. Knowledge of this subject should be valu- to it would be necessary. Battleships of the Maryland
able to student officers in their future general st4J and class, laid down in 1921, cost about $35,000,000, and
command assignments. In order that the student body cruisers of the Minnesota class, laid down in 1935, cost
might have a sound conception of a typical harbor defense, $1 I ,000,000. The North Carolina, upon which work has
he described the Harbor Defenses of San Francisco and just been started at the New York Navy Yard, will cost
outlined the types and functions of the armament, includ- $60,000,000. The most elaborate and powerful type of
ing the mine and an,tiaircraft installations. His remarks seacoast battery costs about $2,000,000, and others es-
dwelt principally upon the importance of harbor defenses sential for a balanced defense cost much less. For instance,
in the nation's plans for adequate national defense. Ex- a battery of S-inch guns capable of firing up to 33,000
tractsfrom Colonel Green's address are quoted below. yards can be built for a little less than $500,000, and bat-
1" 1" 1" teries admirably adapted for the defense of mine fields
cost only half that amount.
lL'REQUENTL Y UNINFORMED PERSONS ex- If San Francisco's harbor today were completely unde-
Jl" press the opinion that the Navy and Air Corps are fended by coastal fortifications, it is estimated that a com-
capable of keeping enemy fleets from our coasts, and as a plete and adequate defense, including batteries of various
consequence, that the construction and maintenance of calibers, mine installations, searchlights, antiaircraft guns,
harbor defenses are an unnecessary extravagance on the fire-control installations, a communication system, dock-
part of the government. It probably is true that the gov- ing facilities, roads, storehouses, barracks, quarters, and
ernment could provide a Navy and also an Air Corps of everything else required could be constructed for less than
such a size as to constitute a powerful deterrent to an $20,000,000. This figure is based on current prices for
enemy having designs on our harbors, but no informed material and labor. As a matter of fact, the defensive
person could substantiate the claim that this would be installations at present installed in San Francisco harbor
an economical or even a safe plan to follow. If such a cost less than that amount. It is generally accepted by
procedure were adopted, the political pressure for large military experts that the system of harbor defenses used in
detachments from the fleet and air forces for the immedi- the United States is comparatively inexpensive and at the
ate .defense of seacoast cities would be too great to be same time a very effective means of preventing an enemy
~ellled, and as a consequence, even if the strategical situa- from sailing in and taking possession of our harbors.
llon justified it, the full strength of the fleet and the air In this country it always has been accepted as axiomatic
force would not be available for offensive action. It is that naval bases where ships can renew their fuel supplies,
always possible too that the Navy might lose control of ammunition, and storage of all sorts, and where they can
the sea.and be forced to seek anchorage in the harbors, repair damage, must be self-protected. The need for de-
where It would be at a tremendous disadvantage were the fended harbors for the fleet was recognized in the hrst
enemy fleet to attack it from waters wherein it was free to comprehensive report on the subject of seacoast fortifica-

tions. The report was submitted to the Congress in 182 I The impression has always prevailed that once a batten-
and is known as the Bernard Report. It stated: is emplaced it will remain indefinitely up to date. Th;l
If we overlook for a moment the many points of the mari- impression often has militated against the procurement
time frontier which the enemy might invade with the most of adequate 3ppropriations for harbor defenses. Experi-
serious consequences to the United States; if we suppose ence has proved that new weapons of warfare and new
there exists no object on that frontier worth the trouble and changes in ordnance have such a far reaching effect upon
expense of a great expenditure, these fortifications will even
the adequacy of harbor defense installations that it is Ull-
yet be higWy necessary; for we still have one great object to
obtain-the security of our Navy. safe to assume that they will continue up to date even for
two or three decades. The rifled gun, with its increased
A more recent confirmation of the Navv's needs for range. striking power, and accuracy of fire, sounded the
defended bases was made in 1923 by Admioral Frank H. death knell of the stone and brick forts that for sixty years
Scofield, a well informed authority on naval strategy, guarded practically every harbor and navigable r{v~r all
when delivering a lecture entitled "Navy Strategy and the Atlantic coast.
Tactics with Special Reference to Seacoast Fortifications." The fact that fortifications do not remain permanemlv
In this lecture Admiral Scofield stated: up to date is well exemplified by the tragic consequences
Our sea communications extend all over the world and so following the fall of Belgium's eastern fortifications in
do those of our possible enemies. It is obvious, therefore, that 1914. At that time the fortifications were only about
our Navy can not perform its true function by remaining twenty-five years old. They had been designed by the
at home to guard the coast. That function must be left to foremost military engineer of the day, and had been built
another arm of the national service. It is here that fortifi-
to withstand the fire of guns larger than any which it
cations first lend their direct support to the Navy by freeing
it of local ties, by giving it at least a limited freedom of stra- was then thought possible to transport with a field army.
tegic movement in those great streams of maritime com- However, the Germans brought forward guns of such a
merce that Row from the Gulf of Mexico, South America, size that they outranged the Belgian guns and fired pro-
and South Africa to Europe, and from British North Ameri- jectiles that the fortifications were not intended to with.
ca to Europe, that would never be interrupted in war by the
stand. As a result, before many days the Belgian defenses
American Navy if it were a stay-at-home-coast-defense navy.
It must have strategic freedom if it is to accomplish any were battered out of existence.
other result than a strictly local defense. Naval strategic free- In November, 1914, the Chief of Engineers, taking
dom is largely a matter of coastal fortifications at home. The cognizance of the Belgian situation, submitted to the
Navy is keenly interested in the efficiency and adequacy of Chief of Staff a memorandum on the subject of "The
those fortifications. It knows that it can never pursue its
Obsolescence of Seacoast Emplacements." He drew at-
proper rale unless the important coastal cities and naval bases
at home are defended against an attack by way of the sea. tention to the very large number of batteries that had
been constructed since 1890, and compared their condi-
The harbor defenses in our foreign possessions have tion with that of naval vessels. At that time the Michigan
much larger garrisons assigned to them than do those in and South Carolina, designed in 1905, were the oldest
the United States and so are in a position to put up a strong first line battleships. His conclusion was that we did not
defense even though reinforcements may not be available have a single "first line" battery on the Atlantic Coast.
immediately. Actually about 9,200 enlisted men of the His report stated that for years the Navy Department
Coast Artillery are assigned to the harbor and antiaircraft had been educating public opinion and Congress to the
defense of our foreign garrisons, and only 5>400 to the fact that the life of a battleship is limited, that after a few
nineteen harbor defenses in the United States. The bulk years it must be relegated to the second line, after a
of the Coast Artillery troops in the United States are few more years to the reserve for emergency use only.
stationed at the Harbor Defenses of Eastern Long Island, and after twenty or twenty-five years it must be classedas
Chesapeake Bay, Pensacola, San Francisco, and Puget obsolete and fit only to be scrapped. His report then
Sound. These defenses are sufficiently supplied with stated:
troops to provide training centers for the civilian com- L.:nfortunatdy. the \Var Department has not seen fit to
ponents. Skeletonized organizations only are maintained adopt a similar policy, but has permitted it to be under~tood
in the other harbor defenses. All Coast Artillery troops that a seacoast battery, once constructed, remains practlCalh-
indefinitely up to date.
whose primary missions are attack on naval targets are
required annually to conduct a target practice with anti- The Chief of Engineers' report dwelt upon the deficiencies
aircraft materiel, in addition to the practices they con- in emplacements, the fact that our seacoast guns were
duct with the seacoast batteries to which regularly assign- outranged by the naval guns, and that our smaller guns
ed. In other words, the system of training in the Coast needed to be replaced by more powerful ones. He ex-
Artillery Corps is such that practically all troops receive pressed the opinion
training in firing against aerial targets. Harbor defense that we can not expect our seacoast fortificati.o~s shall
troops could, therefore, if the circumstances warranted, always remain even fairly up to date unless provISIons arc:
be withdrawn from the harbor defenses, assigned to mobile made annually for replacing from four to six per cent of our
antiaircraft regiments, and be well qualified to man its emplacements.
armament without the necessity of further training. Presumably to emphasize this report the Chief of Engi-
neers, in 1915, in his annual report to the Secretary of Panama defenses. More than half of the total amount
\Var, wrote this statement: ;,ppropriated is earmarked for antiaircraft equipment and
It can not be too emphatically stated that the art of forti- installations.
ficationis a progressiveone. It must continually grow to keep The development of the airplane has greatly increased
pace with the new discoverieswhich give it specialadvantages the probability of attacks on fortifications. At the time
or to meet and offset progress in the development of naval most of our seacoast batteries were installed, the airplane
vesselsand armament against which the forts are expected to
contend. However carefully planned and constructed, a bat- was unheard of or was undeveloped; but today if proper
tery must always pertain to the date when completed and protective measures are not taken, batteries can be neu-
m~st be out of date in so far as relates to things which have tralized or destroyed by attacks from the air. In the event
been discoveredor developed since the battery was planned. of a major war in which this country may become en-
gaged, it is most probable that our harbor defenses will be
Since the above reports were written by the Chief of
subjected to air attack. This will be almost a certainty
Engineers, many improvements have been made in our
if the Navv should lose control of the sea. The main
harbor defenses, but the number of batteries recommended
objectives ~f these air attacks probably will be our long-
by him for replacement each year has not been met. How-
range batteries, for which these batteries neutralized or
e~'er, the carriages for 12-inch guns have been modified
destroyed, the enemy can come in near enough to bom-
so as to give them an increased elevation, thus extending
bard the Reet or merchant shipping that may be at anchor
their ranges from 18,000 to 30,000 yards, 14-inch and
in the harbor and to shell important shore installations.
r6-inch gun batteries and 16-inch howitzer batteries have
The defensive measures against air attacks rest with such
been constructed, and a large amount of railway artillery
pursuit aviation as may be under the control of the coastal
built during the war is now available for augmenting
defense commander and with the antiaircraft equipment
the defenses. Antiaircraft protection has been provided,
provided for the protection of the harbor defenses. Al-
;mdthe submarine mine system has been vastly improved.
though antiaircraft fire has become very accurate, it is
Mention was made of approved plans for the Harbor
recognized that it cannot prevent all of the enemy planes
Defenses of San Francisco. Plans also have been approved
in a large scale attack from reaching their objectives. The
for the remaining eighteen harbor defenses in the United
Chief of Coast Artillery recognizes this new danger to
States and the harbor defenses and antiaircraft defenses of
harbor defenses that results from the development of air-
our foreign garrisons. Determination of the harbors to be
craft, and careful consideration now is being given to
defended and the degree of defense to be accorded each
providing adequate overhead cover by means of turrets
rests with the War Plans Division of the General Staff
or casemates for the long-range primary batteries.
more than with any other army agency. The War Plans
During our Civil War many attacks were made against
Division obtains the viewpoint of the Navy in regard
fortifications by naval vessels, but since that time the
thereto through the Joint Planning Committee. Th~ de-
United States has been engaged in no war that involved
tailed studies covering the caliber of armament, the loca-
an attack upon its harbor defenses. As a result, there is
tions of the batteries, the mine field and the antiaircraft
sometimes a tendency on the part of uninformed persons
installations are m:\de bv the Harbor Defense Board, a
to disregard their importance. Apropos of this, Colonel
board created about seve~ years ago and composed of the
E. E. Winslow, Corps of Engineers, who has written
Chiefs of Arms and Services concerned in the building,
several treatises on fortifications, made this statement in
maintenance, and operations of the elements of a harbor
defense. This board is assisted in its work by local boards 1919:
appointed by corps area commanders withi~ whose corps If our seacoast fortifications at any harbor have been so
well designed and built as to have deterred an enemy from
areasthe harbor defenses lie, each member of the harbor attacking them, to have kept him out of our harbors plenti-
defense board being represented by an officer of his arm fully supplied with landing and dock facilities, and to have
or service on duty in the corps area. These local boards forced him to land elsewhere under difficult conditions and
complete the details of the projects. where proper terminal facilities are lacking, they must be
considered to have performed most efficiently the main pur-
As a result of the extensive studies that eventually re- pose for which they were designed. Nothing more should be
sulted in approved projects for harbor defenses, the 'War expected or desired of them. In fact, the seacoast fortification
Department now is able to calculate accurately the funds may be said to have most efficientlyperformed the function
required to bring a harbor defense to complete war pre- for which it was intended, if it is never called into action at
paredness. It is able too, based on the international situa- all.
cion, to determine the best priorities for accomplishing The statement by Colonel Winslow is strikingly ap-
~eded work. At the present time the unsettled condi- plicable to the Heligoland fortifications, as pointed out by
tionsin the Far East make it advisable to spend most of Major Bernard Smith in the July-August, 1937, issue of
the funds appropriated for harbor defense improvements The COASTARTILLER.JOURNAL.Heligoland was acquired
upon the Pacific Coast, Hawaiian, and Panama defenses. by Germany in 1~. At the time the World War open-
Forthe current fiscal year $1,600,000 has been appropri- ed it was heavily fortified and jetties constructed so as to
ated for augmentation of Pacific Coast Defenses, $820,- form a harbor protected from the seas. German sub-
000 for the Hawaiian defenses, and $1,100,000 for the marines used this harbor as a base during the war, and it

was reported tbat during a few months' time some $150'- invasion can be starred, he must have a harbor not onlv
000,000 of allied sbipping was destroyed. After tbe Jut- for the bnding of heavy equipment, ammunition, and
land Battle tbe German fleet withdrew bebind Heligoland otber supplies, but also as an anchorage for his fleets and
where it was safe from pursuit by the British fleet. The transports, and a place for dry docks and repair facilities.
capture or destruction of Heligoland by tbe British forces Before be can hope to effect an invasion, he must gain
probably would have shortened tbe length of the war, but comrol of a harbor bv one means or another. \ Vere our
it was so strongly fortified that no serious attack was fleet defe:lted, our h:lrbor defenses would become powerful
made against it. Its strategic importance was indicated elements in our first line of defense, and as a conse-
by the fact that the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles quence, in time of war must be sufficiently. strono- 0
prescribed that it should be destroyed. sufficiently well manned to keep d1e enem~' fleet Out on
An enemy may effect a beach landing, but before a real the high seas.
The fact th:lt the much-m:lligned efficiency report has I am :lware that this statement will be contradicted. It
remained subst:lntially unch:lnged for all these years is will be pointed out that from the first day of our service
prima facie evidence that no bener instrument has been we begin our study of man; not out of a book bur in :I
devised. Bur in spite of this the hue and cry persists; and laboratory of practical experience. That contention is only
this certainly argues with equ:ll eloquence that something a h:llf truth. The laboratory is there but the number of
is wrong. In this brief paper I intend to show wh:lt that officers who consciously apply themselves to a study of
something is :lnd :It the same time suggest a practical, the specimens it contains is :lm:lzingly few. We observe
work-a-day corrective. the men :lnd the junior officers with whom we work in
First, it appe:m desirable to clear the. ground in order much the same m:lnner th:lt we observe :I body of water.
that my footing may be apparent to all. To this end I \Ve see only the surface and the manifestations of the
make two admissions. First, I concede that there are now surface. We have no idea wh:lt lies beneath. It is because
and that there always will be a few officers who allow we b:lse our char:lcter apprais:lls on these surface mani-
their prejudices to run away with them. These will sub- festations that the efficiency graphs do such an erratic
mit reports in which they deliberately underrate or over- dance.
r:lte their subordinates. Second, I agree that there still Let me put it another way. How m:lny of us deliber-
remain a few die-hards who refuse to admit that anyone ately set out to study the character of those who work
short of Bonaparte could meet the War Department under us? Do you, for instance, m:lke it a matter of dury
definitions of "excellent" and "superior." Fortunately, to discover the weak points and the strong points of your
these two groups are so small that in :I broad consideration subordinates? Do you examine their daily conduct
of the subject they are virtually negligible. It is my con- through a psychological microscope to determine their
sidered belief, then, that all other officers conscientiously emotional range? Do you study their action and reaction
attempt to make the efficiency report an accurate and under the stimulant of success and praise, and under the
impartial appraisal of character. depressant of bilure and rebuke? Do you interest your-
And there is precisely where the system breaks down. self in what they read? In what they think? In what they
~he War Department evidently assumes that by .the :ldmire? In what they fe:lr? In what they dislike? And
time an officer is called upon to evaluate his brothers, in the "why" of :Ill these things? Do you consider the
he will be a qualified judge of character. Just how far from amount of leisure at their disposal and find out how they
the truth this is, is best evidenced by the riotous and ridi- utilize it? Now be honest with yourself. Do you really
culous inconsistencies that mark nearly every officer's do these things? Do you know :lny one who does? I'll
efficiency file. Of course, in theory, every officer is a leave the answers to you.
leader and it is the business of the leader to know men. In any event, I think you will agree with me th:lt only
But we are blind indeed if we accept this pronouncement through such a searching and continuous study c:ln we
of a theoretic:ll ideal as an axiomatic truth. :lrrive :It a true eV:llu:ltion of our subordin:ltes. The ques-
\Ve :Ire members of a practical profession. We do not tion then is this: Can we train those officers who :Ire now
take kindly to theory nor do we traffic in assumptions growing up in the service and those who have :llready
that can not be proved out of hand. We place our faith grown up to probe beneath the superficialities of char-
i~ schools, in training, and in salutary indoctrination. acter and discover the true man? I think so. Here is the
S1I1cethese things are true, it is strange indeed th:lt we method I propose.
are willing to rely on a species of intuition in dealing with First, let us deal with the newly commissioned officer.
the most difficult and most important branch of military The responsibility for his training devolves upon the com-
knowledge-the human psyche. p:lny commander under the direct supervision of the bat-
ralion commander. The regimental commander is at result in an officers' corps thoroughly indoctrinated with
least morally charged with the duty of seeing that his the ideas I have tried to present. This, of course, is the
subalterns are properly trained. Henceforth, a funda- goal to be sought, but in the meantime isn't there some-
mental part of that training should consist of a directed thing we can do to quicken the judgment of those who
and continuous study of man and his behavior. already occupy the reporring grades? I believe so. I be-
This is the way that study should be conducted. The lieve we need merely modify the method I have already
new arrival must first of all be shown that the theory of outlined and move up a step or two in the chain of com-
leadership virtually presupposes an intimate knowledge mand.
of human nature. The fundamental necessity of thi~ Thi!. is what I suggest. Let each regimental commander
knowledge must be emphasized. The intelligent com- assemble his battalion and company commanders and tell
pany commander will buttress his explanation by citing them that he intends to institute a training device de-
striking examples culled from his own experience in peace signed to encourage a more accurate evaluation of sub-
and from the experience of others in war. He must be ordinate officers. This device is in no sense to be construed.
particularly careful to underscore the point that this as an infringement of a reporting officer's right to evaluate
knowledge is not intuitive but only comes through con- a subordinate according to his own judgment. It is merely
scious and continuous study. intended to aid him in achieving greater accuracy. To this
Following this the captain must explain the efficiency end battalion commanders will submit jawbone reports on
report. He must ~how the young officer that in effect it their company commanders to the regimental command-
is a military character sketch of one man by another. He er; and company commanders will submit similar repons
must stress the fact that it is the controlling factor in an on their lieutenants to battalion commanders. These re-
officer's career, and that the responsibility devolving upon ports will be submitted about January 10th and will be
the reporting officeris a grave one indeed. He must show held in stnct confidence. As soon as they have served their
that in order to discharge this duty equitably a profound purpose they will be destroyed.
knowledge of man is necessary. In each instance, the first concurring authority will re-
After some such orientation as this, the new lieutenant quire the reporting officerto justify every entry he makes
will be told that his training in this difficult subject will on a report. Generalities will not be accepted as satis-
start immediately. The noncommissioned officers in his factory explanations. When an officer is unable to give
platoon will be the initial subjects for study. At the end a clear cut, logical, and factual explanation of an entry it
of three months he will be required to submit a complete should be pointed out to him that that entry is unfair
efficiency report on each of these men. He will be warned whether it be superior or unsatisfactory for it shows a com-
that the company commander will require him to justify plete lack of detailed study and observation. This should
(either orally or in writing) every entry he makes on be remedied before the official report is rendered, or the
these reports, and that his own ratings in "judgment" reporting officer will clearly show himself deficient in
and "intelligence" will be materially influenced by the several items under which he himself must be graded.
soundness of his justifications. It must be made unmis- This is not a threat. It is a statement of fact. The officer
takably dear that the mere process of filling out the reports who can give no adequate reason for an entry he makes on
is relatively unimportant, the big thing being the thor- an efficiency report can scarcely be regarded as a man of
oughness and accuracy of his detailed observation during sound judgment or satisfactory intelligence.
the three-months period as evidenced by the justifications This device properly used should produce worthwhile
he will be called upon to make in defense of his ratings. results. If, however, the over-zealous convert it into a
This training procedure should be continuous through- threat or seek to use it as a means whereby they, rather
out the ten years an officeris required to serve in the grade than the responsible officer, dictate the report, the whole
of lieutenant. By the end of that period he should be a purpose will be defeated. Used as a training medium and
capable judge of character. His powers of observation as a practical method of forcing reporting officersto study
should be needle-sharp. The process of studying those those under them as they should be studied, it will work.
under him should be a matter of second nature. In addi- I have discussed this proposition in considerable detail
tion to these manifest advantages, he will have made out with one regimental commander and one battalion :o~
hundreds of efficiency reports with the knowledge that mander. Both have been enthusiastic over its posslbll~
every entry had to be justified in detail and that no glitter- ties and both have decided to put it into effect in th~
ing generalities would do. Can anyone successfully con- commands. Certainly, in justice to the individual and t8
tend that ten years of such training will not produce a tre- justice to the service it merits a trial. That trial will ulII'
mendous improvement in an officer's ability to justly doubtedly disclose collateral benefits that I have ;J:,
evaluate his brothers-in-arms? touched on in this paper. Thus, I commit to your hands aii
But this merely provides for the lieutenants. True idea that has lived long in my mind. I trust that it w'.
enough the system if universally applied will eventually not die a-borning.
By Lieutenant Colonel R. T. Gibson, C.A.C.

ANY OFFICER aboar?an army transport approachi~g families live in the adjacent Bario Concepcion.
fithe shores of the PhilIppine Islands who gets a radIO The battalion does not perform any military duties tha.t
greeting of assignment to the Guard Battalion at Fort would interfere with its main mission of guarding the
Mills, is in for an experience that he will remember to his civil prisoners. This duty is divided between the main or
last pay check. stockade guard, stationed at the stockade guardhouse, and
The 700 Bilibid convict charges of the 3d (Guard) Bat- the road guard which takes the prisoners out to various
talion, 92d Coast Artillery (PS), constitute the largest jobs and stays with them during the day. Six prisoners
"regiment" at Fort tvfills. The labor value of these civil are assigned to a sentry, with a corporal or sergeant added
prisoners has been recognized by all commanders since the when gangs of 12, 18, or 24 are sent out together. An
introduction of Bilibids to Corregidor back in 1908. Their American sergeant is on special duty in the stockade as
services are such that the post would find it hard to func- keeper, and he has 8 sergeants and 8 corporals from the
tion without them. Guard Battalion as assistant keepers. One sergeant is de-
The organization consists of Batteries "E" and "F," of tailed as mess sergeant of the prisoners' mess, and 3
the regiment, but except for a few administrative functions American Medical Department men are detailed to the
is an entirely separate unit. The personnel consists of 5 stockade hospital.
officers and 210 enlisted men. The men are all veterans, Among the officer personnel, a field officer acts as bat-
obtained by transfer from other units of the regiment; talion commander and executive of the Corregidor prison
and are armed with Winchester re- stockade. He is also fire marshal of his
peating shotguns, of the sawed-off or fire district, and is available for detail
riot type. The sergeants are armed
with the pistol. No field equipment IS
issued except the c:mridge belt, can-
WlteJte tl1eJte on temporary jobs such as boards,
courts, inventories and instructor in
officers' schools. A line officer acts as
teen and cup. The battalion is quart-
ered in barracks within a hundred a~e no sitdowt1- adjutant and stockade officer in direct
control of the civil prisoners. Two of-
yards of the Corregidor Civil Prison ficers are battery commanders, and the
Stockade, and has a common mess
and recreation room. About 25 per st~ikes remaining officer is in charge of mess,
police, athletics, and so on. Each line
cent of the men are married, and their officer goes on guard every fourth
490 THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL Not/ember- Decembt!r'
day. He checks the gangs out to work at 6:25 A.M., and DINNER
makes a road inspection during the day of prisoners out at Pork Stew, made of pork, white squash, green papaya,
work. He checks the prisoners into the stockade at 4:3° onions, salt, vinegar, garlic.
P.M., and then counts them for the night. Otherwise, he Baked Fish, (for Moro prisoners).
performs the normal officer-of-the-day duties. A medical Steamed Rice.
officer of the post visits the stockade daily for sick call. SUPPER
The number of civil convicts or Bilibids is governed by Yellow Squash Soup, ingredients: yellow squash, onions
the amount of work or projects on hand. The present num- and salt.
ber is fixed at 720 and is maintained by replacements from Boiled Fish, made of fish, tomatoes, ginger root and
Bilibid Prison in Manila. Representatives are present from OOlons.
practically all Filipino tribes, with as many different dia- Steamed Rice.
lects. There are about 150 Moros, and some Chinese, Iced Tea, with sugar.
Hindus, and other nationalities. There are no whites. The The civil prisoners work eight hours in each full work
prisoners are divided into first, second and third classes, day. At the noon hour they assemble at three eating
with distinguishing markings. Only the third-class prison- places-Topside, Middleside and Bottomside-where th~
ers wear vertical stripes. Above the classes are the trusties, meal is brought to them. Each gang, or perhaps several,
and the Bastoneros or squad leaders. The squad leaders work under a capataz, who is a civilian employee or an
are the police officerswhile inside the stockade, and main- enlisted man on special duty. The sentry, as his name im-
tain discipline with the aid of a short club, usually with plies, only guards the gang. In case of trouble, such as a
entirely too much enthusiasm. fight or an attempted escape, the sentry yells "Lie down!"
The stockade is an area about a city block in size, sur- Any prisoner who does not hit the ground is shot, and all
rounded by a double barbed-wire fence. The comers and know this. Murderers and robbers form the largest group
sides are adorned with sentry towers, and the guardhouse of criminals in the stockade. The Moro prisoners are
is recessed on one side. The only exit to the stockade is virtually all murderers, and are the best workers. Only
through the sallyport in the guardhouse. Inside the en- physically fit convicts are accepted.
closure are the cell houses, kitchen, office, laundry, bath The working parties are distributed as follows:
house, supply room and utility shops. The construction, Quartermaster (all activities) 276
started in 1908, is of wood and galvanized iron. There is U. S. Engineer Department " 142
little open space other than that of the streets between the Ordnance Department 60
buildings and a basket ball court. Other buildings are the Artillery Engineer 16
hospital, a combined chapel and reading room, and a boiler Police and Prison Officer 102
room. An open-air moving-picture theatre is provided in Post Library (Trusties) 3
the open between two cell houses; the patrons squatting N.C.O.Club (Trusties) : II
on the ground. Post Hospital (Trusties ) (sanitation) 14
The prison mess is run on an allowance of two cents a Golf Course (Trusties) 17
day from the quartermaster, and five cents a day from Stockade Overhead 58
Bilibid Prison. The seven-cent allowance may appear low Sick (average) 9
in comparison with the American or Philippine Scout Prisoner Pool 12
ration allowance, but a great quantity of edibles such as
squash, camotes, radishes, gavy, cancong, limes and coco- Total 720

nuts are received from the penal farms at low cost. For
In addition to guarding the Bilibids, the guard battalion
instance, native salt is five cents a hundred pounds.
performs military duties in so far as practicable. About
The prisoner has only two tin bowls for utensils, and twenty-five men, (the new stockade main guard), are
in lieu of eating implements uses his fingers. Rice is the available for training each morning; but after 4:30 P.M.,
main course, 1,000 pounds being consumed daily. Bread when the prisoners are returned to the stockade, the who.le
is served only on Sundays. Some 400 pounds of fish, 200 "battalion is present. This permits the battalion to get In
pounds of pork or beef and 500 pounds of vegetables are one parade during the month, two infantry drills, a bat-
used daily. The Moros must have special food because talion inspection and a troop-leading problem. During the
they will starve before they will eat pork or beef. year, the battalion fires a service practice with 6-inch ~ns,
Here is a typical daily menu: and an AA machine-gun practice as a secondary assIgn-
ment. Tried out at odd times are the various plans, such
as the General Convict Outbreak Plan, the Escape of
Sardine Hash, made of sardines and camotes. Civil Prisoners Plan and the Evacuation Plan. The last
Brown Gravy, ingredients: onions, lard suet, flour, salt furnishes a spectacular demonstration in which all the
and tomatoes. convicts are rushed onto the stockade parade gro~nd.
Coffee, with sugar and evaporated milk. which has first been surrounded by the guard battalion.
Steamed Rice. loaded shotguns at the ready.
The civil prisoner at Corregidor is better off than one at make practically a continuous celebration with special
Bilibid in ~'lanila. for he sees more activit)'. and gets some dinners, cigars and cigarettes as added attractions.
variety and consideration in his work. The post gets its The most unusual feature of the stockade, and one
plumbers. electricians. painters. carpenters, cable splicers, which should appeal to an economical government, is the
masons. gardeners and ordinary laborers from the prison- low cost of operation; for it costs something less than a
ers. The amount of construction and repair work to their dollar a month to support one convict. This. of course,
credit is enormous. The difficulty of visits by relatives is does not include the extra guard pay for the enlisted men
the only disadvantage. The monotony that would craze a of the guard b:lttalion. The privates, corporals and ser-
white man is the ordinary way of living for a native. geants receive three, four and five dollars extra pay per
The big occasion of the year is the Christmas vacation. month. respectively. The civil authorities furnish the uni-
Then the prisoners decorate the stockade with paper lan- forms. hats and sleeping mats for the convicts. The Quart-
terns, garlands and other homemade but nonetheless ermaster allows about fifty dollars per month for upkeep
clever adornments. A drama lasting several nights is put of the stockade buildings, and the coO\.icts get the sal-
on. and vaudeville acts and native dances are staged. The vaged raincoats, blankets, and mattresses. The living con-
stage is erected just inside the enclosure fence so that the ditions are as sanitary as possible, and the sick list is usu-
residents of the post, as well as the inmates, can see the ally confined to the minot injuries incurred at work. The
show. The prisoner drill battalion. with wooden guns. puts morale of the convicts is maintained by fair treatment,
on fancy parades and special drills; and the acrobats. good food and entertainment.
tumblers and clowns furnish entertainment for large There is no cheaper labor anvwhere; and there are no
audiences. Christmas. Rizal Day and New Year's Day sit-down strikes . .I


f11j ~i(l/Lt(lnant (!t>!t>nfl! f/t>hn ~ U1t>ua
The outbreak of a war should find an army with its to major and from colonel to general. The other grades
most capable and experienced leaders in its higher grades, are inserted mainly to recompense length of service by
ready and able to meet the tremendous def!lands that will increases of rank and pay.
be made on their mental, moral, and physical strength. In the first stage an officer commands small combat
A well devised peacetime promotion system must provide units and performs minor staff duties. He is in close con-
this reservoir for the high command and at the same time tact with the individual fighting man. He should possess
maintain the morale of the whole corps of officers by pro- the optimism, boldness, physical energy, and dash that
tecting the rights of individuals and by giving each one go with youth. Therefore, this first period should not be
the opportunity for the career to which his merits entitle prolonged for more than fifteen years.
him. The two requirements are conflicting but not in- During the second stage an officer commands the larger
compatible. The best system of promotion for any par- tactical units of a single arm and serves on the higher
ticular country and time is the one which secures the best staffs. Professional experience, calm judgment, firm char-
working agreement between them. acter, and physical vigor, are the essentials. This period is
War, of course, provides the only positive proof of the one of broad development and can extend over the next
qualifications of military leaders. Success in battle, indi- fifteen or twenty years of service. Beyond that, the phy-
vidually deserved or not, will govern here, no matter what sical factor begins to take its toll.
the promotion system may be. But the important problem The third stage is for the select. It entails the command
of providing for competent high command at the begin- of large tactical units of all arms, and the entire army. All
ning of any conflict must be settled in time of peace; and the professional, spiritual, physical, and intellectual quali-
it is here that the difficulties arise, for many of the most ties enumerated for the second stage are required in marked
successful leaders in war have emerged from peacetime degree.
obscurity. Nevertheless, careful study of the careers of It is evident that the second stage must contain all who
officers will indicate those who have shown the qualities are to be chosen finally for the highest cc;>mmands. Hence,
requisite for high command. aptitude for field rank should be carefully ascertained
Since all officers do not possess these qualities in the before officers are promoted to it. Also the ages of those
same degree, a system of promotion by simple seniority promoted should provide that the best fitted may enter the
will not bring the best men to the top. However, seniority third stage at vigorous maturity.
must operate to some extent in the interest of the indi- It may be concluded that only two rigid verifications
vidual rights of officers and their morale. In consequence, of aptitude are required in order to bring the best men to
the search for a compromise between selection in the gen- the top at a suitable age. The first one should be made
eral public interest and seniority to protect individuals has when an officer is in the grade of captain and the second
always been a problem of armies. when he attains the rank of colonel. Other promotions
than those from these grades may be made by seniority
Whatever may be the advantage or disadvantage of age alone, presuming, of course, conformity to the required
in the judiciary, it has been determined rather definitely standards of professional, moral, and physical fitness and
that armies require a degree of physical activity and re- the elimination of those who fall below them. Retirements
sistance to fatigue in the higher grades that is rarely pres- in the grade of captain and colonel may be necessary to
ent after the age of sixty-five. At the other end of the supplement the natural attrition and avoid congestion in
scale the minimum limit is about twenty-one, since the the higher grades. Such retirements should be made after
requisite maturity for managing men in combat is seldom a certain number of years of service in grade rather than
acquired before that age. by age in grade.
Command during an officer's service is exercised in Subject to such examinations, selection and elimination
three distinct and important stages or rank-in the com- as may be desirable in the public interest, promotion
pany grades, in the field grades, and in the grade of gen- should proceed as tranquilly and evenly as possible with a
eral officer. The critical promotions are those from captain minimum disturbance of the individual. No group or

Our system is excellent in theory

1937 PROMOTION 493
arm should be favored over another in advancement. This over and was on the verge of retirement as a colonel when
is most important. the war began.
Proposals for improvement of the French system include
* * * a minimum-age-in-grade requirement, selection at two
Before proceeding to an examination of promotion in
stages only (among captains for promotion to major and
our Army, it may be useful to consider the systems in use
among colonels for promtion to general) promotion by
today in various armies of the world and in our other
seniority for other grades, more careful determination of
armed forces. In general, the countries with the more
aptitudes, lowering the compulsory retirement age for
autocratic forms of government naturally adopt more
overslaughed captains (45) and colonels (56), and the
rigorous rules for the selection and elimination of officers
creation of a general board to regulate and harmonize
than do the democratic countries. Also' they concern
promotion among the various arms and services.
themselves less with the interests of individuals.
The Germans use a system of promotion by seniority
Promotion in the British army, like many other English
and drastic elimination. A measure of selection is intro-
instirutions, is characterized by its complexity and seem-
duced by the possibility of ante-dating the commissions
ing lack of system. Naturally, it has aroused much dis-
of exceptional officers by as much as three years. The
cussion and many differences of opinion among British
German system is based on rigid examination and the
automatic retirement of officerswho are not physically or
It operates by examination and seniority for all arms
professionally fit. The possibility of modifying the pro-
and services up to the grade of major and by selection
motion list at will by ante-dating certain promotions is
above that grade. Promotion in the infantry and cavalry
open to criticism as being too arbitrary and allowing no
is within the regiment for the lower grades and from the
recourse to the officerswho have been passed over.
entire arm for lieutenant colonel and above. The other
The rapid development of the German Army since 1934
arms and the services are each considered as a regiment
has lowered the ages in the various grades, particularly the
for promotion. Officers in excess of the available number
company officer grades. Under present conditions an of-
of places for employment are put on half-pay status and
ficer attains his captaincy in about seven years.
may be retired after a certain time.
An accelerated list is provided to push forward excep- ITALY
tional officers. These receive a higher brevet rank. They The recent Italian promotion laws, in conformity with
exercisethe functions and wear the insignia of the higher the spirit of the Fascist regime, made bold changes in the
grade. existing system with a view to developing officersdestined
At the present time with fewer voluntary retirements, for high command. As a first step in rejuvenation, forty-
promotion is retarded considerably. There are also glaring seven additional vacancies were created in the grade of
inequalities in the promotion groups of the same grade general. Two promotion lists were established; a com-
in the various arms. mand list of officers who appear qualified for command
and destined for the highest grades, and a mobilization list
for those in the grades of captain to colonel who must fulfil
The system here is a long standing one of continuous the many necessary and important positions in the army
selection above the grade of sous-lieutenant, promotion by other than those involving command.
branch, and compulsory retirement. Selections for the The grades of captain, colonel, and general are con-
promotion list are made each year by the regional (corps) sidered the three important steps in promotion. A central
commanders for the officers under them. The names of board is charged with determining the level at which each
those nominated for promotion are forwarded to the di- officer has arrived (punto di arrivo ).
rectors of the various arms and services where the final The disturbing effect of the many eliminations result-
lists are prepared. Officers passed over are retired after ing from the new law has been ameliorated in part by
reaching the age limit for each grade. liberal provisions for retirement and for reemployment in
Although this system brings outstanding officersto the the preliminary military training of young Fascists.
grade of general in their early fifties, it has not escaped
considerable criticism among French officers, because of
the lack of any requirement for a minimum age in each The Japanese apply a system of rigorous elimination. In
grade. Particularly fortunate officers may now reach the August of each year a certain number of officersare retired
higher grades at ages which necessitate the overslaughing or discharged, as required by circumstances-a simple and
md premature retirement of older officerswho are equally effective arrangement but hardly applicable in all armies.
capable, thus causing needless apprehension and discour-
agement throughout the army. Some attribute the crises U.S.5.R.
de commandement in 1914 to the pre-war latitude in this In principle, promotion up to the grade of colonel is by
regard. These cite the case of Petain who had been passed seniority. The normal time in each lower grade is three or
four years. In the grade of colonel it is eight. In practice, motion system embodies a greater number of sound the()-
however, the promotion of certain officers may be retarded retical principles than any of the others outlined in this
for lack of the necessary attainments, and the Commissar study. These operate as follows:
for Defense may nominate any officer he pleases for any I. Promotion is made from a single list for all arms and
grade. Advancement beyond the grade of colonel is made branches.
on the recommendation of the Commissar for Defense. 2. Young men are provided in the grade of captain.
At present officers of accepted professional and political 3, A large reservoir of field officers is maintained to
qualifications are reaching the grade of colonel at 40 years provide the necessary higher command for a greatly ex-
of age. The possibility of favoritism and injustice in such panded wartime army.
a system is obvious. 4. Selection by a central board for the grade of general
is prescribed.
5, Provision is made for eliminating the unfit.
Promotion is by selection above the grade of ensign and 6. Minimum limits of service are set to prevent undue
second lieutenant, the Marine Corps conforming to the rapidity of advancement.
general provisions of the Navy Law. Selections are made 7, A large measure of protection of the rights of indi-
by boards convened by the Secretary of the Navy at least viduals is provided by adherence to the seniority rule for
once each year. The number of officers recommended for all grades below that of brigadier general.
promotion to grades above lieutenant commander is gen-
It does not embody two important features:
erally ten per cent of the number of officers in the next
I. Rigorous professional examination and determination
higher grade. For the grades of lieutenant commander and
lieutenant the number recommended equals the number of aptitude prior to promotion to the field officer stage and
of existing vacancies. Above lieutenant (junior grade) rigorous physical examination for promotion to the grade
officers recommended must have had at least four years' of general.
2. Compulsory retirement after a certain number of
service in their grade. -
The selection is coupled with compulsory retirement. years' service for captains who fail to meet the above-men-
Officers who have been twice passed over by selection tioned requirements and for colonels who are not placed
boards are retired on completing a certain number of years on the eligible list for promotion to the grade of general.
of service, namely thirty-five for captains, twenty-eight The system is working fairly well at present, but if the
for commanders, twenty-one for lieutenant commanders, predictions of a recent War Department study on the dates
twenty-one for lieutenants (senior grade) and fourteen of probable promotion can be accepted as accurate, there is
for lieutenants (junior grade) . trouble ahead. An examination of these dates cannot fail
The decrease in the line officer strength of the Navy, to be disturbing. Comparison of the average age on arrival
the extension of the compulsory retirement provision to at the grade of colonel during the last hundred years and
the grade of lieutenant in 1934, the reduced rate of natural that to be expected for the next thirty or forty years shows
attrition at this time, and the difficulties of securing em- that we are losing ground rather than progressing in the
ployment in civil life appear to be factors in the present vital problem of providing energetic and able general
agitation for changes in the Navy promotion law. It may officers with ten or twelve years of active service before
be that changes are needed, but it can not be denied that them.
the Navy system has been generally successful in bring- The following table gives the ages of arrival at the vari-
ing the best men to the top grades at active maturity-an ous grades for what may be termed an optimum or most
absolute necessity in a service which should be in perfect favorable career as compared with representative careers
fighting trim from the outset of any emergency. in the classes from 1829 to 1916 and the probable careers
of the classes from 1921 to 1930. The World War blocks
PROMOTION IN OUR ARMY of officers and the classes immediately following are tabu-
The passage of the promotion act of 1935 was hailed by lated for field grades only.
our Army with much acclaim, and justly so, for it brought AGES OF ARRIVAL AT VARIOUS GRADES
help and hope in a very discouraging situation. Briefly Average 1917
analyzed, it relieved the congestion in the company grades Average (3d Quarter) Average
by directing promotion to first lieutenant after three years' Grade Optimum 1829-1916 -1921 1921-1930
service and to captain aften ten; and it accelerated pro- Second Lieutenant.21-24 21-24 Same as optimum
motion in the field grades by prescribing the numbers of
First Lieutenant .. -24-27 25-29 "
colonels, lieutenant colonels, and majors as six, nine, and
Captain - - 31-34 29-33
twenty-five per cent of the total number of promotion list Major . - - - . - - 36-39 39-43 45-48 43-46
officers. It also operated to prevent undue rapidity of ad- Lt. Colonel - - -41-44 46-49 55-58 51-54
vancement by prohibiting promotion to the grades of Colonel. - 47-50 50-52 59-62 55-58
~ajor, lieutenant colonel, and colone! prior to the comple- It will be noted that the present age of arrival at the
tIon of fifteen, twenty, and twenty-sIx years of service. grade of captain is the same as the optimum. The pr~-
As amended by the 1935 act, our present Army pro- dieted age of arrival at the grade of major, however, IS
1937 PROMOTION 495

se\'en years greater than the optimum while the predicted general officers who have completed a certain number of
aO"eof arrival at the grade of colonel is not only eight years years of service, say thirty-five. A safeguarding proviso
~\'ond the optimum but five years above the average for reexamination and re-selection should be included in
si~ce 1829. The World War blocks will be nine years both cases.
above this average. Obviously selection from a group of Properly safeguarded and applied uniformly, a rigid
elderly colonels is not likely to provide young and active determination of aptitude should cause no apprehension
(Tener~lofficers. Yet it appears that for the next twenty- among the capable and conscientious captains of our
five or thirty years we shall have no other choice. Army. The examination should come during the fifteenth
Steps should be taken now to bring the expected ages year of service and should include a consideration of the
of the field grades closer to the optimum figure. And in officer's entire cateer by a central board of senior officers,
order to provide a remedy the cause of the malady must be as well as the professional tests of fitness for field grade.
determined. In this case the main cause appears to be the In this consideration, service at schools, including Leaven-
same old World War block composed of those who en- worth, should be given no greater weight than service
tered the Army as officers in 1917 and 1918. For twenty elsewhere. The main qualification should be aptitude
years they have blocked the path of promotion and they for command, and this cannot be evidenced by the posses-
~ill continue to do so for about twenty years longer. The sion of an academic degree or diploma. As a matter of
19~5 act simply shoved the famous hump farther along fact, the term Command and General Staff School is an
and made no provision for removing it or for setting it unfortunate misnomer and should be changed to General
aside. Staff School. It has been said that the present name was
There should be no question of removal, for these men imposed by accident. It should be removed by design,
deserve particularly wen of their country and should be since all Leavenworth does and can do is instruct officers
given every possible chance of rounding out long and 10 the staff procedure and the tactical conceptions that are
honorable careers in the Service. Their presence, how- in vogue at the moment. It does not and cannot produce
ever, should not operate to block promotion and cause commanders, nor can the faculty determine the fitness of
superannuation of the field and general officer grades. A an officerfor command.
solution lies in carrying as extra numbers in the field The General Staff Eligibility List should be discon-
grades all officerswho were not or will not be in the grade tinued, selections for staff positions being made without
of major at the end of eighteen years' service. As extra limitation in this regard. Naturally Staff School graduates
numbers these officerswill continue to advance to the limit will receive first consideration for staff work. but this
of their possibilities without blocking the promotion of should not prevent the use of other officersif desired.
those below. For a few years the scheme would necessitate Under the conditions which prevail in our Army, at-
an increase in the appropriations but in due course the tendance at any of our schools, from branch schools to
field grade numbers would drop back to normal. In addi- War College, is considerably influenced by chance. The
tion special provision should be made for the promotion of mere fact of graduation from any of them should not have
officersto the field grade after a certain number of years' any deciding weight in either promotion or selection. A
service. This can be done gradually over a suitable period clear decision to this effect and definite understanding of
of years (five, less if possible) until the minimum limits it throughout the Army will remove all reason for the
now set by law are reached, i.e., fifteen years for promo- present apprehension and discouragement regarding pro-
tion to major, twenty to lieutenant colonel, and twenty-six motion that disturbs many of our officers.
to colonel. This procedure would promote the majority
The existing system of promotion in the United States
of World War officersto the grade of colonel at ages that
Army is fundamentally sound. Owing to special condi-
would make possible their appointment and useful em-
tions, however, it fails to achieve one of its main purposes,
ployment as general officers.
In addition to setting aside the W orId War block, there the production of a sizeable pool of relatively young of-
should be some means of augmenting the natural attrition ficers of wide experience and broad professional attain-
in order to provide a proper flow of promotion without ments ready for high command. This can be remedied
dogging the higher grades. For this, two changes appear by a few legislative changes which will involve only lim-
advisable: first, a rigid examination prior to promotion ited additional expense and little disturbance of the present
to the grade of major and, second, a provision for com- procedure. Our system is excellent in theory. With little
pulsory' retirement of the captains who fail to pass this change it can be made excellent in practice. It should be
examination and the colonels not on the eligible li~t for made to work-now, not forty years hence.

FOR IT WAS one man, one brain, that defeated the numbers which were believed to be
invincible .-POLYBIUS.

AS FAR BACK as the fourth century before Christ, the

Chinese sage Nlencius wrote, "There is no such thing as ~
a righteous war; we can only say that some wars are better
than others." And there is an equally ancient proverb
which says, "Good iron is not used for nails, nor good
. men for soldiers." Through all the centuries of her exist-
ence, China has hammered home this doctrine that the
profession of arms is attainted, that the soldier is an out-
cast-a paid murderer. For this curious teaching China
has suffered more than any other nation in history. \Vave
after wave of conquest has swept over her; millions of her
people have perished by the sword; incalculable wealth
has been tortured our of her; poverty, famine, misery,
have been her lot. Indeed, that she has endured at all is
due to her amazing fecundity rather than any instinct of
national solidarity.
What, then, are we to think of the miracle of 1937?
Of the Chinese colossus awakening from its age-old sleep?
Of its clumsy flexing of forgotten muscles? Of its grow-
ing sense of power and of oneness? \Vhat are we to think
when we compare the three pictures on this page taken in
1904 by a young American captain named Peyton C.
ivIarch, with the rest of the pictures in this four-page sec-
tion taken in 1937?
It may be that China is only stirring in her sleep; it
may be that she is only dreaming a dream of her old
greatness; or it may be that under the spell of a great
leader she is driving forward to a long deferred day of
glory. Who knows?

Tbe trainer il1 me

Trainer For Sound Locator Listeners

/?~ ?nujo~ E. q. Cowen, C.u.C.
THE TRAINERFOR SOUNDLOCATORLISTENERShere de- mobile radio or a discarded home radio will be entirely
scribed is designed to fill the gap in training existing be- satisfactory.
tween the acoustic trainer and the actual tracking of air- A magnetic loudspeaker is specified to avoid the com-
planes in flight. plication of having to furnish field current. A motor
Its construction was begun originally at Fort NfcClel- driven winch for towing the loudspeaker trolley is a de-
lan, Alabama, in 1933, Technical Sergeant Robert Hat- sirable but unnecessary refinement.
ton of Battery "A," ~th Coast Artillery (AA ), was It is not necessary to give full details of construction,
chosen to share in the development. !vI uch work had been because a man capable of designing and assembling a
done upon a field unit when duty with the CCC inter- sat~sfactory instrument will be found in every training
fered. The trainer was taken up again in 1936 at Fort UI1le.

Randolph, Canal Zone, where the model shown in the The photograph above shows the trainer in use. The
photographs was completed and put into service. trolley track is tied to the trunk of a tree at the left about
This unit was constructed by the late Sergeant Michael twenty-five feet above the ground. It passes over the
De Victoriis and the communications detail of Battery sound locators and slopes to the ground where it is anchor-
"0," 1st Coast Artillery (AA). It was used first by this ed about forty yards away.
battery in training for its 1936 target practice. The loudspeaker may be seen suspended from the trol-
The essential parts of the trainer are: ley in front of the second set of horns. A trailing length
Phonograph records of the sound of airplanes in flight, of field wire connects it to the turntable and amplifier unit
Phonograph turntable, in the right foreground.
Electric pickup with volume control, The speaker is moved by the man at the left who is
Audio amplifier, pulling a cord which passes over a pulley fastened to the
Magnetic loudspeaker in baffle box, trees at the upper end of the track. The speaker is re-
Trolley to carry speaker, turned to the lower end of the track by gravity.
\Vire for track, pulleys and cord. Three sound locators are set up at different distances
For field training, a unit with the turntable and ampli- from the trolley wire and the listeners move from one to
fier designed to operate from a six-volt storage battery another frequently to vary the azimuth track. \Vhere
will be found most practical, while for use in an armory only one sound locator is available, it may be moved
or close to power mains a liD-volt A.C. outfit will be about, or the lower end of the trolley wire may be shifted
most economical to construct and operate. to obtain the desired variation in the azimuth track.
In the latter case, the turntable and magnetic pickup In the photograph it may be observed also that the
issued with the acoustic trainer may be used. Phonograph acoustic correctors as well as the horns are being operated
records of the sound of various types of airplanes in flight exactly as they would be operated in tracking an airplane.
are also furnished with the acoustic trainer. Thus, this svstem affords the coordinated training of
Since moderate power only is required and tone quality complete sou~d locator crews which is so necessary to as-
is a minor consideration, the audio amplifier of an auto- sure speed and accuracy in the field.

Tbe ullit packed fO,. t,.at1elillg.

Since the recordings reproduce the sound of real air- A valuable feature of the trainer is that it can be used
planes, and the volume of sound and the rate of increase with good results in locations entirely too noisy for track-
of angular elevation of the sound source are under control ing airplanes. The volume of sound is stepped up to over-
of the operators, the trainer can be made to imitate all come the local noise level and training proceeds as in quiet
features of the actual Hight of an airplane with remarkable locations.
hdelity. In the construction, there are no critical dimensions to
The training of listeners can be made progressively dif- be met and no difficult adjustments to be made. So long
hculr, even to the extent of causing them to track through as the loudspeaker can start at a low elevation and pass
interference from pursuit and attack aircraft. above the horns with a few feet of clearance, the trainer
A method used successfully in training listeners by this will operate satisfactorily. The rate of increase in angular
system begins with careful selection, by the use of the elevation and the intensity of sound being under com-
acoustic trainer, of individuals adapted for the work. Each plete control, the slope and length of the trolley track are
man chosen is then paired with an experienced listener immaterial.
with whom he works until he understands his duties and The trainer for sound locator listeners is easily adapted
has demonstrated sufficient ability to warrant further to indoor training in armories and garages as well as out
training. Full crews are then organized, and team train- of doors. It will also prove useful in advanced field train-
ing proceeds until they are ready for field training with ing to fill in the long period of inactivity between flights
airplanes. of the training airplane.
This is a combination machine-gun sight and computer computing gear triangle, while the other end is con-
to be used principally in direct pointing at aerial targets. strained to move along a straight line in guide tube I. The
In addition, it is suitable for direct pointing at moving universal joint center of tube I represents point W, Fio-. 1,
and fixed terrestrial targets. and is raised or lowered in accordance with the quad~al1t
The sighting device is a reRector sight suited for both elevation of the gun.
day and night firing. The illumination for the sight is The elements of firing data which are set into the com-
produced by a Rashlight bulb which is connected to its puting gear are speed, Rying direction (angle of ap-
voltage source by lead, 24 Fig. 9. An illuminated colli- proach), Rying inclination, and target range. All of these
mator causes a luminous aiming mark to appear in looking elements are susceptible of being measured and set on
through the inclined reRector plate, 7 Fig. 9, In order to the spot. The angular height is transmitted to the in-
better see the aiming mark when working against a bright strument over a parallel linkage from the gun barrel, and
background, a colored glass 5 is provided, which may be the superelevation is automatically set on the reRector
turned into position or out of the way by means of knob 4. sight corresponding to the various values of angular height
A mechanical auxiliary sight, consisting of a notch 6 and and range. The act of setting the firing elements on the
a bead 3, is provided as insurance against failure of the computing gear causes the sighting line of the reflector
illumination of the reRector sight. The reRector sight sight to be automatically swung to give the correct deflec-
bears at its lower end a guide plunger 2 I positioned tion and superelevation to the gun barrel.
parallel to the sighting line of the instrument. One end The antiaircraft computer-sight reproduces the deflec-
of the plunger is connected with movable point V of the tion triangle (Fig. I) marked by the gun location W


1 4
....---- .. ,

! i I 6
fI /- .----.1! I,
,./ I I
--,--~., 'f/l I I
Figures 1 to 8
Trallslation of Terms: Flugrichtung, Flying Direction; Ausatz, Superelevation; Steigflug, Ascending Flight;
Neigungsflug, Descending Flight.

and by the observed position A and the future position B of colored fields 26. Computation is automatic:1lly effected
of the target. The path A-B is the distance covered by by setting eM with an index of the same color as that of
the target at its velocity v G during the time of flight of the particular indicated color field. Thus turn knob 20 to
bring one of the colored index marks 19 opposite range
the projectile t, and therefore equals t x v GX eM" is the
scale 18. The mark to be used is indicated on corres-
slant range to the observed position. while eT is the. still
ponding colored fields 26 by index 25.
unknown, slant range to the future position. The deflec-
The flying direction is set by swinging side MV of the
tion triangle ABW is reproduced on a reduced scale of _1_ reduced scale deflection triangle, Fig. 3 until it is parallel
en to the horizont:11 projection of the flying direction. This
so that is :1ccomplished by turning handle 15, Fig. 9, p:mllel to
the direction of flight.
si:le \VNf = ee =
I and therefore remains constant, while
. The flying inclin:1tion, caused by climbs and drops, is
set by inclining side MV until it is p:1r:1l1elto the vertical
side WV = eM and side ?vfV = ~ x VG projection of the flying direction. This is accomplished
eT eT
by turning one of the two star knobs 13, Fig. 9, until
. Side MV is logarithmically formed from e and VG by flight inclination :1rrow 16 is parallel to the inclination of
the target course. The angle is registered on scale 17.
a computing gear. Every change in range and conse-
The :1ngubr height is tr:1nsmitted from the gun through
:1 padlel linkage to guide plunger 2 I, Fig. 9, by the
quently in ~~ causes a corresponding change in side }.if V direct connection of points \V :1nd M, Fig. I, with the
(compare figures I and 2). Yg is set on one of the flying barrel.
The supereleV:1tion is :1utom:1tic:1lly set by the super-
speed scales 28 by knob 27 or 29. Fig. 10.
elev:1tion C:1min the range knob 20. The dependence of
In order to obtain eT, the range eM to the observed
the superelevation upon the :1ngular height is :1ttained
with :1 good degree of :1pproxin1:1tion by r:1ising point V
Position must be divided bv. ~M
er , which is automatically
of the sighting line by :1n amount corresponding to the
found in the reduced-scale deflection triangle. This factor superelev:1tion required in horizontal firing :1nd therefore
is registered with a good :1pproach to the truth on a series dependent only upon the r:1nge.

Figure 9

Figure 10



1 I

Figure 12

nation between + 200 and - 60 0 to the horiZOntal can

be set when the largest deAection is used. Angular heiaht
are - 12 0 an d + 90.0 U'slllg 2o-mm. amllluni-

tion, an)' range between 300 and 2,000 meters can be set.
3,600 meters is the upper limit for the 37-l11m. gun.
This instrument can in each case be used only for olle
given type of projectile because the superelev:ltion cam.
the two range scales 18, the colored fields 26 and the
range scale 8 for terrestrial targets, are designed for thi~
particular type of ammunition. The use of :ll1othcr t,"pc
projectile with different ballistic properties, will necessit;lte
the renewal of the parts listed above. New parts corres-

Figure 11

In order to correct firing data by observation of the

tracer ammunition, provision is made for correcting the
optical and mechanical sighting lines of the reflector sight
in azimuth and elevation. The vertical correction is set
by knurled ring 9, and is registered on scale loin six-
teenths of a degree. The lateral correction is applied on
knurled head 23 and thereby shifting paine \\T, and is
indic:Jted on scale 22.
In firing at moving terrestrial targets, exactly the same
procedure is followed as with moving aerial targets. In
firing at stationary targets, the computing gear is set at
zero for range, flying speed, and Aight direction. The
superelevation is set with knurled ring 9 on range scale 8
of the reAector sight. The maximum superelevation for
land fire is 5045"
For attaching the antiaircraft sight to the gun, a carrier
plate 34 pivoted around a horizontal axis on the gun is
required for carrying the instrument proper, as well as a
bearing on the gun barrel for universal joint \V. The in-
strument is hung by its two seating studs into cradles 35
on plate 34 from above, with the ear at its lower end en-
gaging in a matching recess 36, and is held down in the
cradles by means of pressure screw 33. Universal joint 'N
of guide tube 1 is connected by nut 30, Fig. 10, with the
bearing 32 fast on the gun.
The scope of settings is as follows: Any angle of incli- Figure 13
ponding to the new projectile will have to be installed. precision is a prerequisite. Approximations are made in the
The Zeiss Antiaircraft combination sight and computer Zeiss for future range and superelevation, whereas, it is pos-
has certain advantages and also some disadvantages as sible to be more precise if a different method of solution is
compared with other types of antiaircraft computers. The pursued in computing these elements. In using the deflec-
sighting device has the advantage of not rigidly confining tion triangle method in solving for data as employed in the
the eyes of the marksman to a fixed position but rather Zeiss, several elements of firing data, speed, flying direc-
allowing him a measure of freedom in his attitude and, tion, dip and range, must be continuously measured or
in addition, permitting him to keep both eyes open during estimated and set into the computer. It is possible to con-
aiming. In this manner, the marksman is enabled to struct a computer which will give complete firing data,
follow the target and the luminous trace 'Of the projectiles whereby only the altitude of the target need be measured
with both eyes, and if necessary, to apply corrections in and set into it. The Zeiss instrument is novel in that it
accordancewith his impressions. By having the computer does consider instantaneous ascent and descent in its
attached to the gun, the firing data is mechanically trans- computations, and therefore should be unusually effective
mitted to the barrel without the necessity of the use of against a maneuvering target. The outstanding disad-
transmission lines, and facility is also had (or compactness. vantage appears to be that the Zeiss must necessarily use
However, the attaching of the instrument to the barrel special parts for different types of projectiles. A universal
has a tendency to set up vibrations in parts where great instrument would be considered preferable.

Notes on the 155-mm Gun

By Captain C. E. Rothgeb, C.A.C.

THERE are believed to be many officers in the Coast the matters resolves to this: if both the elevation and
Artillery who are somewhat in doubt concerning certain cross-level bubbles are centered prlJperly the panoramic
important characteristics of the 155 mm. gun. This lack sight head will pivot about a vertical axis and will measure
of knowledge has caused trouble in the past. With a view correctly a horizontal angle. If either bubble is not cen-
of helping some to avoid the mistakes and unnecessary tered the axis of the sight will be inclined and the sight
difficultiesthe following notes are submitted: will measure an angle in an inclined plane perpendicular
(I) It is a waste of time and effort to accurately level a to its axis. By construction, the axis of the sight is always
gun of this type when going into position, for it will not parallel to a plane through the axis of the bore of the gun.
stay level after the first shot is fired since the spades do Therefore, if the axis of the sight is vertical it will be
not settle equally. It should be remembered that when parallel to the vertical plane through the axis of the bore
the gun is in firing position that it is on a three point sup- and will measure correctly the horizontal angle through
port; i.e., two trail spades and the horizontal pivot pin which this vertical plane is rotated.
through the axle. No amount of levelling of the wheels The following test will illustrate the above:
will have the desired effect on the level of the gun. Of Set up a transit in rear of your gun, which we hope is
course, the gun will be canted if it is not level; moreover, canted, and sight along the axis of the bore with the gun
the amount of cant will vary with the azimuth; but if the at zero elevation. Now, without moving the gun, center
level bubbles, both elevatio'n and cross, are used properly, both levels and place the sight on an aiming point. Note
the quadrant site will correct the errors caused by the cant. the reading on the sight. Elevate the piece about 400 mils
Do not on any account fall into the error whi~h has fre- and look through your transit. You will probably note
quently been 'made, of levelling the cross bubble at one that the gun in elevating has moved laterally so as to
position and then clamping it. The cross level must be form an angle with your line of sight from the transit.
set f?r .every shot just as accurately as the elevation bubble Center both bubbles again, and without changing the
and.lt ISeven more important because it affects your lateral reading of the sight, bring the sight back onto the aiming
deVIations. Very little difficulty is experienced with the point by traversing the gun. Lool;:through transit again.
ele~ation level because everyone realizes that it must be If the axis of the bore is not back un the line of sight from
set 111 order to obtain the proper vertical angle (elevation). the transit your cross level bubble is in need of adjustment.
However, there are many officerswho do not visualize the ( 2) Do not try to rotate the mushroonl hf'~d of a 155
action of the cross-level. They know, of course, that in mm. gun. The breech-block of this gun is so constructed
order to measure horizontal angles with an azimuth in- that the obturator spindle is locked into poSItion and can-
strument the axis of rotation of the instrument must be not rotate. The fact that the mushroom head will not
vertical; but for some reason they are unable to apply the rotate is no indication that it is too tight.
same reasoning to the panoramic sight. Stated simply, (3) When testing for safety be sure that the firing

A battery of 155'5 ill actiol1

mechanism will not screw all the way in until the block is and they are prone to grasp the sight bracket with the heel
completely closed and locked. This defect is so com- of the hand against the horizontal tube just in front of the
mon that many officers believe that it is normal. It is not. eyepiece. This places a considerable strain on the small
H the breech-block and firing mechanism of a 155 mm. screws which hold the elbow in the optical tube and will
gun are properly adjusted, the firing mechanism cannot frequently distort the metal around them so that they fit
be rotated sufficiently to permit firing until the breech- into an oval instead of a round hole. This permits play
block is closed completely. Nor can the block be opened in the elbow and has been known to introduce errors up
until the firing mechanism is unscrewed a sufficient to 4 mils.
amount to remove the firing slot from its alignment with These errors are variable since the horizontal optical
the hammer. tube and eyepiece can be moved laterally as the loosened
(4) During firing do not permit your gun pointer to screws slide from end to end of the distorted holes. The
grasp the sight when the gun is fired. Gun pointers have amount of error introduced will depend upon the loca-
no hand hold or rest to support them against the blast, tion of the screws within these "slots."

Ring in Healthlll
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H.... 1937
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..Ii.... Protect Your Home from Tuberculosis ii..
g.. with CHRISTMAS SEALS g..
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................................................................................ -.::.
By Captain Burgo D. Gili C.A.C. I

THE BATTLESHIPS and large cruisers of the U. S. Navy needed would be surprisingly small as I shall point out.
all carry gunnery spotting planes. These planes are an There are three Coast Artillery foreign stations-
integral part of the ships' equipment, and their crews are Hawaii, the Philippines, and the Canal Zone. Each
members of the ships' complement. Daily work between should be provided with a flight of three planes each.
the range section personnel and air The allotment to Panama might be in-
observers are routine affairs and make creased to two flights, one for each end
possible well-trained firing teams, the of the Canal. Then, we have two major
members of which are familiar with Coast detenseJ need harbor defenses on each coast of the
each other's personal characteristics, United States which should be provided
capabilities and limitations. aeJLial obseJLoation for. Thirty planes should satisfy the
In direct contrast to the Navy sys- entire 'coast defense requirement. The
tem, coast artillery forts and garrisons total number needed is hardly excessive
do not have under the direct control of their commanding considering the size of our army and Air Corps.
officers all the essential elements for developing well- The planes would not necessarily have to be first line
trained fighting teams. ships. Planes obsolescent in design, but mechanically fit,
In the past, the training of individual batteries using should be satisfactory. First line planes could be retained
aerial observers has been quite limited. In fact, in some by the Air Corps.
harb~r defenses, years have gone by without such a Having considered some of the main objections let us
practlce. now consider some of the advantages that would accrue
The benefits to be derived from planes and aerial spot- from the use of fort observation planes. First, all the
ters being assigned directly to Coast Artillery forts should means for the conduct of much-needed long-range firings
be as great as those derived from the planes assigned to with aerial abservation would be readily at hand. Peace-
ships. time training could be conducted under wartime condi-
Why should not the more important harbor defenses, tions. Secondly, in the conduct of training there would
as well as the three Coast Artillery foreign stations, have be a great saving of the time that is usually lost due to the
an annual shoot of the type that could be held if observa- fact that the artillery commander does not normally exer-
tion planes were available under the direct control of the cise direct control over the means for developing a com-
,millen'? plete team. This time is lost as has been touched on above,
Few'Coast Artillerymen would normally object to the because commanding officers, pilots, radio operators, and
assignment of spotting planes to the various harbor de- liaison officers must learn each other's personal character-
fenses. Rather, most of them would welcome such pro- istics, capabilities, and limitations before they can func-
gressiveaction. tion as a team. Thirdly, it is believed that if the air officers
Let us examine some of the objections to planes being were under the direct control of the officersresponsible for
assigned to Coast Artillery commands as they are now the essential artillery training that there would be smooth-
assignedto ships. The Air Corps would object to the loss er, better coordinated, and more efficient operation.
of tactical control over their planes and personnel. This is Fourthly, there would always be available means for ex-
natural-no one wants to scatter his forces. But, if the tended training in the methods of camouflage and the
forts had their own planes, as I believe they should, this combating of aerial attacks. Fifthly, the fort observation
objection would be offset by the fact that Air Corps ob- planes could be given the additional mission of flying
servation squadrons would not have to continually worry for the various antiaircraft regiments, since most of these
about Coast Artillery missions-missions that might in- units are stationed in the vicinity of the major harbor de-
terfere with their own training. fenses. For example, planes provided for Fort Hancock
It might be contended that the assigning of planes to could be made available at Fort Tilden for the training
Coast Artillery stations would be impracticable as there of the 62d CA.
are no means provided for servicing them and keeping In time of peace we must prepare for war. If the Coast
the,m mechanically fit. However, this problem could be Artillery Corps is provided with fort observation planes as
~astlysolved. Near every important harbor defense there outlined above, we shall have gone a long ways toward
IS a Hying field; for example, Langley Field is within a that preparation. Hangars still standing at some Coast
few miles of Fort Monroe, and Albrook Field is near Artillery posts give visual evidence of the fact that planes
Fort Amador, and arrangement for service and mainte- of this type were found essential in the last war. If we
nance could be made readily. needed aerial observation then, we certainly need it now;
It might also be argued that a very large number of ob- an.d ;;e shall need it tomorrow, in order to carry out our
servation planes would be required. Actually the number miSSion.
the convention is over. the 300 Coast
who attended still speak appreciatively of
After thanking Major Farley, the General appointed
Colonel A. L. Loustalot secretary of the meeting, and the
the useful and pleasant associations they had on the Pa- convention proceeded to business.
cific Coast. To begin with, San Francisco hospitality is During the business session, Colonel R. E. Ivlittelstaedt
traditional and on October I and 2 it was not lackin<T ::>
in paid tribute to the COAST ARTILLERYJOURNAL, mention-
warmth. For another thing, our Chief was there, renewing ing its contribution to the professional excellence of the
old acquaintanceship and meeting the rank and file of Corps. He urged that all non-subscribers be enrolled.
western Coast Artillervmen-Regular
/ ~ .
Armv, National
Guard, and Organized Reserves. All hands combined to
The president of the Los Angeles Chapter, Colonel A.
E. Evans spoke to the gathering at this time and ex-
make the gathering one of the livest in recent years. pressed his pleasure at being able to attend. The convention
The festivities opened with a reception at the Fort \Vin- thereupon thanked General T racv/ and Colonel Buro-in ::>
field SCOtt officers' club, in honor of l'vfajor General A. H. their wholehearted cooperation with the local committee
Sunderland, Chief of Coast Artillery, who had arrived a which contributed so much to the success of the affair.
few days beforehand from the Canal Zone, on board the Formal business now being disposed of, the members
Grant. His primary purpose was to inspect the personnel moved to the cocktail lounge, by way of prelude to the
and fortifications of the v.,r est Coast. About 250 guests banquet, which took place in the Gold Dining Room of
attended the reception, among them being Brigadier Gen- the Hotel Fairmont.
eral J. P. Tracy, commanding the Ninth Coast Artillery Some 18 officers sat at the distinguished guests' table,
District; and Colonel H. T. Burgin, commanding Fort including Generals Sunderland, Tracy, Abernathy. and
Winfield Scott and the 6th Coast Artillery. ~IIcNeil. Generals Morehead, Davis, and Gilmore, who
In the forenoon of the next day the 6th Coast Artillery, had attended the other acti~'ities, were unable to be pres-
spic and span for the occasion, passed in review before ent for the dinner.
General Sunderland and the guests of the convention. A The committee which in the main was responsible for
brief inspection by the Chief and the regiment was dis- the success of the meeting was composed of Colonel A. L.
missed. Loustalot, CAC; Captain Lester Cole, CA-Res, 57th
After the review, the Fort Scott officers' club again Coast Artillery; and I st Lieutenant Irvin J. Roberrson,
played host, this time at a luncheon party. After luncheon CAe, California National Guard. The committee spoke
the party left for a tour of the Presidio and nearby naval appreciatively of the effective cooperation and active as-
and military points of interest, including Forts Baker and sistance rendered by Colonel H. T. Burgin, C. 0., Fort
Barry. Other activities included golf and the other sports Winfield SCOtt and the work and help of Ivlajor W. W.
which are available the year 'round in California. Irvine, his adjutant.
In the evening, the /business session got under way The results of the convention go far beyond sociability
in the rooms of the Army :lI1d Navy Club at the Fairmont and recreation. The meeting provided a common ground
Hotel with over 200 in attendance. Ivlajor Farley, presi- for the gathering of representatives of all components and
dent of the San Francisco Chapter welcomed the guests developed opportunities for mutual professional advance-
and then turned the meeting over to General Sunderland. ment amon<T the members of the three components of our
arm. These annual a ff'airs as-
sist in fostering and keeping
alive that spirit of coo'per~-
tion and fellowship which IS
so ess~nti.al to any milital')'
" orgal11zatlOn.
The Coast Artillery Asso-
ciation likes its annu;lmeet-
vou at the next one.


A candid camera sbot of

tbe crowd. General Sunder-
land in center.

Coast a'ttilleJt~ activities



Chief of Coast Artillery

Personnel Section Organization and Training Section
Materiel and Finance Section MAJOR W. H. WARREN
MAJOR H. B. HOLMES, JR. Plans and Projects Section

Notes From the Chief's OfFice

War Department directives governing the selection of would disrupt instruction at a service school or R.O.T.C.
officers to attend the 1938-'39 classes at the Army War unit. Officers in this category were considered not available
College and the Command and General Staff School were for the 1938-'39 class, but all of them will be given con-
reprinted recently in service journals. It is assumed, there- sideration for furure classes.
fore, that every interested officer is acquainted with the g. All lieurenants.
qualification requirements and the restrictions placed upon In order to comply with the instructions in Paragraph
the Chief of Coast Artillery in making his recommenda- 3 b of the directive, which specifies that officers selected
tions of officers to attend the two general service schools. will be less than fifty years of age on September I, 1938,
The Chief of Coast Artillery states that he considers the and at least one-half of the quota will consist of officers
making of these selections one of his gravest responsibili- who will be less than forty-three years of age on that date,
ties because of the general belief among officers, that a the officers remaining on the list for consideration are di-
good record at "Leavenworth" or the War College or both, vided into age groups.
is a prime necessity for future advancement to high rank The Coast Artillery quota for the 1938-'39 class is eight;
and more desirable assignments. therefore four officers less than fifry and four less than
The directives mentioned above require that each Chief forry-three years of age could be selected. Preference,
of Arm or Service will acquaint his officers with the meth- other things being equal, was given to the older men;
ods adopted by him in making his selections, and he is that is, the full number authorized for the group was in-
making use of this article to carry our such instructions. cluded in the older group.
The procedure is as follows in selecting officers to at- Summaries of the record of each of the officers not
~end the Army War College. From the list of all officers eliminated by the above process were personally scruti-
In the Coast Artillery Corps, there were eliminated: nized by the Chief of Coast Artillery, and, assisted by
a. Each officer over the maximum age limit. officers on his staff, selections were made to conform as
b. Each officer who is a graduate of the Army War Col- nearly as practicable to the requirement in Paragraph 5 a
lege. of the directive; namely, the selection of those officers best
c. Each officer not on the General Staff Corps Eligible qualified for higher training.
List. Similar procedure is followed in the selection of officers
d. Each officer with a General Efficiency Rating of less to attend the Command and General Staff School.
than "Excellent" (and it is regretted that there are some). The lists are submitted to The Adjutant General of the
e. Each officer on foreign service whose tour (not in- Army for review before publication, by the War Depart-
cluding extensions) would not expire in time to allow him ment General Staff. Cases have arisen in which exception
to report at the school prior to September 1, 1938. has been taken to individuals recommended by the Chief
f. Each officer whose relief from his present assignment of Coast Artillery; such cases have been flatteringly few
510 THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL ]{oven1ber-l)ecen1ber

and in nearly every instance have arisen by the reference tices of certain Model 12", 14" and 16" guns during the
to records not available in ordinary routine, to the Chief of calendar year 1938.
Coast Artillery. '* '* '* '* '*
'* '* '* '* '* A detachment of approximately 8 officers and 180 en-
The Defense Projects for all Harbor Defenses of the listed men of the 62d Coast Artillery (AA) under com-
United States have been approved. mand of Lieutenant Colonel J. D. McCain passed through
Washington on October 20th en route to Fort Bragg,
'* '* '* '* '* where 3-inch antiaircraft firings over land will be con-
Training Memorandum No. I, Instructions for Coast ducted. As these firings will more nearly approach service
Artillery Target Practice-I938, has been distributed conditions it is expected that the data furnished by forward
by the War Department. observers will be of great value in solving the problem of
a. The eligibiliry requirements for a battery to conduct fire adjustment.
an advanced practice have been changed to eliminate any '* '* '* '* '*
reference to the battery commander's experience and the The U.S.A.M.P. Ellery W. Niles will be delivered by
length of time he has commanded the battery . Two ad- the Pusey and Jones Corporation, Wilmington, Dela-
vanced practices are now authorized in regiments having ware, to the army sometime in November. Before depart-
six or more firing batteries. ing for her permanent station in the Harbor Defenses of
b. The "D" Component (penalities) has been elimi- San Francisco the Niles will be given a thorough shake-
nated from the score for seacoast practices. down on the Atlantic Coast. During this shakedown
c. The "R" Component (speed and range of target) cruise she will perform essential work which will take her
has been changed to incorporate a rate of change of range to many of the Atlantic coast harbor defenses.
factor. This will reduce the bonus heretofore obtainable '* '* '* '* '*
in high-speed practices. Completion of the new "tvf-4antiaircraft director which
d. The score for submarine mine practices has been was expected to be delivered to the Coast Artillery Board
changed only slightly. The test phase now includes the for test last September has encountered a few "thank you
operation of the supervisory equipment for a period of ten marms" and as a consequence is still in the hands of the
hours each day for a period of two weeks. manufacturer. The difficulties encountered do not appear
e. The defensive sector for antiaircraft searchlight prac- to be serious but the tests by the Coast Artillery Board are
tices has been made narrower and the exterior limit of the being delayed.
sector boundary has been extended to 12,000 yards. '* '* '* '* '*
Three new antiaircraft searchlights incorporating sev-
'* '* '* '* '* eral experimental features have been undergoing mechani-
A revision of the Coast Artillery Field Manual, Volume
cal and operational tests during the last two months at Fort
II, Antiaircraft Artinery, Part One, "Tactics," is about
Belvoir, under the supervision of the Chief of Engineers.
completed and it is hoped it will be in the hands of the
One of the features of these lights is the revolving front
troops by next summer.
door used to move the beam for searching. One of these
'* '* '* '* '* searchlights is scheduled for delivery to the Panama Canal
The Chief of Ordnance has issued a change (Changes Department for test in the near future and the other two
NO.5, dated September 27, 1937) to Ordnance Field lights will be sent to Fort Monroe for test by the Coast
Service Bulletin 3-2, November 5, 1935 which authorizes Artillery Board. A Sperry type sound locator will accom-
the use of stacked charges where available in target prac- pany the lights being sent to Fort Monroe.

Fort Monroe
Commanding, Harbor Defenses of Chesapeake Bay Commanding 51st Coast Artillery
and 2d Coast Artillery
Commanding 52d Coast Artillery
By 2d Lieutenant H. Bennett Whipple

General Gulick loses the last "old guard" member of ner has been the assistant commandant of the Coast Ar-
his staff on November first when Colonel F. Q. C. Gard- tillery School for the past 2» years. He leaves behind
ner leaves to take command of Fort Hancock. Colonel an improved school and a host of friends. The new assist-
Gardner's departure makes the turnover in staff during ant commandant, Lieutenant Colonel Frank S. Clark, is
the past few months just about complete. Colonel Gard- particularly suited for the position. He is a graduate of the
1\rmy and Naval \Var Colleges and has served as com- 1\11URALS AT COAST ARTILLERY BOARD
manding officer of the Submarine 1\IIine Depot and in the Nir. Einst Halberstadt has recently completed murals
War Plans Division of the General Staff. Unfortunately, for the Coast Artillerv Board. The murals, "executed in
Colonel Clark will be unable to remain at the School oil and depicting subj~cts of a technical nature," are paint-
more than eight months, for next July he returns to \Vash- ed on the walls of the main conference room, in natural
Ingron. colors. They realistically portray a railway mortar; a dis-
appearing-carriage gun; a sound locator and operator; 3
Fort Monroe is still constructing new buildings. \Vithin magazine stor3ge room; a plotting crew in gas masks; a
the past few weeks a sewage-disposal plant has been submarine mine; antiaircraft guns, lights and equipment;
completed and a new theatre has been started. a r3ilw3Y gun; 3 barbette carriage gun; a base end sration,
The new sewage disposal plant began as a CW A proj- showing observers and instruments; and a few other mili-
ect and carried on under P\V A and WP A. From June . tar)' objects and scenes.
1934 to April 1937 work was suspended. Then the WPA The work was initiated by l\ifajor General A. H. Sun-
took over the project and completed it early in September derbnd and was carried on under the WPA Federal Arts
of this year. project. The artist, Einst Halberstadt, lives in South
The new theatre is being constructed by l\ifajor Carl Orleans, .tvfassachusetts, and is an officer of the Reserve
H. Jabelonsky, constructing quartermaster, who opti- Corps.
mistically states the theatre will be finished by July. The
building will face Tidball Road, immediately behind the
officers' quarters on the west side of Ingalls Road in the During October the National Guard and Officers' Re-
old Sherwood area. Funds are supplied by the WP A and serve Corps class (Seacoast Section) fired practice prob-
the Army Motion Picture Service. The building will be lems with French seventy-fives and later fired T.-D.
modern in every respect, will include air-conditioning, and fixed batteries of Batteries "A," 51st C.A., and "F,"
and will have a seating capacity of 900. 52d c.A., under the direction of Captains N. A. Burnell


and C. W. Holcomb. The AA section class spent the peri- around the post by Lieutenant A. C. Peterson, A.D.C.
od at Fort Story where "C," 2nd, commanded by Captain On September 7, Captain Joe D. Moss was ordered to
O. H. Kyster, presented antiaircraft to the students under Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania, to participate in the Third
the supervision of Major J. R. Townsend and Captain E. Corps Army 1vIaneuvers. There he, a lone Coast Artillery.
C. Barber. Captain Kyster's battery has been camping at man, was designated assistant supply officer, in charge ~f
Fort Story since late in August, first running tests for the fuel and forage-a job for which his Coast Artillerv ~r:lin.
Board and later instructing the Coast Artillery School ing rendered him peculiarly suited ..
students. "C" Battery hopes to return to Monroe early Lieutenant Roger W. Moore, who arrived on the posr
in November at which time it will begin work on another on September 10, was ordered to Fort Belvoir with :l de-
Board test. tachment from Battery "A," 2d C.A., to participate in
Sixteen Reserve officers, on duty under the Thomason Engineer Board searchlight tests from September 14 until
Act, started classroom work on October 14. Lieutenant the middle of November. As vet, Lieutenant Moore
Colonel F. A. Price, 52d c.A. is in charge of instruction, hasn't unpacked his trunks. '
in addition to his hundred and one other duties. The West Point Class of '37 sent seven members to
Instruction in the West Point Preparatory School is be- Fort Monroe this year. They are Lieutenants G. R. Ames.
ing carried on by three members of the class of '36: Lieu- D. B. Nye, T. McG. Metz, R. H. Fitzgerald, J. McG.
tenants H. J. Katz, E. H. Thompson and R. H. Kessler. Gulick, M. S. George and W. J. Worcester.
They hope to place a large group ot men m the Academy During the last few weeks there have been several
this year from the Third Corps Area School. changes in officer personnel. Lieutenant Colonel J. B.
Anderson, M.C., has replaced Lieutenant Colonel Sam
"SPEEDY"LAWRENCE F. Parker, M.C., at the station hospital. Lieutenant
Residents and former residents of the post heard with Everett D. Peddicord has been assigned as assistant motor
deep regret the announcement of the death of Staff Ser- transport officer and commanding officer of Headquarters
geant George E. Lawrence, 2d Coast Artillery, on Sep- Battery, 51St Coast Artillery. Captain W. B. Hawthorne
tember 14, 1937. Staff Sergeant Lawrence was known and arrived from Fort Hancock on September 23, Captain
beloved by the post commissioned and enlisted personnel Hawthorne now commands the mine planter Schofield.
and their families for his sterling soldierly gualities, his Captain P. Mc.Smith is scheduled to arrive on November
outstanding athletic prowess, and his participation in 3 and will take over "F" Battery, 52d c.A. Incidentally.
every worthy charitable enterprise sponsored by the garri- this will be "F" Battery's fifth commanding officerduring
son. the past year. Captain Smith is not going on CCC duty :lS
PERSONNEL announced in the last letter; his orders were changed to
Colonel L B. Magruder, now commanding officer at bring him to Monroe instead. Major Creighton Kerr re-
Fort Hancock, will arrive on November 7, for duty with turned to Monroe from Hawaii early in October and re-
the Organized Reserves, Third Coast Artillery District. sumed his duties as artillery engineer. Captain H. C.
Lieutenant Colonel L J. Ahern, I.GD., visited Fort Reuter arrived on October 16 and is now on duty with
110nroe from October 19 to 28. Together with Colonel the Submarine Mine Depot. Early in October, Lietitenant
Shedd, he made a thorough inspection of the entire post. Clarence Renshaw, Q.M.C., took over the duties of
Captain Nicolai Bolonikov, Assistant Naval Attache, utilities officer, formerly held by Captain R. P. Boykin.
U.S.S.R., visited Monroe on October 13 and was escorted now in Hawaii.

Ha~aiian Separate Coast Artillery Brigade

Com. and Engineer 0fJicer
Sixty-fourth Coast Artillery (AA)
Harbor Defenses of Pearl Harbor Harbor Defenses of Honolulu
15th CA. 16th e.A.
By Lieutenant John 1. Stark, AD.C.
CONGRESSIONAL COMMITTEE VISITS after a three-week stay. Although the primary purpose of
The Congressional Statehood Committee of seven Sena- their visit was to investigate the statehood situation ?~the
tors and twelve Representatives, has just left sunny Hawaii Territory, the Congressmen also inspected the mtltrary


Left: Congressional Statebood Committee: Senator King and General Moses in center. Rigbt; Tbe searcbligbts witb
troops in tbe background.

establishment and wete given a night searchlight review Colonel Biscoe left behind him a splendid command and
bv the Hawaiian Separate Coast Artillery Brigade and a a host of friends. \Ve wish him our best "Aloha" and suc-
d;vision review at Schofield. cess at his new post.
General Nloses, the department commander, first took So many other new officers have recently joined the
the Congressmen on a tour of inspection which included brigade that we arc listing them in a tabular form.
Fort Shafter and the armament at Fort Barrette. Also in-
Name Date Post
cluded in the trip were the posts of Fort Kamehameha and
Fort DeRussy, where the big guns were given the once- Colonel H. C. Merriam Oct. 7 Kam
over by the Congressmen. They all seemed much inter- Lieut. Col. F. E. Gross . Ruger
csted in the splendid fortifications, and asked many ques- Capt. G. F. Heaney, Jr. .. Shafter
tions. Drills were conducted on the guns to demonstrate Lieut. W. H. Kinard, Jr. .. Shafter
how they operate, and a fine show was the result. Lieut. K. I. Curtis . Kam
The high spot of the military activities for the Con- ~vIajor S. W. Anderson Sept. 10 DeRussy
Major R. V. Ladd ' , Kam .
gressmen was the magnificient night searchlight review
;It Fort DeRussy of the entire Hawaiian Separate Coast Capt. J. H. Featherston . Shafter
Artillery Brigade. Fortunately this took place ?n a beauti- Capt. D. S. Ellerthorpe . Shafter
ful and star-lit night just made to order for such a review. Capt. H. P. Gard . Ruger
Under a canopy of some twenty-billion candlepower fur- ~vIajor A. F. Englehart Sept. 4 Kam
nished by the searchlights of the 64th Coast Artillery Major H. S. Johnson ' , Ruger
(AA), all three regiments of the brigade marched by the Capt. P. Gregory . Kam
t~\'iewing party. The troops were commanded by Briga- Capt. D. B. Herron . DeRussy
dier General Woodruff, Hawaiian Separate Coast Artil- Capt. M. G. Cary . DeRussv
Capt. W. V. Davis . Ruger /
lery Brigade, and included a regiment from Fort Kame-
hameha under the command of Colonel H. C. Merriam, Lieut. J. T. Darrah . DeRussy
a regiment from Fort Shafter under the command of Lieut. N. B. \Vilson . Shafter
Colonel R. M. wfitchell, and a regiment from Fort Ruger TRAINING ACTIVITIES
under the command of Colonel G. A. Wildrick.
The final military demonstration for the Congressional At brigade headquarters, Fort DeRussy, General Wood-
Statehood Committee was a division review held at Scho- ruff has been busy with the materiel and transportation in-
Gel? Barracks. The 64th Coast Artillery (AA), with spections of the various harbor defenses and 64th Regi-
the~r splendid equipment and materiel, took part in this ment. These inspections included a detailed survey of all
r:vlew 111 company with the division and the ground and the armament, together with all the units of transporta-
air elements of the 18th V.ling. tion. It is probable that this brigade is equipped with more
different kinds of armament than any similar organization.
COI\IMM'WING OFFICERS CHANGE AT KAI\I At this inspection there could be seen everything from a
A major change of personnel took place in the Harbor As-caliber pistol to a 16-inch riAe, and everything from a
Defenses of Pearl Harbor, Headquarters Fort Kamehame- solo motorcycle to an A.A. prime mover. All the equip-
~a, when Colonel Earl Biscoe sailed for his new station ment appeared in splendid shape, showing that the officers
In New Y or~. His successor, at this lively post, is Colonel
and men of the brigade take pride in their materiel.
. C. !vfernam, coming to us from a detail in the l.G.D. The searchlight practices of the various headquarters
batteries have been taking places at Fort Kamehameha. tember 13th and 20th, the following batteries fired their
These are additional assignment target practices and the annual practices with the results listed below:
results are not yet in. Batt~ry
61TH TO SHOOT AGAIN Organization Armament Date Score Command"
The 64th Coast Artillery (AA) at Fort Shafter is busy Hq. 16th A.A. Searchlight Aug. 5 97.2 Lt. Elias
D-16th "Aug. 6 1754 Lt. King
getting ready for their annual gun target practices. The Hq. 2nd Bn.55th Aug. 5 1&:1 Capt. Flory
gun batteries, six in all, have just gone into the field at A-41st3-inch A.A. Gun (add.) Aug. II 41.9 Capt. WiIiiard
Haliewa. The target practices for these batteries were to F-S5th G.P.F. SePt.24 137,7 Capt. Davis
have taken place earlier in the year, but were delayed by E-5Sth Sept.23 93.4 Capt. Gard
the non-arrival of new towing equipment for the Martin g~t5~h6-inchD.C. ~~~: ~~ ~~:; g~~:
bombers. A new locale is being tried out this year, up on
the north shore of the Island, in hopes that the weather The beach at Fort DeRussy is now sporting a new dance
will be an improvement over the cloudy skies of Waima- floor and an enlarged pavilion which is rapidly nearing
nalo which have greeted these batteries in the past. completion. The entire building has been done over and
Fort Shafter is publishing a new weekly regimental an open-air dance floor extending along the sea-wall over
paper for the amusement of the personnel. the water has been added. When completed, this will un-
At the Harbor Defenses of Honolulu, which includes doubtedly become the favorite dance spot of the depart-
Forts Ruger and DeRussy, quite a few target practices ment. The construction was under the supervision of
have been completed recently. During the weeks of Sep- Colonel Wildrick and Major Sweet.

COLONEL T. A. TERRY, c.A.c., Executive
59th Coast Artillery 91st Coast Artillery (PS)

60th Coast Artillery 92d Coast Artillery (PS)


By Major R. E. Phillips, C.A.C.

August 20, 1937, we were visited by an earthquake.

RICHARD STEARNS DODSON The Heacock Building in Manila, so familiar to shoppers
Lieutenant Colonel, Coast Artillery Corps who have resided here in the past, will probably be entirely
United States Army replaced as a result of damage done, but the local wreckage
Died October 5, 1937 was limited to a break in the trunk-line sewer near the
Middleside officers' line.
The capture of a ten-foot python at Battery Morrison
His eulogy is written in the hearts of each officer and was the occasion of a series of visits to that locality. The
man of the 91st Coast Artillery-the regiment he com- big snake's visit is attributed to the proximity of the
manded at the time of his death. Each indiviaual feels a battery chicken farm.
loss that only the passing of a friend can bring--each W ~ are busy with firings of one kind or another. C?ur
mourns the absence of a leader. schedule calls for machine-gun and light artillery shoonng
To those saddened by Colonel Dodson's death may be every day but Saturdays and Sundays during the months
added the name of every other officer on duty in these of August, September, and October.
harbor defenses and hundreds of others throughout the The Corregidor Club is a valuable asset to the com-
Coast Artillery Corps and the Army at large. For many mand. It affords facilities for swimming, golf, tennis, bad-
years and in many places he has shared our labors and our minton, and pool, and is one of the most active of o~r
pleasures with a readiness which commanded our admira- army clubs. Alterations are under way at the Cad.dle
tion and affection. House which will double the space in the players' dreSSIng
As the days go by we hope the sorrowing family will room.
come to derive comfort from the fact that Colonel Dod- The 150th anniversary of the adoption of the Con~ti-
son's memory remains fresh in the hearts and minds of tution was observed with a thirry-minute assembly which
many soldiers. His absence will only enhance the affec- packed the Cine. Major Robert M. Carswell addres~
tion which we shal lalways hold for him. the gathering in an interesting manner. The chaplains
opened and dosed the assembly and there was patriotic after, J. Pluvius opened up with all guns, and in the en-
music by the band. suing days drenched one and all with many downpours.
Now, in the latter part of September, the rain seems to
have ceased for a time, and the great outdoors glows with
By Captain C. H. Crim a bit of the good sun.
The 59th fired a successful season with the antiaircraft The Kindley Field area once more reverberates as trac-
machine guns. All batteries used the new Morgan sight tors snort and 155 guns clank for traction tests and position
and the results were excellent. Last year's scores, which maneuvers. Antiaircraft machine-gun instruction in prep-
were excellent at that time, were virtually doubled. The aration for November practices has progressed nicely and
sights were built in the post ordnance shops. soon there will be air missions for tracking and preliminary
Monday, September 13th, was celebrated as Organi- practices. This year, the regiment will use sights in its
zation Day inasmuch as the 12th of the month fell on firing at the towed sleeve; and the training of range sec-
Sunday. The morning was spent in athletics and other tions and gunners has introduced new problems.
recreation. At noon special dinners were served by all During lulls in the August rain, beach defense firings
batteries with plenty of what it takes to make a successful were held at Monkey and Ordnance Points. Machine
')rganization-day dinner. The official program started at gunners put on excellent day and night shoots, the latter
twO 0' dock in the Topside Cine with Colonel Ruhlen, at moving targets. Both day and night practices of the
regimental commander, presiding, flanked by athletic 37-mm., 7s-mm. guns at moving targets, and the judg-
trophies for presentation. After the customary music, in- ment and adjustment of the gun commanders proved their
vocation, and review of the history of the regiment, Gen- training as artillerymen.
eral Bishop made a short address, told some good stories On September 1st, a reorganization was effected within
and presented the' athletic trophies. Following the cere- the regiment. Heretofore, Battery "D" in addition to its
moniesthere was a showing of a recent movie. normal gun-battery duties, has had the transportation.
SIXTIETH COAST ARTILLERY Now Headquarters Battery has the transportation and the
By Lieutenant C. W. Hildebrandt increased efficiency of the new set-up is apparent to all.
Recent War Department orders direct 1st Lieutenant
Gunner's instruction ended in August with 230 men
Daniel M. Wilson, now on detached service with the
qualifying as experts. Beach defense firing by all bat-
Philippine Army, to sail on the February transport, for
teries followed the indoor period. Batteries "E" and "F"
Fort Monroe and the School. No other changes of per-
are busy preparing for their machine-gun target practices
sonnel are expected until the May boat sails.
which will be fired in October.
The officers' ranks remain unchanged since the July f f f
transport. Who the October boat will bring we do not San Francisco
know; but when it leaves it will not have any of our pres-
ent officerson board. Lieutenant Harrison will attend the COLONELH. T. BURGIN, 6th Coast Artillery,
Cooks and Bakers School at Fort McKinley during Oc- Commanding
tober. By Major Willard Irvine
NINETY-FIRST COAST ARTILLERY (PS) - Since the last news letter notable events were the visit
By Lieutenant P. H. Wollaston of the Chief of Coast Artillery, and the participation of
The 9Ist CA (PS) has been engaged in beach defense the command in the convention of the United Srates Coast
firing and antiaircraft machine-gun firing during the past Artillery Association, which met in San Francisco.
twomonths. General Sunderland came from Panama on the U.S.
.The beach defense firing involved day and night firings A.T. St. Mihiel and was met at Fort Mason by the harbor
With75-mm., 37-mm., and machine guns. The work was defense commander. At the entrance to Fort Winfield
conducted with moving targets, and the results were Scott the Chief of Coast Artillery inspected an escort of
excellent. honor which preceded him to headquarters where he was
The antiaircraft machine-gun fire was conducted with joined by General Tracy and staff. Following a review
freeballoon and towed-sleeve targets. The scores of those of the 6th Coast Artillery, General and Mrs. Sunderland
batteriesusing the Morgan machine-gun sight promise to were the luncheon guests of the officers and ladies of dis-
be e.xceptional,and much higher than those batteries using trict headquarters and the Harbor Defenses of San Fran-
straight tracer control. Captain Merkle devised a tracer- CISCO.

controlsight having possibilities. As part of the program, a reception was held at the
officers' club, Fort Winfield Scott, for General and Mrs.
Sunderland. Many National Guard, Reserve and retired
By Major H. A. McMorrow officers took advantage of this occasion to renew friend-
According to the annual training program, the rainy ships. The following day the program included a regi-
~son ended officially on August 7th. Very soon there- mental review, a motor trip to Forts Baker and Barry, a
visit to the new gun battery and other installations at Fort Fort Barrancas
Funston, and a luncheon at Fort Scott.
13th Coast Artillery
The regiment has completed the antiaircraft artillery
practices required as an additional assignment. Batteries Commanding
"A" an d "K" fired mac IlIne
- guns, an d Battery "E" guns. By Captain 1. E. Harriman
All firing was at Fort Funston. Battery "E" has moved to
Fort Barry for seacoast artillery training and will fire a With the departure of the CMTC trainees on August
I 2-inch gun battery in November. Battery "A" expects 3 I, Fort Barrancas dosed its summer training activi~ies.
to hold its mine practice in December. Approximately 670 youths were trained by the officers
Captain Keeler now commands Battery "A," and 1st of the 925th Coast Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant
Lieutenant Bain, Battery "E." Major Geoffrey O'Connell Colonel C. S. Vance of Fort Valley, Georgia; the 545th
and family leave for Panama early in November. 1st Lieu- Coast Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Rob-
tenant East has Headquarters Battery and is the post ex- ert L. A. Indest of New Orleans; and the 540th Coast
change officer at Fort Scott. 1st Lieutenant and Mrs. Artillerv, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel R. W
Carey and 2d Lieutenant and Mrs. Underwood are recent Coward of Birmingham, Alabama. Regular army offi~e~
arriv;ls at Fort Scott. Major W. W. Scott, adjutant, 6th on duty with the camp included Major Joseph B. Hafer,
Coast Artillery was promoted to major July 1st. Cap- 13th Coast Artillery, and the following, who were ordered
tain R. R. Hendrix sails for the Philippines in January. to this station for temporary duty: Major Abram V.
Rinearson, Athens, Georgia; Captain George W. Brent,
2d Lieutenant Hudson, Air Corps Reserve, on duty at
Opelika, Alabama; Captain George R. McElroy, Chat-
Moffett Field, California, with the 82d Observation
anooga, Tennessee, and Captain Fred B. Waters, Atlanta.
squadron, has been attached to the 6th Coast Artillery
for a two-week contact course.
Concurrent with the CMTC, the Reserve officersof the
While the 30th Infantry band is away from the Presidio, following regiments were given unit training: 534th
the 6th Coast Artillery Band takes part in the weekly Coast Artillery, commanded by Colonel Henry I. Ellerbe.
parade of the 30th Infantry. Bennettsville, South Carolina; 504th Coast Artiller~',
A regimental competition in dose-order platoon drill commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Francis M. Ellerbe,
was won by the 2d Platoon, Headquarters Battery. This Jonesville, South Carolina; 67th Coast Artillery, com-
platoon is composed of students in the Ninth Corps Area manded by Captain Leon J. Reed, Franklin, North Caro.-
West Point Preparatory School. lina, and 524th Coast Artillery, commanded by Lieuten-
Among the October activities of the Fort Winfield ant Colonel Charles M. Boyer, Atlanta, Georgia. Lieu-
Scott noncommissioned staff dub were a Hard Times tenant Colonel Clifford R. Jones, Atlanta, Georgia;
party, a Halloween party, and a picnic at Menlo Park. Major Vernon W. Hall, Jackson, Mississippi, and Cap-
Master Sergeant Haffards, a patient in Letterman General tain Andrew P. Sullivan, Columbia, South Carolina, were
Hospital is reported greatly improved. Master Sergeant at Barrancas on temporary duty in connection with this
James E. Strong has been appointed a warrant officer. training.
Staff Sergeant A. N. Miller, on duty at Headquarters, The 206th Coast Artillery (AA), Arkansas National
Ninth Coast Artillery District, sailed for Panama Septem- Guard, commanded by Colonel Eglan C. Robertson of
ber 22. Master Sergeant Arthur M. Patton arrived re- Marriana, Arkansas, preceded the CMTC and conducted
cently from Hawaii. its field training here, and the 62)d Coast Arriller\'
Battery "K," 6th Coast Artillery, Captain Dean Luce, (HD), a Reserve unit, commanded by Major Harry
commanding, will participate in the Armistice Day cere- W. Porter, Jacksonville, Florida, received two-week unit
monies at Mill Valley, and the regiment less Battery "K" training. A total of 475 Reserve ofFcers have trained at
will parade on the same day at Oakland. Battery "E," this station during the past year.
6th Coast Artillery, 1st Lieutenant James G. Bain, com- The new War Department theatre was officiallyopened
manding, will act as an escort of honor to the Governor on Sunday, August 22, and fills a need of long standing.
of California on November 21 at exercises on Treasure The theatre was formally presented to the post by Colonel
Island-the location for the Golden Gate International E. R. Householder, Adjutant General's Department, and
Exposition in 1939. was accepted by Lieutenant Colonel G. F. Humber: on
Mr. Mark S. Curtis, son of Captain E. E. Curtis behalf of the garrison. Construction of this beatuiful little
(MC), U. S. Naval Hospital, Mare Island, California, theatre was in charge of Captain E. F. Kollmer (FA),
a Coast Artillery Blue Course graduate of the CMTC held Quartermaster Corps.
at Fort Winfield Scott in 1937, has been awarded a fout- Recent visitors to the post included Senator Charles O.
day all expense trip to Washington, as the most outstand- Andrews of Florida, Congressman Millard F. Caldwell,
ing graduate in the Ninth Corps Area. Mr. Curtis will and a Congressional committee. Other visitors were Colo-
travel by plane to and from Washington and will be pre- nel Charles H. Patterson, I.G.D., Colonel Charles B.
sented with the John J. Pershing Medal by the Secretary, Elliott, Headquarters 4th Corps Area; Colonel ~ .. R.
of War. Householder, A.G.D., Washington; Colonel WIlham
~L Colvin, c.A.c., and Lieutenant Colonel H. F. Nich- permanently active; and to this end, the following officers
ols. 4th Coast Artillery District, Atlanta. were designated for the year 1937-1938:
Repairs ~o barra~ks, quarters, roads, and grounds are President: 1vfajorJames L. Hayden.
beinG"contInued wIth WP A funds and the appearance of Secretary and Treasurer: 1st Lleutenant E. E. Farns-
the Post and comfort of the barracks and quarters have worth.
been much improved. Porches of several sets of quarters Correspondent: 1st Lieutenant L. 1-1. Guyer.
have been renovated to provide sleeping porches. Major Alexander H. Campbell spoke of the desirability
Colonel Benjamin H. L. Williams and Mrs. Williams of interesting cadets in the Coast Artillery. Proselyting
arrived at Fort Barrancas on September 14, on which date is, of course, thoroughly beyond bounds and good policy;
Colonel Williams assumed command, relieving lieuten- but as Major Campbell pointed out, much can be indirect-
ant Colonel George F. Humbert who remains as executive. ly accomplished by the renewed meetings of the Chapter,
the aliveness and enthusiasm of Coast Artillery officerson
duty here, and the indication of that old, if over-used
West Point term "esprit de corps" which makes any branch desirable
By 1St Lieutenant L. M. Guyer to every cadet.
Warm and serious commendation was voiced, too, for
Early this fall, upon becoming senior Coast Arti~lery the outstanding worth and interest of The COASTARTIL-
offieerat West Point, Major James L. Hayden scrutimzed LERYJOURNAL.To the officers here it is the only contact
the austere dust of ancient records to discover that the with the activities of our profession. It is-and seriously
West Point Chapter of the Coast Artillery Association speaking-a significant compliment to The JOURNALthat
had been for several years condemned to a "care-taking the Chapter at West Point resolved to limit our own
status." Dust covers shrouded the social plotting board. gatherings to those of a social nature, and to depend on
Hardened cosmolene covered the convivial tea-cups and The JOURNALto keep us professionally informed. We
glassesof old. Open was the breech, and gone were the rather suspect that there is connivance between the editor
gun crews. Even the powder magazines were locked and and such ardent JOURNALsupporters as Captain Spalding
neo-Ieeted-except for The COASTARTILLERYJOURNAL and Lieutenant Blunda-in making our subscriptions an
(n~wadays a pretty potent "magazine"). automatic and eternal thing of renewal-but this, too, we
In brief, many a target practice season had come and condone. In fact, we submit it to all JOURNALreaders, en-
gone without meetings of the Association-meetings thusiastically: You're a true IOo-percenter at your station
whose need had been apparent since the enlargement of when your subscription runs on, automatically from year
the Corps of Cadets and the number of officers on duty to year, unless you designate otherwise.
at West Point. Thirty-three officers of the Coast Artll- At West Point, we plan 100 per cent on this, and we
lerv are now stationed at the Academy. Yet, cadet sports, assure a continuation of the chapter's activity. Although
ac~demicduties, far-flung quarters' areas, and the general the reorganization meeting was stag, many future meet-
social activity of the garrison operated to keep branch ings will include the Coast Artillery ladies, too. A com-
acquaintanceship at a minimum. It is no exaggeration to mittee consisting of Major A. H. Campbell, Captain
sa:' that officersof a branch may spend four years together Donald McLean, and 1st Lieutenants E. B. Hempstead
at the Point, only to meet again as strangers at some future ~nd J. C. Steele is at work arranging for the next gather-
station. Indeed, rumor has it that not long ago an officer mg.
paid his most important P.P.C. call, and was warmly And in case that JOURNALstation supplement has been
greeted with the wish that his tour at the Academy mislaid, and you'd like to-well, contact tickets for next
would be a pleasant one! . year's Notre Dame game; the following officers are the
Howbeit-it was particularly with a view toward fm- West Point Chapter of the Coast Artillery Association:
thering the social contact between Coast Artillery officers Majors J. L. Hayden and A. H. Campbell; Captains 1.
that Major Hayden appointed Captains A. C. .Spalcling, H. Ritchie, A. C. Spalding, D. McLean, F. A. Mitchell.
Donald McLean, and R. W. Berry; and 1st LIeutenants R. W. Berry, H. P. Tasker, G. Schmidt, A. Hopkins, and
R. P. Wood and E. E. Farnsworth as a reorganization A. T. Bowers; and 1st Lieutenants L. M. Guyer, J. Hor-
and nominating committee to polish up the glasses :md ridge, L. H. Brownlee, E. B. Hempstead, R. J. Wood,
renewtracking. H. R. Boyd, M. S. Carter, A. C. Gay, W. F. Ellis, D. B.
The Association met at the Officers' Mess on October Webber, P. B. Stiness, G. F. Blunda, L. N. Cron, R. C.
14th, 100 per cent strong except for one member who was Bard, C. B. Duff, C. J. Diestel, R. S. Spangler, J. C Steele,
unavoidably absent from the post on leave. The tracking A. Sommer, E. E. Farnsworth, B. L. Paige, and L. J.
\Vassuccessful, and the dinner-opportunely timed on Hillberg.
the maid's-night-out evening when "rain checks" are an ~ ~ ~
urge and not an argument-was amply bracketed. Galveston
Major Hayden reviewed the history of the chapter; COLONEL ALLENKIMBERLY, Commanding
Captain Spalding read the report of his Committee with Service practice for the ~th was completed August 30
the principal recommendation that the Chapter remain at which time the regiment was temporarily reorganized.
The gun battery and the machine-gun battery were for the overhauling of all the hard used motor transport.
formed into a provisional machine gun battalion with a Rifles, which are strangers to about 90% of the corn-
combat train from Headquatters Battery, under Major mand, will shortlv be issued.
Charles Harris, CAe. The battalion was augmented by Almost the en~ire period of the division test had fine
men from Headquarters Battery and Battery A to make Texas fall weather which added to the accomplishments
the strength 15 officers and 450 men. It was attached to and comfort of all concerned. The command at Fort
the test division at Fort Sam Houston but trained the Crockett is still in khaki.
first two weeks of September in vicinity of Galveston. Colonel and Mrs. John B. Maynard, CAC, were recent
On September 1Ith the battalion marched to Camp visitors to Galveston and stopped by at Fort Crockett.
Bullis where it formally joined the test division under The 3d Wing from Barksdale Field under General Fred-
General Parsons. Exercises, problems and maneuvers will erick L Martin with headquarters at the Houston airport
occupy the time until November 15th. conducted extensive exercises and maneuvers in East
Colonel Kimberly accompanied the battalion to Camp Texas from October 1I to October 29th. One pursuit
Bullis and left for a month's leave in the north and east group under Colonel Hoyt was quartered at and operated
returning to Fort Crockett October lOth. He was with from the Fort Crockett Airdrome. Generals Andrews
the battalion in San Antonio from 20 to 25 October. Martin, Cheyney, and Emmons, all of the Air Corps:
General Sunderland arrived at San Antonio on October visited the airport during the exercises and were serenaded
22 and was met by Colonel Kimberly, Major Harris, and by the ~th Band.
others. He inspected the provisional machine-gun bat- Colonel and Mrs. Halbert left for the Philippines on
talion in camp at Camp Bullis on October 23d. Colonel Novemb~r 3d. They were the recipients of many fare-
J. K. Crain, Corps Area Ordnance Officer, and many well parties.
years in the Coast Artillery, entertained for General and -( -( -(

Mrs. Sunderland at the Fort Sam Houston Club. Nearly

all present and past Coast Artillerymen in that vicinity Training of 5 19th C.A.
were present. On October 25th General and Mrs. Sunder- By Lieutenant Colonel F. J. Baum, CA-Res.
land and Colonel and Mrs. Kimberly left San Antonio for
Galveston by motor via Austin where the Chief paid his Perhaps the experience of the 5I9th e.A. during the
respects to the Governor of Texas. Stop was then made active duty period this year at Fort MacArthur may sug-
at Texas Agricultural and Mechanical College at College gest some possibilities to regimental commanders who
Station where Colonel George F. Moore is PMS&T. have been puzzling over ways and means of making unit
Colonel Moore held a reception for General Sunder- training more valuable.
land and all regular officers on duty there. After lunch First off, what do we mean by "unit training"? Most
the ROTC activities of the college were visited and the of us in the Reserves have been satisfied with any sort of
party left for Houston and Galveston. training, as long as it was done under the direction of the
The arrival at Galveston at 9:00 P.M. was marked by a unit commander. Most regiments have a permanent as-
unique escort of honor for General Sunderland. The signment of officersto staff and battery duties; and when
escort and band were illuminated by red flares, augmented the summer camp comes around, those assignments are
by the searchlights with the illuminated club fountain carried out. This means, of course, that regimental and
between and to the rear of the band and troops. battalion staffs function in their various duties, that batterY
On October 26th the Harbor Defenses of Galveston and commanders handle their various batteries, and the lie~-
the ~th were inspected. tenants stand around and watch proceedings with more
An informal reception for all officers and ladies of the or less interest and try to keep out of the way, and avoid
post and many prominent Galvestonians was given in sticking their necks out. Staff officers never see a gun-
honor of General and Mrs. Sunderland by Colonel and much less have an opportunity to fire one.
Mrs. Kimberly, followed by a buffet supper at the Beach Thanks to the advice and help of Colonel R. H. Wil-
Club. The 6.9th band played during the evening. liams, the executive for Coast Artillery Reserves in Sout~-
On October 27th General Sunderland visited the cot- ern California, the unit training of the 519th c.A. thiS
ton industry activities in and around Galveston and was year went a step further. The regiment trained under the
taken through the new Pan American Oil Refinery at command of its commanding officer, and every officer
Texas City across the bay. received complete training in every type of activity.
General and Mrs. Sunderland concluded their visit to For instance, IS0 rounds of 3-inch AA ammunition
Galveston on the evening of the 27th and were motored were available. The ammunition was so distributed that
to Houston by Colonel and Mrs. Kimberly and left after each of the 30 officers present took command of the gun
dinner for New Orleans. battery, figured his trial-shot data, and fired a minimum
The next incident of interest was the return of the ma- of 5 shots, either as a trial-shot problem or a burst 'prob-
chine-gun battalion on November 15th. Colonel Kim- lem. This was true of even the newest second 100le. It
berly was present at the exercises in the vicinity of Mineral was encouraging, if a bit astounding, to learn that many
Wells from II to 14 November. Strenuous days are ahead of the higher ranking first lieutenants had never before
had the opportunity to do the work and give the orders to the duties, from loading the gun with dummy ammuni-
lire :1 batter;'. tion, ro acting as the battery commander.
The same method was applied to the machine guns. Here was "unit training" carried to the utmost-for
£Very officer, whether assigned to the staff or a battery, everY/
officer had a chance to actually. handle and use everY
actu~llv fired the I,ooo-inch range course, and the course piece of apparatus.
at free"balloons, as well as daylight firing at towed sleeves. Great credit for the success of the tr3ining period is
In locating night positions for the searchlight battery, due Colonel Paul D. Bunker, CAC, the unit instructor,
e.achofficer was present with one of the lights. \Vhen the who had 3rrived from Nfanila just before the active duty
planes came over, each officer had an opportunity to con- period. Although a stranger, a few days in c3mp we:e
trol the light and attempt to get on the target. They also sufficient for Colonel Bunker ro win the whole-heaned co-
h:lI1dled the compararor, and for the first time many dis- oper3tion of every officer of the regiment. His aenial per-
covered the difficulty of putting the light in action at the sonality and long experience as a Coast Artillery~an made
naht insrant ro pick up the target. him an ideal represent3tive of the Regular Army ro whom
°ln 3ddition to work with searchlights, guns, and ma- we could appeal in moments of doubt and uncertainty.
chine guns, a la-ton artillery tractor was made available The harbor defense commander, Colonel Claude Thiele,
and, a'fter instruction in its mechanism and uses, each and his officers were more than helpful, and went out of
officer was given an opportunity of getting behind the their way to make equipment aV3ilabie and see dut our
wheel and driving the tracror over rough ground.
training was carried on under the best possible conditions.
Bec3use the regiment is assigned to antiaircraft, many
All unit commanders should give serious consideration
of the officers had not had experience with "concrete"
artillery. One full d3)' was given over to manning the to this type of "unit training" in which every officer
plotting room and the disappearing rifles of the harbor actually contacts, handles, :md commands each piece of
defense installations. E ver~' officer progressed through all eqll1pmem.

(Covering the Period September 1 to October 31, 1937)
Colonel F. J. Behr. from San Juan, Puerto Captain J. J. Johnson. from 10th, Fort student, Air Corps Advanced Flying School,
Rico, to home and await retirement. Rodman, to Hawaii, sailing New York, Kelly Field, to Hawaii, sailing San Fran-
Colonel F. Q. C. Gardner. from assistant November 27. cisco, November 13.
commandant, CA. School, Fort 1I10nroe, to Captain P. B. Kelly, from 6lst. Fort Second Lieutenant A. S. Bm'nosh from
Sheridan to 12th Brigade, Fort Sheridan. 63d, Fort MacArthur, to Pan-ama, sailing
ith. Fort Hancock.
Colonel J. T. Geary. retired. September Captain Otta lIlarshall, retired, October San Francisco. January 14.
3l. Second Lieutenant K. 1. Curtis, from 63d,
30. Fort MacArthur, to Hawaii, sailing San
Colonel L. B. lIlagruder. from 7th, Fort Captain V. G. Schmidt, promoted 1Ilajor,
Francisco, October 1.
Bancock, to Org. Res., Third Corps Area, September 1. Second Lieutenant F. \V. Gillespie, from
Fort lIfonroe. Captain C F. Wilson, from Hawaii. to
student. Air Corps Advanced Flying School,
Lieutenant Colonel F. S. Clark, from in- Fordham University, Fordham. Kelly Field, to Panama, sailing Charleston.
~ructor. CA. School. Fort lIlonroe, to duty Captain F. J. Woods, from the Philip-
pines, to 6th. Fort Winfield Scott. S. C, November 5.
in the Office, Chief of Staff. Washington, Second Lieutenant R. H. Kessler, from
D. C. First Lieutenant S. R. Beyma, from Ha- USAlIIP General JOhll M. Schofield, Fort
Lieutenant Colonel F. E. Emery, Jr., from waii. to 2d. Fort 1I10nroe. lIlonroe. to 52d. Fort lfonroe.
Hawaii. to 2d. Fort lIlonroe. First Lieutenant \V. A. Call, from Aber- Second Lieutenant H. D. Lind. from 61st,
Lieutenant Colonel E. O. Halbert. from deen Proving Ground to Hawaii, sailing Fort Sheridan. to Hawaii, sailing New
tho Fort Crockett, to the Philippines, sail- New York, December 8. York. December 8.
t/lg San Francisco. January 29. First Lieutenant D. R. Corum, from Ran- Second Lieutenant R. H. 1\Iattern. from
Lieutenant Colonel R. F. lIfaddux pro- dolph Field, to 63d, Fort 1IlacArthur. 62d, Fort Totten. to Hawaii, sailing New
hted Colonel October 1. First Lieutenant R. \V. Moore. from York. December 8.
Major T. R. Bartlett, retired, October 3l. Judge Advocate General's Dept., and from Second Lieutenant C. B. Stewart. from
Major D. H. Hoge, from 11th, Fort H. Georgetown Univ. Law Schoo\' \Vashing- student. Air Corps Advanced Flying School,
Wright, to Hawaii. sailing New York, ton, D. C. to 2d, Fort 110nroe. Kelly Field, to Brooks Field, San Antonio.
anuarv 6 First Lieutenant A. \V. Schermacher, Second Lieutenant B. M. Warfield, from
Maj~r j. deB. Walbach promoted Lieu- from 62d. Fort Totten, to Quartermaster 6lst. Fort Sheridan, to Hawaii, sailing New
ant Colonel. October 1. Corps. Fort Robinson. York, December 8.
Captain R. R. Hendrix. from 6th, Fort First Lieutenant D. McC. Wilson. from Second Lieutenant J. B. Yost, from 13th.
Winfield Scott. to the Philippines, sailing the Philippines, to 2d, Fort lIfonroe. Fort Barrancas. to the Philippines, sailing
Francisco, January 29. Second Lieutenant Frederick Bell from New York, January 6.

?1ews and Comment

««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««< .
which is the concern of all subscribers. Quite often the
THE UNITED STATES suggestion is advanced that The JOURNAL should set aSide
a certain amount of space to be devoted exclusively to the
COAST ARTILLERY incerests of one of the three components. The ide; is that
a section headed up "National Guard" should contain
ASSOCIA TION items of interest alone to the Guardsman; another, called
"The Reserves" should devote itself to the problems of the
Officers' Reserve Corps. In like fashion, the Re'Tular
An.ny would receive its own tight little compartme~t In
which to thrash out matters that affect onlv itself
The idea may have something in its fa~or. Y~t, as we
"The purpose of the Association shall be to promote
see it, it has a distinct fundamental unsoundness. Time
the efficiency of the Coast Artillery Corps by maintain-
may prove us wrong in this respect, bur perhaps you'd be
ing its standards and traditions, by disseminating pro-
interested in our reasons for thinking as we do ..
fessional knowledge, by inspiring greater eOort to-
The United States Army definitely operates on the one-
wards the improvement of materiel and methods of
army phn. \Ve of the Coast Artillery are certain that that
training, and by fostering mutual understanding, re-
phn is a sound one for it has satisfactorily seen us through
spect and cooperation among all arms, branches and
one war and nll1eteen years of peace. In such an army, the
components of the Regular Army, National Guard,
affairs and problems of anyone component should I;c th~
Organized Reserves and Reserve Officers' T rainin g Corps."
. concern of all components. Purtina ~ each element
OFFICERS Into a watertight compartment would, it is believed.
President naturally lead to the conclusion that the three componem~'
MAJOR GENERAL A. H. SUNDERLAND interests and objectives are alien co each other. This. 01
course, is not so, and furnishes our main reason for belie\',
ing that boxing off Regular, Guardsman, and Reservist is
Secretary- T reasllrer With this belief in mind, each item which t>aoes into Th~
MAJOR AARON BRADSHAW, JR. JOURNAL is subjectcd to one tcst: \Vill it be of egual in-

Additional Members of the Executive COllncil terest to all three componencs? All articles, by their ver.I'
BRIG. GEN. \X'ILLIAM OrrMANN LT. COL R. S. ATWOOD nature, cannot answer this 9uestion in the affirmativc. but
COLONEL W. S. POLLITZ LT. COL. C. M. IRWIN all major articles can-and do. Ie happcns that occasion-
COLONEL CLIFFORD JONES MAJOR LERoy LUTES ally an :micle-say a Regular Army promotion swdy-
inferencially concerns only one component. In a sense th"
is true, but we hold co the belief that the Guardsman and
One Corps-One Magazine Reservist don't mind reading about a few of the troubles
of their Regular brother-in-arms. And, on the other hand.
It is gratifying. that many of our subscribers send us
we feel sure that a study affecting the intcrests of either
their suggestions and ideas for improvements. A heavy
of the two civilian componencs will be sympathetieall~
mail from the field indicates The JOURNAL is being taken
read by the Regular.
from its envelope. Nloreover, it is being read. An occa-
Search as we may, we have been unable co discern an;
sional subscriber takes time out to disagree with us. This
material difference in the characteristics of the members of
constructive criticism adds zest to the game. Once in a
the three componencs of the Coast Artillery Corps. B3S!
while we retaliate by disagreeing with a subscriber but we
cally, we are all members of the same tribe. \Vith thl
tell him why and encourage him to continue to send in his
in mind, The JOURNAL will do its best to be of imerest t
ideas. Nevertheless, more often than not, the subscriber is
riCTht,and for that reason we like to hear from him. So,
if the spirit moves you, let us hear what you'd like to read
in The JOURNAL. T ell us what's right--or wrong-with
Election of Officers
your magazine; we'll meet you more than half way. Five members of the Executive Council terms of offie
All this is by way of a prelude to dealing with a subject expire on December 3 I, 1937, Their successors are to b

electedbv ballot from among Coast Artillery officers.The agencies forward them promptly to the Secretary of the
presentnlembers whose terms of officeexpire are: Association. In case a member of the Association should
Colonel F. H. Lincoln, CA.C fail to receive a printed ballot it is requested that he record
Lieut. Col. R. S. Atwood, CA.C his vote informally. A copy of the printed ballot, which
Lieut. Col. C A. Irwin, CA. Ore. N. G. will be mailed out, appears on page 542. Ballots should
~fajor LeRoy Lutes, CA.C be mailed in time to reach the Secretary of the Association
~fajor John Caswell, CA-Res. prior to January 5, 1938. They cannot be counted if re-
ceived after that date.
To fill the five vacancies the President of the Associ- In expressing at this time our appreciation to the retiring
ation appointed a nominating committee to place the members of the Executive Council, we are mindful of the
names of competent officers in nomination. The commit- sacrifices made by them to further the work of the Asso-
tee is somewhat restricted in its selections (even though ciation. Their h~lpful suggestions affecting policies, and
there are many qualified officers) because of the desire their willingness at all times to render every possible as-
to have as many members of the Executive Council as
sistance, has in measurable degree contributed to whatever
possibleavailable for meetings in Washington. In order success and progress the Association and the JOURNAL
to have a quorum, which is essential for the conduct of have attained.
business, at least five members of the Executive Council
should reside in Washington or be available for meetings
there. The nominating committee has submitted the Training Opportunities
names of the following officers for consideration:
The Chief of Coast Artillery recently made extensive
ForVice President-Colonel Avery J. Cooper, CA. C, inspections including units engaged in the tests now being
Executive Officer, G-4' War Department General Staff, held at Fort Bragg. He is especially desirous that the
Washington, D. C mell1bers of the Corps appreciate opportunities to demon-
For Additional Members of the Executive Council: strate the capabilities of our personnel and armament to
Colonel C J. Smith, 213th CA., Pa. N. G., Allen- other branches and to civilians.
town, Pa. When demonstrations are given, those responsible
Colonel E. C Webster, 243d CA., R. 1. N. G., should take every step to insure that the underlying pur-
Providence, R. 1. pose is understood by all present, and that the results
Colonel E. W. Thomson, CA-Res., Annapolis, Md. and lessons are made apparent to all. Norll1ally demonstra-
Colonel W. W. Burns, 260th CA., D. C N. G., tions should not be conducted except under the ll10st fav-
Washington, D. C orable conditions. Care should be taken that enlisted ll1en
Lt. Col. R. M. Perkins, CA.C, War Plans Di- present the best appearance and conduct themselves in an
vision, War Department General Staff, Washington, exemplary manner.
D.C. Sll1artness, precision, and excellence in telephone com-
Lt. Col. J. P. Hogan, CA.C, National Guard Bu- ll1unication should be guiding factors.
reau, Washington, D. C
Lt. Col. H. L. Spencer, 2IIth CA., Mass. N. G.,
Boston, Mass. New Plans for Award of Trophies
Lt. Col. J. H. Sherman, 251st CA., Calif. N. G.,
Circular No. 8r, War Department, Washington, D.
San Diego, CaI.
C, 1936, changing the provision of AR 140-5, made it
Major Milo H. Brinkley, CA-Res., Washington,
D. C. necessary to change the existing plan of award for the U.
S. Coast Artillery Association regimental Reserve trophy.
It is especially desired to impress upon all members of The Executive Council was especially desirous that the
the Association that they are not required to accept the se- plan of award be so devised that these awards would be
lections of the nominating committee and that they are made on an improved and a more equitable basis in the
free to make substitutions and to vote for any officer of future. The prime objective of the new plan is to reward
th~lrc!10ice.If any member does not approve ~f the com- the regiment whose personnel actually obtains the best
mittee s recommendation he should enter his personal record during the year for which the award is made.
chOiceon the ballot in the space provided for that purpose. The Executive Council desired to make the regimental
Printed ballots will be distributed about December I, trophy serve as an incentive to further effort beyond the
1937.Normally, they will not be sent to individuals, as minimum required for camp attendance. In the award of
thiShas been found to be impractical, but they will be the individual trophy it was desired to lessen the weight
sent th:ough regimental and post commanders, National that, in the old system, was placed upon work done in
Guard Instructors, instructors of the Organized Reserves courses not pertaining to the particular grade of the indi-
a~d similar agencies. It is urgently requested that indi- vidual or those grades immediately above that grade. It
VIdualsaccomplish the ballots and return them to the was further thought advisable that the responsibility for
agency from which they received them, and that these the award should rest with a board or committee composed
of field officers of the various regiments and the unit in- h. Co:1St Artillery subcourses and command and ge
Stnlctots. It was felt that there would be an increase in eral staff lessons only will be credited except as author_
morale and that a more equitable distribution of individual ized in paragraph 3 g. above.
trophies would result if the unit instructors and regimental i. The date of issue of a subcourse certificate de-
field officers participated more actively in making the termines when the hours of credit it represents were
awards. earned. The date appearing in the "received from Stu-
The President of the Coast Artillery Association ap- dent" column on the lesson assignment card determines
pointed a board consisting of the following named officers: when hours of credit were earned for command and
Colonel H. F. Spurgin, e.A.e., Lt. Col. e. ?vl. S. general staff lessons.
Skene, e.A.e., Lt. Co\. R. S. Atwood, e.A.e., ~vfajor j. \Vhen subcourses are issued in parts (designated
~Irilo H. Brinklev, CA-Res., to study and make recom- by Roman numerals) such parts shall be considered as
mendations for tbe necessary change~. This board drew subcourses.
up tentative proposals for changes which were submitted k. 2d Lieutenants exempted from exalninations and
to all Coast Artillery Reserve regiments through the vari- tests by Section II, Circular No. 81, \Var Department,
ous unit instructors. Upon receipt of the commentS and 1936, will not be included in the strength of a regiment
recommendations of the various regiments final plans were nor will correspondence work done by them be credited
drawn up and approved by the Executive Council. They except as follows: If a 2d lieutenant, so exempted, com-
appear below and will be in effect for the award for the pletes subcourses during the year totaling 20 hours or
year 1937-1938. more he will be included in the strength of the regi-
ment and his work credited to the unit under the same
conditions as for other officers.
1. The Coast Artillery Association regimental trophy
will be awarded annually to the Reserve or Regular regi- INDlvlDUALTROPHIES
ment, having Reserve officers assigned, that attains the An officer's saber will be presented each year to a Regu-
highest figure of merit for the year. lar Army or Reserve regiment in each corps area, under
2. The figure of merit will be the sum of the following the following conditions:
two components: a. The regiment's average Coast Artillery Reserve
a. The total number of credit hours earned during officer strength on the last day of December and June
the year by completed extension school subcourses and must be 30 or above.
command and general staff lessons will be divided by b. The number of Coast Artillery Reserve officers in
the average strength of the regiment. the regiment who have earned 25 hours or more of
b. The number of officers who earned 40 or more credit while members of the regiment as evidenced by
credit hours during the year by completed extension completed subcourse certificates or satisfactorily com-
school sub courses or com man ,d general staff lessons pleted command and general staff lessons between July
will be divided by the average st. >h of the regiment. 1st and June 30th, will be divided by the regimental
This quotient expressed as a deL. 'will be multi- strength as determined in paragraph a above and the
plied by 100. result expressed as a percentage.
3. a. The average strength of the regiment is the c. The regiment with the highest percentage will re-
average of its strength on December 3 Ist and on June ceive the saber.
30th. d. The saber will be awarded to the Coast Artillcry
b. The competition year is from July 1st to June Reserve officer of the regiment in the grade of 2d licu-
30th. tenant, 1st licutenant, or captain who has done most to
c. A regiment must have a strength of 25 or more promote the active duty and inactive duty training :md
officers to be eligible for the award. the esprit of the regiment, during the year.
d. In computing the component in paragraph 2 a e. The officer will be selected by a committee com-
above no officer will be credited with more than 100 posed of the field officers and the Unit Instructor of the
hours. reglmcnt.
e. The term "officer" applies to Coast Artillery Re-
serve officers only, assigned or attached.
f. Only subcourses and command and general staff The Cover and the Fan Mail
lessons completed while a member of a regiment will Having gotten this far in your magazine, you have no
be credited to that regiment. doubt noticed that The JOURNALappears in fancy dress for
g. Subcourses must be appropriate to the officer's thc first time. Our reason for going into color on the covcr
grade or the next higher grade; that is, for Ist Lieu- is that the holiday season is upon us. We thought that
tenants the 30 or 40 Series; except a colonel or an of- you'd like to be reminded of it.
ficer holding a certificate of capacity for colonel, may \Vhile at present we can't afford to give you color covers
be credited with any courses approved by the corps area with every issue it may be that some day we'll be able to
for obtaining eligibility for camp attendance. do it oftener than once a year. Be that as it may, we thank
our subscribers for their support :md encouragement dur- The strength of the National Guardsmen on our rolls
ing the current year and look forward to it during 1938. continues to increase, possibly because of the satisfied
The thought occurs that perhaps you are stuck in pick- customers we have had in the past. One of these speaks
ing those last-minute Christmas presents. Why not give up:
The JOURNAL? A year of the Coast Artilleryman's own The JOUR:--:ALenables Coast Artillerymen to keep in touch
magazine may be just the thing for that brother officer with the ~arious branches of the Corps which would other-
wIse remam a mystery.
who, for various reasons, may not have heard of it. Rather
1st Lieutenant R. J. Loos,
than tell you ourselves what a good gift it would make,
244th CA., N.Y.N.G.
we'll quote from some of the fan mail received since the
And the following letter voices sentiments that could not
preceding issue.
fail to appeal to any editor:
That The JOURNAL'S appeal is not limited to the men To show you how eager I am to continue subscribing to
of the family appears from the following: The JOUR:--:AL I am sending this via Clipper Air Mail so that
Even the wife reads it-almost from cover to cover. I will not lose a single copy. As long as The JOURNALcon-
Captain M[LO CARY,CA.C tinues its high standard I never want my subscription to lapse.
The JOURNAL is also seen (and read) beyond the close Captain D. J. BA[LEY,CA.C .
confines of the military, as witness the following: That letter winged its way from Manila; we're sorry that
I cannot close without complimenting you on both the we are still forced to depend on the more sedate steamers
appearance. of The JOURNALand the interesting reading mat- for delivery service on your magazine.
ter It contams.
ROBERTB. LEA, Vice-president,
Sperry Gyroscope Co., Inc.
The civilian components continue to furnish strong sup- First U. S. Antiaircraft School
port, not only as contributors but as subscribers: The accompanying picture is the first photograph taken
As a Reserve officer student, The JOURNALhas been very
helpful to me.
of the original faculty and students of the first antiaircraft
I st Lieutenant W[[.LlA~1 BROWN,C.A.-Res. school in the United States Army. It was taken at Ar-
Another JOURNAL booster writes us: nouville-Ies-Gonesse, France, in the early days of October,
\Ve enjoy The JOURNALimmensely. [917, shortly after the arrival of the students from the
Sergeant Major W. E. CORLEY. States.

1- 2nd.lt. S.C.Deilrick Jr. Va. 11-Znd.lt. B.F. Harmon llo<;ton, M=s. ZI- 1st. Lt.J.H.Cochron Lillie "Rock., Ark.
z- 1st. Lt. J.M.Lewi~ Pittsburq , Pa. IZ'Znd.lt. C.w.lawrence n- 2nd. Lt. W. Tower MaSs.
~-Z'nd.lt. I.Wynne Providence, R.1. 13'lst. Lt. f.W.MitcheH Ohiopyle. Pa. Z3- 151 Lt. D.:>.Ward queens, N.Y.
-1st. Lt. W.S.&rker Harrisburq, Pd. IA- Znd. Lt. D.F. Taylor Indianapolis, Ind. 2A- Znd Lt. AW. Cn.,pm/)n Bey St Loui, , Mi".
5- Znd. U. R.O.Edwards Cincinnati, Ohio 15- 2nd. Lt. R.E.Glasheen Brock.ton, tkl:lS. 25-lsl. Lt. H.M.Marsh Washington, D-C.
6- 2nd Lt. O.J.Miller St.Louis, Mo. 16' 2nd. Lt. A.C. Dixon 5t.Loui5, Mo. ~6- Copt. 'Humbert AnnapoIi$)
7- 2nd. Lt. J.JenkiLls Norfolk. Va. 17- 1:11. Lt. H.K.Webb PhIladelphia, P". 27- Capt. G.P.A~erson West. Point Instrudo~
8- 2nd. Lt. W. Hesl<ith Providence, R.t 18- 2nd. Lt. S.5h'llIig Port Gibson MiM. 28- Cap!. adCler Pdn,.
9- I sl. Lt. J. H.Ewell Jr:. Goliad. Tetas 19. I st. Lt. A.f. Hull Marshall tow~, !JJ. 29-Capt. Rollet Pdri,
10- 2nd. Lt. E.R.Holland San Antonio, 20-15t. Lt. W.V.8renizer Austin, Texa5
Oc;T- lSl7

The students were all second and first liemenanrs, most the Americans. All the material for the use of the Stu,
of them fresh from college, and all of them firm in the dems-bunks, mattresses, and bedding-had to be ob-
belief that liemenanrs were non-expendable. The faculty tained and set up in the chateau. This work was done
consisted of Captains G. F. Humbert and Glenn P. An- by Captains Humbert and Anderson. General Shipton
derson, e.A.e., and Captains Rollet and Gassier, French (who had been promoted to brigadier general), was In
Army. England looking over the antiaircraft British methods.
Paragraph 10, Confidential Order No. 17, W.O., July The school was read" for students about the middle of
14, 1917, believed to be the first U. S. Army order pub- September, 1917: Th~ s.tudents arrived at the .beginning
lished regarding antiaircraft defense, directed Liemenant of October, and II1structlon began at once. It IS be!i<:ved
Colonel James A. Shipton, e.A.e., 1st Lieutenant George the the only members of the original board and stlldcnLS
F. Humbert, e.A.e., and 1st Lieutenant Glenn P. An- still on the active list are Lieutenant Colonel G ....
derson, C.AC., to proceed to France, and report to the Humbert, e.A.e., and ~vIajor William Hesketh, CA.C
Commanding General, with view to assignment to the
of of of
work of organization and training in tactical and technical
anti-aviation defense. Recent Experience of Air Attack
The board sailed from New York, July 26, 1917, on The whole subject of the ability of sea power to with-
the Philadelphia, sailing without convoy. The Philadel- stand the threat of air power is of infinitely more im-
phia was attacked by submarines twice in one morning, portance than mere controversial interest, particubrlv
off Tory Island at the entrance to the Irish Sea; the first for this coumry, which is so dependent upon the sea. I~
torpedoes missing the stern by inches. There was no the inevitable race between the menace and the antidote
damage except perhaps to the nerves of the passengers, the latter is undoubtedly steadily gaining ground. In ad,
who experienced their first war thrill. The board landed dition to high-angle fire the warship can employ smoke-
at Liverpool August 14, 1917, immediately entraining tor screening-zig-zagging tactics at high speed do not make
Folkestone. From there it sailed in a heavily guarded the task of attacking aircraft any easier.
convoy for Boulogne. The board reported to Americ:lo There are various rumors of mysterious inventions for
GHQ, then located at 23 Rue Constantine, Paris; and defeating aeroplanes-"death rays" and suchlike things.
fifteen days after leaving New York it was in the front Frankly, we do not set much store by these ideas; we have
line, wearing steel helmets and gas masks for the first been hearing of the wonderful things which were to be
time. Accompanied by Captain Rollet, liaison officer from accomplished by ultra-rays and infra-rays and the rest of
the French AA school at Arnouville-les-Gonnesse, it the spectrum for as long as we can remember, and are still
made a reconnaissance trip through the French antiaircraft waiting for anything to be accomplished at all.
defenses of the Third, Sixth and Tenth French Armies, But in the methods of straight fighting, progress is
in the active Chemin des Dames sector. The French had continuous. Of course, it is not one-sided by any means,
single antiaircraft guns in the front-line trenches. These and to say that the defense is getting "on top" of the air
guns were 75's, carriages modified to permit high-angle menace would be absurdly misleading. Air attack must
fire. always remain a very serious danger to warships. But
After the trip the group was assigned an office in the the means of resistance are steadily improving. \Ve no
American Air Service building on A venue Montaigne, longer hear even the extremists protesting that it is a
Paris, and from there commuted to the French AA School suicidal waste of money to go on building battleships to
at Arnouville. The Regnier-Arnouville instrument (Reg- be sitting targets for aircraft.
nier being the name of the chief designer), known to us During the past year we have seen plenty of aircraft in
as the R.A. corrector, had not yet been generally dis- action against warships and other ships, and the net resul~s
tributed to the French Army. It was undergoing study and have not been very encouraging to the air-minded enthUSI-
tests at the school. It was the secret and pride of the French asts. 'J.le may hope to have heard the end of those heavily-
antiaircraft service, and was supposed to be far in advance overworked experiments by the United States Air Force
in efficiency to any instrument in either the Allied or against a motionless and totally-defenseless ex-German
German armies. Judging by the results, this was prob- battleship because there are now real war experiences to
ably true. At that time the latest thing in gun and guote. The conclusion to be drawn from these is that
mount was the 3-inch AA gun M1917. Incidentally, this air power is not going to drive sea power off the surface
same type gun, mount, and corrector are now being used of the oceans.-United Services Review.
by some of our ROTC units.
The natural location for the American School was next
to that of the French, where advantage could be taken of Training Movies
their materiel, instructors and textbooks. A beautiful The 603d e.A. (Ry) undertook an unusual and pro-
chateau on the ourskirts of Arnouville was reguisitioned gressive training measure during its active-duty period.
for classrooms and barracks. Moving pictures were taken of every phase of the' traini~~,
French textbooks and many lengthy treatises had to be and are now being used for study and constructive cou-
translated into English and mimeographed for the use of cism to derive real benefit from the mistakes made. The
methods emplo.ved to point out error and the use made of cribbing were used. The two-axle trailer was assembled
of these films is an object lesson in progressive training. with 16 wheels beating 13.5 x 20 tires to take part of the
These films add interest to the meetings during the load off the cribbing. There were 12 tires on the three-
inactive training period and. furthetmore, guarantee re- axle semi-trailer and ten tires on the three-axle truck.
sults for the next year. It is suggested that gteatet use Two days were required to move the gun seven-tenths
could be made of the movie camera during training periods of a mile, which included twO switchbacks and grades up
and that a great deal of good would result to all organi- to 10 per cent. The pulls were approximately 25 feet
zations. Regular, National Guard, and Reserve. and over each time. with the aid of winches mounted on
an auxiliary truck.
Two extra trucks w~re used to hold the equipment back
Moving a Giant Gun going down grade by means of a cable attached to the
gun itself. The entire load was distributed so that the
The red:voods grow big in California, and so do truck- rear trailer clrried 100 tons and the truck and semi-trailer
in<ToperatIOns. 43 tons.
Recently. the heaviest load ever moved on pneumatic Afrer Converse Trucking Service had posted a bond of
tires. a 143-(On, 16-inch coast defense cannon, was hauled $350,000 to cover the movement. it had to secure special
bv the Converse T tucking Service, 15 miles from the site permission from both the State and City authorities to
of the Golden Gate Bridge to a fort on the Pacific Coast.
go ahead with the job.
Ir rook the trucking company exactly seven days from "It was the most extraordinary operation I have ever
the time it started building cribbing to hold the gun on known." said Russell V evans, district director of the
special equipment. to the date of delivery. Bureau of }Vlotor Carriers.-Transport Topics. tVash-
Previously such projects had been handled by hard
ington, D. C.
wooden rollers, or the cannon were delivered direct to the
of of l'
gun emplacement on Hat cars.
AA Guns Develop Fast
The efficiency of modern truck transportation as com-
pared with the old methods is illustrated by the fact that Those who arc inclined to bank too much on aircraft
it rook two hours and 35 minutes to haul the gun at a in the next war are doomed to a sad awakening, for the
'peed of one and one-half miles per hour over four miles :1I1tiaircrafr artillery seems to have advanced faster than the
of San Francisco streets and California Highways. planes and continues to do so. The modern range finders,
It would have taken approximately two weeks to move locators, and other fire-control materiel used in connection
the cannon the same distance on the wooden 'toilers, with the antiaircraft defense do everything but think.
espcciall.', since this section of the movement was up and There are those who contend that they do that bener than
down a 6 per cent grade. some personnel trying to operate them. During the war
The trucking service built a special two-axle trailer, the "Archies," as the British termed the antiaircrafters,
which it used in connection with a GlvlC truck and a fired on the enemy planes mostly by guess work and with
Reliance semi-trailer to which it added a third axle. the hope that they would be able to make a hit now and
The total weight of the gun and moving eguipmel1t then. They did, bur there was a lot of luck in it. Today,
wa~ 1000tons. The gun weighed 143-tons, the special with the improved fire-control instruments and firing de-
trailer 3-tons, the truck and semi-trailer I I-tons, and 3-tons vices, much of the element of chance is taken our of it,

160 Tom-the heat'iest load et'er carried by pneumatic tires.

and the "Archies" make frequent hits instead of occasional plish a quicker result, then is the use of air force in such
ones. All of this increased efficiencv in antiaircraft fire is circumstances falsely estimated.
evidenced by the performance of th~ guns in Spain, where . The answer is, "Yes, it is!" .Although the surr~unding
plane casualties have been extremelv heav\'. [n the United Villages were often razed by air bombardment, BIlbao it.
States Army they have ,30- and '5~aliber machine guns self was largely spared, the attackers' efforts beinO" other-
and 3" and 105-mm antiaircraft guns. In the Navy they wise mainly devoted to trench-bombing and ~achine-
have 5-inch guns with which to oppose the enemy, and gunning of exposed personnel. The bomb is not precisely
when a shell from one of these splatters over a plane some- a weapon of precision in the sense of ordnance, and narrow
thing disastrous is likely to happen. It is current news that trench systems :ne extremely difficult targets evcn at low
the countries of Europe are giving. increased attention to height. The incendiary bomb has little, if :1I1\', effect
antiaircraft guns because they have proved to be so ef- when thus applied, and gas was not employed. 'Aircraft
fective.-Army and Navy Register. can destroy effectually when the objective, be it men or be
it material, affords a mass presentment, but otherwise it
f f f
is usually wasted effort.
Ground Versus the Air In the Great War our R.A.F. communiques used to
Results being reported as obtained by air attack in Ethi- declare that such and such a weight of bombs and so
opia, Spain, and China tend somewhat to lesscn the pub- many rounds of small arm ammunition had been expended
lic estimation of the military value of aircraft. The press on the enemy lines. The wording was for home consump-
and the public now seem to discount the extravagant tion and, more often than not, might have read as follows:
claims sometimes made by over-enthusiastic aviation pro- "~n the ~ourse of ope~ations our bombing and low-Hying
ponents. It is thought, however, that this apparent change prlots Without exceptIon hoped for the best; in the ae-
of popular opinion will not react unfavorably upon thc gregate their aspirations amountcd to a total weight ~f
air services, or lessen their essential contribution to a well- x foot-pounds. "-United Services Review.
balanced combat team. f f f
Antiaircraft artillery has suffered in the past from Hip-
Legion Defense Program
pant belittlemcnt by the uninformed. It is now receiving
the serious consideration which is justly its duc. The effec- Following are extracts from the American Legion's new
tiveness of antiaircraft defense is no'ionger a matter of National Defensc program as approved by the last annual
conjecture. Its adcquacy for the job and dependability convention held in New York during the month of
as a protective medium have been proved under war October.
conditions. AR}'[Y

It would secm that our nation could profitably afford 2. Activation of six skeletonized regiments of our anti.
an expenditure for antiaircraft defenses equal to the rccent aircraft artillery, completc modern equipment for all active
35-million dollars set aside by the British government regiments of the Regular Army and the National Guard
for such defensc. Increased appropriations for up-to-date and an adequate reserve of equipment for the additional
and cfficient antiaircraft materiel should be delaycd no regiments which will be needed immediately in an emer-
longer. gency.
f f f 9. Sufficient appropriations for continued moderniz~-
tion of arms and equipment with special attention to anti-
Bilbao Questionnaire
tank and antiaircraft weapons, to the increase and further
Air force enthusiasts are puzzled and disappointed; they development of mechanized and motorized equipme.nt,
are at a loss to account for the fact that vastly supcrior not as a substitute for horse cavalry, but in addition
air power did not ... more speedily ... compel the thereto.
fall of Bilbao. It does require eXplanation. The nature . 15. Necessary improvements in our coast defense to. in-
of the terrain within the Government lines was such as to sure protection of our coast and foreign possessions agaIl1st
preclude the construction of aerodromes and landing attack.
grounds. The insurgent forces, on the other hand, not f f f
only possessed a plethora of 'planes, but could operate
them from dozens of bases outside the perimeter of the Army Increases
defence. It is believed during the special session of Congress,
And yet it took eighty days to bear back thc defenders' which opened on November 15, there will result aug-
lines and force submission. Even at that the Basque di- mented provisions for the military establishment. The:
visions in large part evaded the encirclement and made troubled conditions both in Europe and Asia natu.rally
good their escape towards Santander, making of Bilbao's lead to a conclusion that the subject of adequate NatIOnal
fall another city gained rather than a decisive military Defense and proper provisions therefor will be matters of
success .. If a large accumulation of air power on one side, first importance with the Congress. It is reasona?le. to
with a complete absence of it on the other, cannot accom- assume that Congress will take protective steps Similar
1937 NE\,\'S AND COMMENT 527
to chose of che various foreign governments; chis, in spice Mine Sunk Espana
of che facc chac che \V:1r Dep:1rtment budget escim:1ces When the battleship Espana was sunk off Bilbao, all
do noC provide :1 brger :1rm:1ment progr:1m. available evidence "proved" it had been :1ccomplished by
:1erial attack. From the manner in which the vessel sank,
according to eyewitnesses, it seemed impossible she could
Heat Detector for Spotting Planes have come into contact with a mine.
Progress in :1nti:1ircr:1£Cprocection is noced from cwo Two bombing airplanes were seen over her. The A d-
recent sources. miralty stated that they were satisfied the ship had been
Experiments h:1ve recently t:1.k.en pbce :1t ~ort 1:10n- mined, and there can be no question that they were right.
mauch, New Jersey, by the mlht:1ry authorines with :1 -United Services Review.
new aircr:1ft spotting device. The instrument is :1 very
delic:1te he:1t detector which, through the use of infra-
Spanish Military Lessons
red r3VS,C:1ntr3ce the f:tstest fighting pbne flying with-
out li~hts :1nd engines shut down. lvIajor Gened A. C. Temperley, former Deputy Direc-
Th~ m:1chines were immedi:1tely spotted :1nd illumi- tor of Military Operations :1nd Intelligence in the British
nated bv the r:1Y, which only shows :1Sa faint pencil of Army, writing in the current;. issue of Foreign Affairs s:1id
"the most modern :1nti:1ircr:1£C guns :1re :1greater thre:1t to
light :11~ng.it~ c'ou:se, but br'illi:1ntly ~ight.s up th~ object
air power than ground defense has ever been before."
on which It IS tr:1Ined. By :1utom:1tlc trl:1ngubnon the
exact 10c:1tion of the object to be detected is determined The New York Sun, after quoting Gener:1l Temperley,
comments as follows:
within :1 period of two seconds mech:1nically within :1
It will be observed that these two conclusions indicate that
r:tl1aebelieved to be :1t le:1st 20 miles. in two categories the defense has tended to catch up with the
P.1rticubrs of the instrument, which is s:1id to be of offense. It is General Temperley's observation that "the war
I'evolution:1ry import:1nce, :1re being kept secret. in Spain has confirmed the view that recent developments
A demonstr:1tion has been given in Sweden of :1 new have [ended to strengthen the defense."
4o-mm. :1nti:1ircraft gun, presumably :1 product of the Antiaircraft weapons of German make are described as very
efficient and the best war material sent to Spain from Ger-
Bofors f:1ctory, although the name of the m:1ker W:1Snot many. The superiority of this materiel and a numerical su-
made public. No important det:1ils were rele:1sed, beyond periority of airplanes may give General Franco's forces a
:I st:1tement th:1t the gun is effective :1t :1 range of 3,000 slight edge in the air over the better equipped and better
metres :1od ch:1t it fires :1t the r:1te of 120 rounds per min- trained Russian pilots.
~lte.-United Services Review.
Guns on Skyscrapers
It is reported that forcign governments are considering
GHQ Air Force 63d C.A. (AA) Exercise
the employmcnt of anti:1ircr:1ft guns emplaccd on the top
of buildings. It is further understood that our building
The recent exercises held at ?vi uroc, California, empha- trades employers' association is giving consider:1tion-to the
sized the need for participation of civilians in the organi- :1dditional structural requirements to make possible the
zation of the antiaircra£C w:1rning service. The exercises use of guns in a simibr manner. This is interesting since
hawed th:1t the establishment of anti:1ircraft warning ser- the wcight of our latest yinch :1nti:1ircraft gun, when
vices using priV3te resources, supplemented by Govern- stripped down for use on :1 pedestal mount, is approxi-
ment means, is economical and practicable and that such mately 10,000 Ibs. This gun has :1 piston-rod pull of be-
• ~m'ice can be m:1de to function effectively. tween 17,000 :1nd 200,000 lbs.
The future use of antiaircraft guns on roofs of sky-
scr:1pers in our large cities, for instance, in New York,
Bark Worse Than Bite reRects confidence on the part of the civilian popubtion
Sir Herbert Russell in an article headed "Japan and Sea in the use of :1ntiaircr:1ft artillery and indic:1tes tbt the
.ower, Some ReRections on Her Dominant Position" in use of this means of protection ultim:1tely will be de-
e September 9, 1937, number of the United Services manded.
tlJiew. makes a significant survey of the sicu:1tion in
ina. He states: Antiaircraft Automatic Cannon
Once again. as so often during the Spanish conAict. we
have seen that in the employment of aircraft against warships In the July-August number of The JOUR:-IALwe called
(and other ships) their bark is much worse than their bite. attention to the bct th:1t the Austrian Army had :1dopted
~nm~ airmen may not be particularly good. but from all the Swiss Oerlikon 20-0101. (about .80 inch) :1utomatic
~partJal accounts it seems certain that they are not par- cannon. In that issue we ourlined some of the character-
ticularly bad. and the onlv conclusion to be drawn from the
~nelfectivenessof their repeated attacks upon anchored ships istics of the weapon. Furthermore, we gave a pictorial
" that the antiaircraft fire from these rendered anything like display of the Bofor automatic cannons, recently pur-
rate bombing impracticable. chased by the British Governmnt.

Those who for many ~'ears have advocated the adoption

of an automatic cannon of greater than .50 caliber as the
probable solution of the antiaircrafr problem find renewed
supporr for their convictions in these purchases b~' Eng-
land and Austria.
It has been reporred from responsible sources that the
British also have interested themselves in the Oerlikon
20-mm. cannon and have purchased 12.000 of these
The use of automatic cannon of 20-mm. to 4o-mm. ap-
pears to be a step in the right direction, and ma~' offer a
solution to some pressing antiaircraft problems of our own.
The ultimate results achieved with automatic cannon
b~' the foreign governments will be closely scrutinized,
looking to possible adoption by our forces.

f f f

Camera Records
The 249th CO.1st Artillery (HD), Oregon Nationa:
Guard, does not have the services of a regular army master
gunner during target practice to take charge of the photo-
Camera record of a sl1ol.
graphic work, the scaling of the negatives, and records of
the practice. This work then becomes the duty of the
When the exposure of the splash is made the camera
regiment's master gunner, who, as usually is the case in
automatically records the information, simplifvin<T the
the National Guard, has had little experience in keeping
idenrificatio[; of the shot as well as reducing th~ ;ll~OUI1t
photographic films in numerical order so that there will
o~ hand lettering on the negative. The accomp;ll1~,ing
be no mixup when the films arc being scaled. The 249th
pICture shows the result.
has its film developing and printing done by civili:m per-
The board proved very satisfactory during the 193i
sonnel, who frequently get the negatives out of sequence,
coast artillery target practice season. It is the result of an
which bter causes trouble in identifying the splash.
idea offered by 1st Lieutenant Charles L. Unruh of Head-
A simple device designed by StJff Sergeant George
quarters Battery, 249th C.A. This item is offered in the
Cleary, Headquarters Battery, 249th C.A. has now en-
hope that it may be of value to some other members of
tirely eliminated the trouble. It is a board 24" x 30" con-
taining the name of the battery firing, the battery and the Corps.
regiment manning the gun or mortar, the date. length of f f
towlines, the shot number, and an arrow pointing in the Balloon Barrage
direction of the battery. The shot numbers are painted on
a slip of white oilcloth, rolled on two spools which have It has been announced the British Government has
small cranks attached. The spools are so arranged that the formed a new organization to control the balloon barrage
proper shot number may be placed on the board by turn- defense of London. This organization, which will be a
ing the spool to the desired number. The other data may part of the fighter command, Royal Air Force, will ~
be changed at will by submitting the required information known as No. 30 balloon barrage group. The units Will
(lettered on plates in advance) for that previously posted. be administered on auxiliary air force lines. It is reported
The plates are fastened by small bolts. that it will be recruited up to strength. The age limit for
The board is painted white with black lettering, 3 X" this service will be higher than that of combat units ;l~d
high, is placed approximJtcly IO feet from the camera
opportunity to join will be provided for older ex-serVICe
in the direction of the target, and is so located that it does men and others with little or no military experience. The
not interfere with the line of sight from the camera to the men enlisted will come in the cateo-ory
o . known in our ;lrillV'
target. as "limited service" men.

* * *
Coast Gltti{leltV BOaltd notes
Any individual, whether or not he is a member of the service, is invited to submit constructive sugges-
tions relating to problems tinder study by the Coast Artillery Board, or to present any new problems that
properly may be considered by the Board. Com munications should be addressed to the President,
Coast A rtillery Board, Fort 111onroe, Virginia.




SERVATION.-The Board tested a method of target loca-
Projects Completed Since Last Issue of tion in which the position of the observing airplane at the
The Journal time observations on the target were made was fixed by
PROJECTNo. 1075-CABLE INSTALLATIOt'\FOR FIXED means of "dead reckoning." The procedure consisted of
ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNs.-T ests of the buried Glble instal- tracking the airplane for a short period from a ground
lation for the fixed antiaircraft guns at Fort Monroe have station or starting point over which the airplane passed,
been completed. Seven hundred and thirty-six (736) thus obtaining the true course of the plane and data from
rounds were fired by the guns served by this dat3 trans- which the ground speed could be determined. The pilot
mission system during the last summer training period. maintained a constant air speed and compass heading
No troubles connected with the data tr3nsmission system during the remainder of the run for target location. The
were encountered in these firings. A similar installation is position of the plane at the instant the observer in the
to be provided for a battery of fixed antiaircraft guns at plane made 3n observation on the target was obtained by
Fort Story, Virginia, in time for the Coast Artillery School noting the elapsed time from starting point to observation
firings next spring. The armored cable for this installation on the target and laying off the travel of the pbne along
has been received. the true course during this interval.
The position of the target with reference to the observ-
PROJECTNo. 1076-SWITCHBOARDS BD-7I AND BD- ing airplane was obtained by reading successive horizontal
72.- This project involved 3 test of field switchboards, angles between the target and the longitudinal axis of the
which are standard at present, with a view to determining pbne as the plane proceeded on its course. Two methods
",hat improvements, if any, should be incorporated in fu- for obtaining these horizontal angles were employed. In
ture design. The two switchboards are alike in everything the first, an angle-measuring instrument mounted in the
except size, weight and the number of switchboard units, rear cockpit was used. In the second, the pbne itself was
the BD-71 being 3 six-drop board and the BD-72 a twelve- pointed at the target and the angle turned from the initial
d.ropboard. The most important departures from past de- heading of the pbne was read on the pilot's "turn indica-
SIgn in field switchboards were the inclusion of a ring- tor."
talk key in each circuit, thus doing away with the opera- The "dead reckoning" method is subject to errors due
tor's cord; the provision of from two to four (depending to inability of the pilot to maintain an exactly constant
~ upo~ the type of board) simplexed telegraph circuits by heading and air speed, and also due to changes in wind
the Il1t~oduction of repeating coils; 3nd certain improve- which may occur after the plane can no longer be tracked
Dlents 111 the design of the case. Both switchboards 3re from the shore station. However, it was found that the
I.?ht enough so that they can be carried for 3 considerable method was capable of producing target locations at
distance by one man. Power for the night alarm, lamp and ranges of 30,000 to 40,000 yards with an accuracy con-
trJ?smitter circuits is supplied by ordinary flashlight bat- sidered sufficient to enable initial shots to be readily spot-
tenes. The Coast Artillery Board found these switch- ted by the air observer.
l>oardsto be a considerable improvement over older types
an~ concluded that, with minor changes, this design was PROJECT No. I loS-MOBILE ivfETEOROLOGICALSTA-
nsfactory for future procurement. TION.-This equipment was assembled by the Signal
Corps for use by aU branches of the Army. The com- Case III data from the director to the guns, to be emplov~
ponent instruments included not only those usually sup- in the event of failure of any part of the standard electrical
plied for a Coast Artillery meteorological station but, in data transmission system. The system which was test~
addition, sufficient instruments to permit forecasting included a local battery telephone with hand-set at the di-
weather conditions and the preparation of weather maps. rector connected to sound-powered receivers mounted in
Test of this mobile station consisted of the daily prepara- helmets at the guns. Superimposed on each of the lints
tion of meteorological messages for use in connection with connecting director and guns was a simple contact which
antiaircraft firings at Fort Story, Virginia. A new position functioned automatically to give a click whenever the hr-
was occupied each day. No difficulties were experienced in ing azimuth (or quadrant elevation) at the director Was
the operation of the station. Upon completion of the tests, an even multiple of ten mils. The system operated as fol-
the Board concluded that a mobile meteorological station lows: readers at the director read the data to be transmitt~
was desirable but not essential, that the equipment therein as rapidly as possible (at one- or two-mil intervals when
should be limited to that necessary for the preparation of the data were changing slowly but at twenty-, fifty-, or
an artillery message, and that, if possible, this equipment ~ven on.ehundred-mi~ intervals when the data were chang-
should be mounted with one of the regimental radio sets in mg rapIdly). The aZImuth setter (or elevation setter) at
one vehicle so as to provide a combined radio and meteor- each gun set his mechanical pointer to the values called
ological truck for mobile regiments. to him over the telephone using the clicks to get synchron-
ized settings. The frequency of the clicks furnished an
SECTION II easy means for these men to establish the proper rate of
turning their handwheels. Tests of this system included
Projects Under Consideration
drills with normal targets and with high-speed targets. A
PROTECT No. I096-TIME INTERVAL ApPARATUSEE. number of target practices were fired, using the standard
86-T I.-This equipment was described in the September- data transmission system and the telephones on alternate
October issue of the COASTARTILLERYJOURNAL.The courses. Although study of the results obtained has not
equipment is still under test and it is not expected that the been completed, it appears probable that such a system of
test will be completed before December. No definite con- data transmission is feasible for emergency use.
clusions as to the suitability of this apparatus can be ar-
ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN MouNTs.-The rear bogie of 3-inch
PROJECTNo. IIOI-REVIEW OF SEACOAST ARTILLERY antiaircraft gun mount M2AI No. 49 was received from
FIRECONTROLANDPOSITIONFINDINGSYSTEMs.-Experi- the Aberdeen Proving Ground where it was equipped with
ence with the present fire-control and position-finding electric brakes made by the Warner Electric Brake Manu-
systems, obtained largely through target practice, has facturing Company of Beloit, Wisconsin. These electnc
enabled the Board to accumulate considerable information brakes consist principally of the brake mechanism proper
in reference to the suitability of the methods and apparatus housed in brake drums, the electric wiring, including
now employed. New methods and devices have been pro- couplings and connections to the storage battery of the
posed and certain ones are now under study by the Board. prime mover, a rheostat by means of which four degrees
The pilot model of one of these devices, the Seacoast Data of maximum braking may be secured, and a conrroller.
Computor T-S' is now undergoing test at Fort Monroe. The controller is mounted on the steering column of the
Problems of fire control and position finding for long- prime mover where it can be operated conveniently by
range cannon and the possibilities of airplane observation hand. An effective breakaway feature is included. The
in connection with target location and fire at extreme Coast Artillery Board has tested these brakes and found
ranges are also of current interest. them, in so far as a limited amount of road work would
The purpose of the review contemplated under this pro- indicate, quite satisfactory. The trailer brakes can be ap-
ject is to consider our seacoast artillery fire-control and plied independently and, if desired, before those of the
position-finding problem as a whole in the light of experi- prime mover. The necessary apparatus is relatively simple.
ence gained through target practices, especially when op- Before reporting on these brakes, the Board is engaged In
erating against high-speed targets. The project includes testing an auxiliary controller for the existing standard
recommending the fire-control methods and apparatus to air-brake system. This controller is likewise mounted .on
be employed with each of the various types of seacoast ar- the steering column of the prime mover and will proVIde:
tillery armament, and the preparation of a program for the for application of the trailer brakes before those of the
dev?lopment of suitable fire-control and position-finding prime mover. No breakaway feature is provided.
PROTECT No. I I03-EMERGENCY FIRE-CoNTROLSYS- T 4,-- This equipment is designed to provide a means for
TEMSFORANTIAIRCRAFT GUNs_-One of the phases of visual communication, either by day or by night, between
this project was the development and test of a telephone two fixed ground stations. In general, the equipment c~n-
system of data transmission suitable for transmission of sists of a lamp, powered by flashlight batteries and equIp-
ped with a precise focusing mechanism, a small telescope devices for this purpose.
mounted on the barrel of the lamp for the purpose of ac- The instruments tested included:
curate laying on the receiving station, a telegraph key for I. The Position Finder T 3, a multi-station instru-
sending signals and a tripod for mounting the transmitter. ment which determines altitude, slant range, or hori-
The equipment is light, compact and sturdy and is de- zontal range, by means of measurements in the slant
signedto be .rrans£orted and operated by a single signaller. plane containing the base line and target, combined
It is not SUIted eIther for shore-to-shIp or ground-to-air with the angular height of this slant plane.
communication. No detailed tests have been made as yet 2. The Height Finder T 14, which is based on a new
and no conclusions as to the suitability of this equipment approach to the altimetric roof principle.
for Coast Artillery purposes are possible at this time. 3, The M-g20 altimeters.
4. The Hei.g~t Finders T 16 and T 9E I, both of which
SECTION III are stereoscopiClI1struments.
The tests included both night and day tracking mis-
MODIFIEDFl.'ZE SETTERSMs.-The Coast Artillery sions, on rectilinear, maneuvering and diving targets. Er-
Board has received an MS fuze setter with modifications rors in altitude were determined by comparing readings
extending beyond the scope of those reported in the COAST of individual instruments with data obtained by mirror or
ARTILLERY JOURNAL, May-June, 1937 (page 27S). In ad- window position finders. Altitudes varied from 1,000 to
dition to removal of the devices for locking the round in S,ooo yards. Base-line lengths varied from 375 to 2,000
the fuze setter, the automatic unlocking of the setting yards. All instruments were manned by enlisted men of
handwheel has been abandoned. A hand lever has been the Coast Artillery Corps.
provided which the fuze-setter operator strikes with his Of the stereoscopic instruments, the T9E1 produced the
hand as soon as the round is inserted This unlocks the more accurate and uniform results. Both trained and un-
~etting handwheel and permits the setting operation to trained operators were employed and, as might be ex-
proceedas before. The modification allows a redesign of pected, altitude errors varied considerably. In general,
the seat for the nose of the fuze and provides a clear open- however, the tests indicated that in the hands of a trained
ing through the center of the instrument for chips and observer the average altitude error of a stereoscopic instru-
other debris. Tests of the modified instrument are being ment should not greatly exceed 2 per cent. Since the com-
conducted in connection with the School firings. pletion of these tests, the T9E1, with minor modifications,
has been standardized as the Height Finder MI.
SUP-RINGSFOR MOBILE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNs.-The Results obtained with the multi-station instruments were
junction box recommended in Coast Artillery Board Pro- not so easy of interpretation. No device tested was en-
ject No. 1066 (the COASTARTILLERY JOURNAL,Novem- tirely satisfactory. Although both the T 3 position finder
ber-December, 1936) for use in connection with the slip- and the T 14 height finder were capable of operation on a
ring installation on mobile antiaircraft gun mounts has much shorter base line than the altimeters, their altitude
been received. This junction box is provided with a recep- readings showed little improvement in accuracy over those
tacleand "jumpers" for disconnecting the slip-ring circuit obtained with the altimeters when the latter were used on
sothat, in case of failure of the slip-ring circuit, firing can a 2,ooo-yard base line. The greater weight, bulk and com-
~ continued by merely plugging the data cable into the plexity of operation, particularly in the case of the T 3, as
Junction box and removing the connecting jumpers. In- compared to the altimeters, were serious disadvantages.
stallation of the new junction box and test of the design Percentage errors of all instruments in altitude readings
as thus modified will be completed at an early date. varied greatly, depending on type of course, altitude of
target, length of base line and other factors. Under aver-
ACCURACY TEST OF ANTIAIRCRAFT HEIGHT ANDPo- age conditions, an altitude error of about 3 per cent was
SITIONFINDERs.-The Board has recently received for indicated by the altimeters on the 2,ooo-yard base line.
study a report of tests conducted by the Ordnance De- In general, the tests indicate that a reasonably satisfac-
partment, designed to investigate the comparative ac- tory single-station instrument is now available to antiair-
curacy of various single-station and multi-station antiair- craft units, but that the need for considerable improve-
craftheight and position finders. The report is exhaustive ment is evident in the field of multi-station instruments.
and.covers all phases of the tests, which were conducted Present thought throughout the Coast Artillery leans
dunng a period of about two months in the latter part of strongly to the view that each 3-inch antiaircraft gun bat-
1935. tery should have available a two-station device to supple-
Briefly,the tests represented the culmination of several ment or to replace, in emergency, the stereoscopic height
Y~rs of development in- the field of height-finding de- finder. The MI920 altimeters are now used for this pur-
V1C~: The accurate determination of altitude is generally pose, but efforts to develop a more suitable instrument will
consIderedto be the weakest link in the chain of antiair- be continued. The Coast Artillery Board is at present
craft fire-control data, hence efforts have been continu- engaged in a further study of the entire problem and will
OUsly directed toward the development of more suitable welcome constructive suggestions.

The author of "Guns in Spain" is a lvfajor, l'vfilitary In- The life story of Captain BURGO GILL was published
telligence Division, Officers' Reserve Corps. He is a news- in the January-Febmary, 1937, number of The JOURX.-\l
paperman and journalist with over thirty-five years ex- which carried his article on uniforms. At present he is
perience. The material for his article was developed on on duty with the 59th Coast Artillery, Fort Mills, P. I.
the ground in Spain during this year. Readers will agree
that he has an eye for what is going on and knows how to -( -( -(

tell it after he has seen it.

'f 'f 'f Colonel J. A GREEN, e.Ae., is the Executive Officer
Major WILLIAM e. BRALY, Coast Artillery Corps, is in the Office Chief of Coast Artillery. His 35 years of
a member of the hardworking staff of the Coast Artillery service have been spent in the Artillery Corps and Coast
Unit at the University of California at Berkeley. He was Artillery Corps. His many important assignments in-
initially commissioned a captain, Coast Artillery Section, clude four years as Editor of The COAST ARTILLERY
O.R.e., August 15, 1917' and reached the grade of major JOURNALand several details on the General Staff Corps.
August I, 1918. On July I, 1920 he received appointment Prior to coming to Washington he served a tour as Deputv
as captain, Coast Artillery Corps, Regular Army and was Chief of Staff, 8th Corps Area ..
promoted to major on August I, 1935, Nfajor Braly is a
-( -( -(
Leavenworth graduate (1934), and a graduate of the Bat-
tery Officers' (1925) and the Advanced Course (1930)
Major General HEINZ GUDERIAN, German Army,
of the Coast Artillery School.
was born at Kuhn, German\', in 1888. He was initiallv
His graphic summary of how-it-is-done at Berkeley will
commissioned in the Infant'ry in 1907' and assigned t~
be of interest to all who like "practice" and not so much
the 10th Jaeger Battalion. From
"theorv.", -( -( -( 1912 to 1913 his service was with
Major E. G. COWEN, Coast Artillery Corps, is a native the 3d Signal Battalion at Co-
of Tennessee. He graduated from Vanderbilt University blenz. During the period 1913-
in 1916 with the degree of A.B. His military career be- 1914 he attended the Kriegsakad-
gan when he was appointed a second lieutenant of Coast emie at Berlin.
Artillery in October of 1917; and he reached the grade of In the early part of the World
major earlier this year. Nfajor Cowen is a graduate of the '.\Tar he commanded a radio sec-
Battery Officers' Course and the Advanced Engineering tion of the 5th Cavalry Division,
Course of the Coast Artillery School. He was awarded the later being transferred to Head-
degreee of B.S., in E.E. by NIassachusetts Institute of quarters Fourth Army, and then
Technology in 1927. to the Communication Section,
-( -( -( O. H. L. From April I, 1917, to the end of the war, he
In this issue we publish the fourth biographical study by served in various sections of the General Staff and com-
Dr. H. A DEWEERD, who is professor of history at manded a battalion.
Denison University. His gallery of military portraits now After the war he participated in the frontier service
includes Pershing, Kitchener, Lawrence, and Schlieffen. and in the operations in the Baltic States. When the
'f 'f 'f new Reichswehr was formed he became a company com-
Lieutenant Colonel R. T. GIBSON, Coast Artillery mander, being stationed at Goslar. In 1922 he was as-
Corps, is a graduate of the U.S.M.A '15' All his service signed to the Office of the Inspector of Communications
has been in the Coast Artillery Corps. At present he is Troops in the Reichswehr Ministry. In 1924, he became
holding forth in the Philippine Islands as a member of the a member of the General Staff. He commanded the 3d
92d Coast Artillery. Colonel Gibson is a graduate of the Motorized Trains during the period 1930-1931. In the
Command and General Staff School (1930)' and the fall of 1931 he was appointed Chief of Staff, Office of the
Coast Artillery School Advanced Course (1928). Inspector of Motorized Units. Four years later he became
Although few of our readers will have an occasion to the commanding officer of the 2d Tank Division, an as-
serve with the Bilibids' Guard Battalion, the majority will signment which he still holds. General Guderian was ap-
enjoy "just reading" Colonel Gibson's essay on penology pointed Genera/major (equivalent to brigadier general.
as conducted by the U. S. Army. U. S. Army) in August, 1936.
IC-:\'ICTUS broke into print exactly a year ago with Battery Officers' Course (192 I), and the Chemical \Var-
"The Legion of the Lost." ~vfaybe you read it. At any fare School Field Officers' Course (1935)'
rate here he is again. A good portion of his time has been occupied in work
f f f with radio, communications, and submarine mines. At
The long career in the public service of the Honorable present he is on duty as instructor of the 330th Coast Ar-
LOUIS JOHNSON, The Assistant Secretary of War, is tille£)' (OR), at Topeka, Kansas.
known to all. Of interest to our readers is the fact that in f f f

1917 he r.esigned his office as a member of the ,\Vest. "'.'ir- Captain e. e. ROTHGEB, e.A.e., was born October
{rinia legislature to enter the Second Officers TraInIng 16, 18g8, on a farm in Kansas and is proud of the fact.
C:unp, from which he was commissioned a captain of Graduated from high school in 1917 and enlisted in 1st
Infantr\'. He was in active combat service in the lvleuse- In£. Kansas N .G. Served in France and came back a
:\raon~e offensive with the 80th, 4th, 5th, and 90th Di- veteran at the age of 20. Enlisted in Reaular Annv/ and
~ ::>
vis~ns, marching into Germany with the last-named out- served as squadron clerk, 5th Air Park, Kelly Field, Texas.
fir. The war over, he continued his interest in military af- Appointed to U.S.JvI.A. from Kansas in 1920. Neglected
birs by affiliating with the Officers' Reserve Corps, rising to tell us he graduated. Served 2 years with 51st C.A.
to the rank of lieutenant colonel, Infantrv Reserve. His (TrD.), 2 years with 41st e.A. CRy) and I i'iyears as
valuable services to the American LegiOl~ culminated ill B.e. Battery B, 13th e.A. (I 55-mm. guns). Spent 2
his election as National Commander in 1932. At the time years as executive assistant to C.O. Charleston Ordnance
of his appointment as The Assistant Secretary of \Var his Depot during which time he claims to have learned to
Reserve assignment was as executive of the 397th Infantry, know most of our ammunition by sight.
lGOth Division. Generally considered a practical man. Claims that long
Readers will agree that Colonel Johnson has br-reaching technically-termed discussions bore him. He is always
knowledge of the duties of his present post, which covers suspicious of the man who goes into a verbose technical
indllStrial procurement for war. discussion because he believes it serves to cover a lack of
f f f thorough knowledge of essential facts and is more often
The services to the nation of Major General JAMES G. the result of memory than of sound reasoning. Generally
HARBORD are best told by written history rather than considers any discussion of artillery which is beyond the
in the thumbnail sketches of this column. Between the comprehension of an intelligent corporal to be a waste of
dates of his enlistment as a private of the 4th Infantry in effort.
1889 and his retirement in of f f
1922 as major general and Major WILLIAM SACKVILLE, e.A.e., is an author-
Deputy Chief of Staff he en- ity on antiaircraft fire control; and was a pioneer in the de-
compassed a career that is velopment of infra-red ray radiation detectors for the track-
truly an inspiration to the ing of airplanes. He has been in the Coast Artillery Corps
American soldier. since 1917' Some of his important assignments have in-
The record of his service cluded details at Frankford Arsenal, Aberdeen Proving
during the \Vorld War speaks Ground, and as military attache to Brazil. At present he
volumes. In a brief two years is on duty as the Coast Artillery representative with the
he served as chief of staff Engineer Board, Fort Belvoir, Virginia.
AEF; commanded the Ma-
f f f
rine Brigade in the Bois de
Lieutenant Colonel JOHN S. WOOD, Field Artillery,
Belleau and at Chateau Thierry; commanded the 2d
makes his initial bow to The JOURNAL audience with a
Division in the Soissons drive; and directed the far-flung
penetrating study of the promotion problem.
activities of Gene~al Headquarters, Service of Supply.
Colonel Wood hails from Arkansas, from which state
Since retirement from the servic~ General Harbord has
he entered the Military Academy in 1908. Upon gradu-
served as president and chairman of the board of the Radio
ation in '912 he was appointed second lieutenant, Coast
Corporation of America. In all his life, public and private,
Artillery Corps. In September, ]9 I6 he began an Ordnance
he has well earned the commendation that he has con-
Department detail which terminated in May, 1920. Dur-
tributed much to the betterment of the United States "as
ing the World War he reached the temporary grade of
a. soldier, industrialist, humanitarian and public spirited
Citizen." major, serving overseas with the 3d and 90th Divisions.
f f f Colonel Wood was transferred to the Field Artillery in
l\!ajor EDWIN e. MEAD, Coast Artillery Corps, is a July of 1920.
native New Yorker. His military career began in I~ Colonel Wood is a distinguished graduate of the Com-
as a private of the Coast Artillery Corps. He won his mand and General Staff School (1924). In 1931 he gradu-
commission in 1916 and reached his present grade in ated from the Ecole Superieure de Guerre. He holds the
1927. Major lvlead is a graduate of the Command and degree of B.S. in Chemistry from the University of Arkan-
General Staff School ('932), the Coast Artillery School sas (1907)'

Book Reviews
IF WAR COMES. By Major R. Ernest Dupuy and the cold impartial light of proven fact" it is "sheer non-
Major George Fielding Eliot. New York: Macmillan sense. "
Co., 1937, 368 pages; 11 maps; $3.00 The chapter "What About the Air?" is at once the
clearest and closest reasoned paper on the strategic and
Military provincialism is the most deadly intellectual
tactical capabilities and limitations of air power that this
indictment that can be levelled against the Twentieth
reviewer has ever read. The great Douhet Doctrine is not
Century man of war. There is no place in a modern
merely thrown for a loss, it is chucked out of the military
army, navy or air fleet for the leader whose concept of
picture. They set up the ver)' heart of the Doctrine-
war is circumscribed by the capabilities and limitations of
Defend on the surface, that you may mass all possible
his particular service. In a world grown strangely small,
strength for attack in the air. The air force only can attack
it is imperative that military thought be all-embracing; under the conditions of modern war; and only by attack can
that thought must include not only the fighting services, victory be won.
not only the national defense, but the great interlocking
Then they destroy that basic premise with needle-pointed
strategic problems that confront a confused and frightened
logic and the whole house that Douhet built comes tum-
world. To think less broadly is to move in the dark. blingdown.
Those who have groped toward an understanding of the Though they crumple the Douhet Doctrine, these
national and international military picture will best un- authors are not right wingers, nor are they centrists; if
derstand the difficulties of evaluation and interpretation. anything they strike midway between the extreme left
The barriers of language alone have often been sufficient and the center. They point out that
to defeat the most conscientious efforts. Today, two men Just as we find air enthusiasts telling us that air power has
have levelled those barriers. In a single volume of razor- made infantry and battleships obsolete, so do we find both
edged analysis they have set forth a world-estimate of the amateur and professional strategists of the ancien regime as-
situation. It is unthinkable that this monumental study suring us patronizingly that "planes are very useful auxili-
aries," nice to have around for special jobs, but not of course
shall not find a prominent place in the library of every
to be taken seriously as a weapon. Heaven help the hapless
thinking soldier, sailor, airman and civilian. Not since the nation in the minds of whose leaders this point of view pre-
classics of the great Admiral Nfahan has there been such vails, or even lurks beneath the surface, when the next war
a vital addition to the field of military literature . comes upon them with lightning swiftness.
The book is divided into two parts-The Game and . The very next paragraph is equally worthy of quota-
The Moves. Part I covers war by air, by land, and by sea tion:
with all the major collateral issues that those three sub- The other edge of the sword is the danger that the mili-
jects give rise to. Part II is introduced by a chapter called tary and civil authorities of a nation may not appreciate to
the full the offensive g ualities of their own air force, and the
"Paths of Conquest"; it then swings into a detailed con-
results which ought to be obtained from the proper use of
sideration of the complicated strategic problems that face these gualities. In air warfare initial errors may have dis-
the major nations of the world. astrous results out of all proportion to the results of initial
In dealing with The Game, the authors make no ex- errors in land warfare ....
cursions into the future. They say: The chapter "What Will War On Land Be Like?" is
\Ve are not crystal gazers; to the enthusiasts for this or no less vital than the one dealing with the war in the
that weapon, this or that new arm, we leave the field of air. At the very beginning the)' point out one of our com-
prophecy free; weapons and combat of today we will discuss monest errors. They say:
simply in the light of present knowledge.
A commonplace amongst military men when the lessons
of the last war are trotted out for airing is to say: "Very well.
To this pledge, made early in the book, Majors Dupuy
very well; but we've got to get out of the trenches. The next
and Eliot consistently adhere. They do take time out to war will be a war of movement." Possibly-nay probably-
quote such juicy pronouncements as this from the Right yet not certainly so.... Let it be remembered that in the
Honorable Winston Spencer Churchill, C.H., M.P.: last war the Western Front stalemate was unforeseen and
Might not a bomb, no bigger than an orange, be found to
possess a secret power to destroy a whole block of buildings In considering war on the land the authors attack that
-nay to concentrate the force of a thousand tons of cordite twin nightmare-motorization and mechanization-with
and blast a township at a stroke? a line of reasoning that will undoubtedly cheer the heart
But they do it only in order to point out that "viewed in of man)' a downcast horse cavalryman. Here again their
lomc proceeds step by certain step from an unshakable To set down the findings arrived at in any chapter without
fo~ndation. If you happen to be one of those optimistic setting down the logical processes by which those findings
souls who expect the tank, the combat car, and the truck were reached, would be a grave injustice to Majors Dupuy
to do everything short of standing up on their hind wheels and Eliot.
and declaiming Hamlet's soliloquy, it is suggested that These two gentlemen have produced a book as vital as
chis chapter is the best possible antidote for that state of Field Service Regulations, as dramatic as an S. 5. Van
:xaltation that comes from too many gasoline cocktails. Dine mystery. and as closely reasoned as an Einstein
"\Vhat Will War at Sea Be Like?" should prove an equation. If you hil to add it to your library you are
eye-opener to those of us whose knowledge of the Navy missing the outstanding military item on the market today
has been brgely confined to their performance on the -indeed from the comments in the national press you are
<Tridiron. missing what bids fair to be a military Gone With The
;, Other chapters under The Game are: "The Basic Wind. C. T. L.
Rules"; "The Soul of the V.,rarrior"; "Of New and Fear- l' l' l'
some \Veapons"; "What's All This About Gas?"; "\Var
THE SIEGE OF ALCAZAR. By Major Geoffrey Mc-
of Words-Lies and Spies"; "What Will War Mean To
Neill-Moss. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1937, 313
The Civilian?"
pages; II appendices; 39 illustrations. $3'50'
Part II-The 111oues-includes the following sub-
heads: "Paths of Conquest"; "Germany"; "Italy"; "U.S. This is the story of a knock-down and drag-out. \vith
5.R."; "Japan"; "France and Britain"; "The High Cost no holds barred. It is the beginning of the civil war in
of Being in the Way"; and "America-On The Side- Spain, and anyone who thinks those fellows are fighting
lines?" according to rule had better read up on some old Spanish
Finally there are six appendices-"Armies of the customs.
World Today"; "Air Forces of the World Today"; Colonel Moscard6, commandant of Toledo's Alcazar
"Navies of the World Today"; "Organization and Arma- and military governor of a province, has twenty-four hours
ment Reference Data"; "Fleet Organization"; and "Stra- in which to make up his mind as to which side of the revo-
tegic Raw Materials." lution he will do his fighting on. A tough question, the
It is apparent that a review can not hope to cover even a answer to which is not found in any military textbook:
single chapter of such a tremendous study as this. The yet it is a problem that has disturbed the sleep of many a
best it can do is merely suggest the scope of the book . European general.
~ ..
=a a!i
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Court-Martial B

Courts-martial can be interest-
ing after you've found out the
Practical Guide i

a "how" in» By g
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536 THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL No/'e11lbef- December
The second situation confroming Colonel 0. Ioscardo Is the accoum of the Alcazar worth reading? \Vell, if
calls for a decision with even more memal anquish than you admire a fierce loyalty to ideals and the physical
the first. His son falls imo the hands of the enemy and courage to back them up, the book is more than \Vorch
they, not unlike some of our own public enemies, inform while. On rhe other hand, if you are by way of being a
the Colonel that he will surrender the Alcazar within pacifist with a weak stomach, you had better skip it.
t\Vemy-four hours-or else. The telephone conversation E.D.C.
between father and son is an epic and one not yet equaled
by American parents under similar circumstances.
The story of the siege unfolds in a day by day accoum
Palmer, Brig. Gen. U.S.A. Ret. New Haven: Yaie
of the fighting. One by one the heavy walls of the Alca-
Universit:, Press. 423 Pages; Index; 3 }VIaps; $4.00.
zar melt away under imense bombardmem. Airplanes
r:lin bombs from the sky, tanks batter against the outer Out of the welter of legend, inaccurate observation,
works, and machine guns drench the area with bullets. slipshod research and the obscurity cast by time's passage
Every attempt to take the position by assault is repulsed a beam of light brings into bold relief the chronicle of a
with heavy losses, so the enemy resorts to tunneling un- man who did much to aid Americll1 Independence. To
derground. Tons of dynamite are exploded beneath the General Palmer is due great credit for his clear, authentic
Alcazar and whole buildings go rocketing imo space. Yet portrait of General von Steuben. This biography of \Vash-
the defenders-men, women, and children-existing on ington's inspector-gener31 is the first to presem facts here-
horse meat and parched wheat, cling tenaciously to the tofore unknown, at le3st to this reviewer.
shattered ruins. In the hands of one lacking restraint and a sense of
The siege of the Alcazar emphasizes a certain Spanish values the facts uncovered by Palmer's painstaking re-
characteristic. Napoleon first discovered it to his sorrow search could ver)' well have resulted in a sens3tion31 "de-
at Salamanca. It is this: Once a Spaniard makes up his bunking" biogr3phy. Palmer discovers Steuben's gene-
mind to hold a town or building, there is only one way alogy
~, to be fraudulem; his rank of lieuten3m t>aeneral in
he will ever leave, and that is feet first. Such is the spirit the Army of Frederick the Great (lJrns out to be a figmem
of the Alcazar. of im3gin3tion, perhaps of Benj3min Fr3nklin who was
If the reader finds himself getting impatiem waiting for instrumental in obtaining von Steuben's services for the
the arrival of the relieving force, he should remember the Continental Army. However, the pseudo lieutenam gen-
defenders. They had to stick it our for seventy days. eral's career 3S a major general in the American forces was
.......................................................................................................................................................................... ..
~ tot tf::.e?nilita~~


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hi<Thlvcreditable and his services were such that \Vash- is precious; because "The greater the mass of laboratory
::> •
IOgt0n was unstinting in his praise. results assembled, the greater the probability of reaching
Von Steuben's excellence as a soldier cannot be doubted. a safe conclusion." And so he has summed up very de-
Within a few weeks after joining \Vashington at Valley lightfully, the military literature of the Ancients.
Forge the Continental Army ceased to be a rabble. A These Ancients were far more "modern" than our grand-
French officer seeing the Continentals a few months after fathers. In fact, it is only since the Spanish-American War
von Sreuben became inspector general asserted that the that the United States Army has caught up with them.
[rOOps"drilled like Prussians"-a great compliment in They were very shrewd fellows indeed, these Ancients.
[hat day. and Colonel Spaulding proves it to the King's taste.
It seems unbelievable that a great soldier, imbued with Xenophon, whose bones were laid to rest some thirteen
the precise discipline imposed by Frederick the Great centuries ago, was a soldier who conducted one of the lJlost
should have been so lax in his personal financial affairs. brilliant retreats the wotld has ever seen. His essay Horse-
His aide and adopted son, Major North, constantly re- manship "is a sound, practical treatise on hippology. one
ferred to von Steuben's habit of "eating the calf in rhe which our cavalry schools ought properly to place in the
cow's belly," hands of every student." On marches, the service of se-
This biography of a Prussian captain who became an curity and information, and field service in general, "his
American major general is distinctly an addition to our book reads like any modern manua!."
srore of knowledge of Revolutionary figures. The book is Xenophon directly influenced modern military thought
the seventh work published by the Yale University Press and practice through Wolfe and Foch (which the author
on the Calvin Chapin ~vremorial Publication Fund and notes) and General Colin; and God only knows through
5llch an imprimatur is richly deserved. A. M. how many others. The indirect influence can be traced
through Scipio Africanus, Arrian. Procopius, and a host
of others. When Vegetius says that "Victory is gained,
not by weight of numbers and untrained courage, but by
skill and discipline," he repeats the philosophy of Socrates
Colonel Oliver Lyman Spaulding. Princeton: Prince-
as recorded not only by Xenophon but by Plato; and in
ron University Press, '937, '5' pages. $2.00. almost the same words this thought reechoes throu~h the
Colonel Spaulding believes that "Experience is our most military manuals of Maurice and Leo in Byzantine mili-
expensive material," and that all human experience in war tary literature.
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538 THE COAST ARTILLERY ]OUfu'\JAL NOl/ember- December
whose works were the Bible of Renaissance recall that adage which speaks of teaching one's grand-
soldiers, reiterates Xenophon's insistence on the necessity mother to suck eggs.
for personal reconnaissance by commanders. His practical Considering the nature and purpose of this book, an
advice of keeping soldiers contented by occupying them index would have served a useful purpose. J. "Nf. S.
with physical training, drills, and maneuvers, is a conden- l' l' -(
sation of Xenophon without the reasons.
THE ENEMY WITHIN. By Captain Henry Landau.
This same Roman author who colored our modern mili- New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1937. 303 pages; 35
tary thought had a form of an estimate of the situation illustrations; chronology; index. $3.00.
which was copied and elaborated in Byzantine military
Captain Landau, formerly of the British intelligence
servi~e, gives a compressed transcript of the chain of evi-
The author compares the military code of Rufus with the
dence uncovered on wartime activities of the Ge,man
U. S. Articles of \V ar (1920) by placing the text of each secret service, spies, and saboteurs. He has written a tale
in parallel columns. The similarity is due less to co-
of intrigue, conspiracy, adventure, and clever code break-
incidence than to direct lineal descent.
ing, in many parts as fascinating as a dozen detective
Perhaps the best evidence of modernity is to compare stories rolled into one.
the study of panics which appeared in a recent issue of That other parts are tedious :lOd fail to hold one's in-
The INFANTRYJOURNAL with the chapter on the same terest must be ascribed to the author's zeal in presenting
subject found in the writings of Seneas T acticus. Seneas so voluminously the case against Germany. \Vhich is
had a simple device for use in this emergency: the soldiers not to be wondered at, for he assisted the American claim-
were to be trained beforehand that when a panic began, ants in their investigations and had full access to their
each should stand fast and shout "Panic!" In those places records. He knew intimately many of the principal char-
from whence there came no answering cry, the panic acters involved and obtained their personal stories.
would be known to have sway. Where real danger existed, As a result, we see the melodrama replayed by the origi-
"call to arms" would be sounded. Seneas also cites the nal cast, from the patriotically motivated Imperial ambas-
device of Euphr~tes, who prescribed that if panic came sador and other diplomats down to mercenary incendiaries.
at night, each soldier was to sit up, but not stand up; The successive plots develop sensationally: Railway demo-
all who stood up would be treated as enemies. litions, flres in munitions plants and on ships, inoculation
Anyone reading Colonel Spaulding's book is bound to of animals with glanders and anthrax, attempts to foment
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strikes in American labor and rebellions in the West By H. A. Jones. New York: Oxford University Press,
Indies, :Mexico, Ireland, and India. The property damage 1937. 558 pages; 23 maps; index; I volume appendix.
in the United States alone amounted to $150,000,000. $w.oo.
Clues connecting Section III B of the Imperial German
General Staff with these activities were found in diaries, These are the concluding volumes of the official historv
check stubs, incendiary "pencils," a stolen brief case, of the Royal Air Force. The narrative deals with the
documents removed from a foreign consulate by drilling organization of the Royal Air Force and of the Independ-
through the wall of a neighboring office, overheard con- ent Bombing Force and their operations in 1917-1918.
versations, bomb factories on interned ships, stolen Ger- Mr. Jones maintains the high standard common to the
man code books, intercepted cables and radiograms de- series familiarly known as the British official history of
coded by the well camouflaged "40 O.B." of the British the war. His conclusions are based upon the study of
Naval Intelligence, and so on. German and French official documents as well as those
The munition factory fire at Kingsland, and the ex- of the British.
plosion on Black Tom Island, are the cases on which the Officers acquainted with the difficulties of the United
author concentrates, as these were the major disasters. An States !n the production of aviation equipment during the
attempt is now being made to prove German complicity war wIll be interested to know that the British met with
and to collect damages through a Mixed Claims Com- the same disappointments. The production of aviation
mission.. en~nes always fell far below even the most conservative
The moral is saved for the closing pages, in which our estImates.
lack of a counter-espionage service is decried. Captain Much space is devoted to British bombing attacks on
Landau claims that, "For an annual expenditure of less German territory. General Trenchard's view that the
than one per cent of what we lost from German sabotage moral effects of these attacks would be much greater
during the neutrality period we could maintain a secret than the material damage is shown to be vindicated. The
serviceand counter-espionage organization the peer of any British only scored two big successes in bombing military
in the world .... " W. G. J. targets during this period. One was the destruction of a
small-arms plant at Kaiserslautern and the other the blow-
ing up of a powder magazine at Metz. The Germans
THE W ~R IN THE AIR (Being the story of the part scored three major successes in the same period: the de-
played 10 the Great War by the RAF), Volume VI. struction of ordnance depots at Blarges and Saigneville,
:: I::: I:::::::::::::: Ill:: I: I: U::: U:: :U:: I :It:II: U: :u::umumm::: I: Ill: I::::::::: 1111:I: I:::::: I: II I:: I: m::

For all Coast Artillery Organizations. Fully meets the requirements of Training Regulations
435-310 (Examination for Gunners). Used for instruction in a number of RO.T.C. units.


I. 2nd Class Gunner, Antiaircraft Artillery (Except Searchlight Battery) $0.65
II. 2nd Class Gunner, Antiaircraft Artillery (Searchlight Battery) 0.50
III. 1st Oass Gunner, Antiaircraft Artillery (Except Searchlight Battery) 0.65
IV. 1st Class Gunner, Antiaircraft Artillery (Searchlight Battery) 0.40
V. 2nd Class Gunner, Fixed Seacoast Artillery (All Units) 0.55
VI. 1st Class Gunner, Fixed Seacoast Artillery (All Units) 0.50
(All Tractor-Drawn and Railway Units) 0.65
VII. 2nd Class Gunner, Mobile Seacoast Artillery
VIII. 1st Class Gunner, Mobile Seacoast Artillery
(All Tractor-Drawn and Railway Units) 0.75
IX. Expert Gunner, Antiaircraft Artillery 1.00
X. Expert Gunner, Fixed Artillery 1.00
XI. Expert Gunner, Mobile Seacoast Artillery 1.00
XII. Submarine Mining 125

These pamphlets recently have been revised and brought up-to-date. They cover the instruction of all t!
2nd Oass, 1st Oass, and Expert Gunners of Antiaircraft, Fixed and Mobile Artillery. II
Invaluable for the training and instruction of Coast Artillery personnel. Each enlisted man of a submarine
mine detachment should have a copy of "Submarine Mining." _
The above price.! are retail (postpaid) for single copies. To ORGANIZATIONS of the military establishment a
discount of 20% will be allowed on any order regardlesa of numoor. F.O.B. Washington, D. C.

ralllill mill I:: II: I: U:::::::::l:: II:: Ill: 1m::::::: II III IIII II :: II I: II: I: 11111
1I:::m::1 I III: II UI: II II: II: Ill:: II:: ImIll I:: III III::: l : I1111
III 1111:In IIUI: lU
and the bombing of the No. 2 Base Mechanical Depot placements necessary to carry out this program, and to
at Calais which held all the spare parts for the mechani- the superiority in technical equipment often enjoyed by
cal transport in France. This was a tremendous loss to the enemy.
the British. The volume of appendices contains a large number of
The chapters on operations in Palestine, Mesopotamia, important documents, reports, and a mass of statistical
and Macedonia show what a decisive part can be played data which can be studied with profit by all those who
by aircraft when the enemy is demoralized and can be are interested in the proper role of aircraft in war.
strafed in Hight. Similarly in the great German defeat H.A.D.
of August 8, 1918, the Royal Air Force made a sustained
effort to trap the retreating German armies by bombing l' l' l'

the Somme bridges. The attempt failed, but the attack

forced th;Ccrman air force to stand and fight. The heavy GONE TO TEXAS. By Major John W. Thomason,
losses sustained by the Germans in this change of policy Jr., U.S.M.C. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.
did much to break the backbone of the German air forces. $2.75.
In the opinion of the author, the reputation of several A highly entertaining tale of a shavetail's adventures in
German airmen, notably Richthofen, would have been Texas shortly after the War Between the States when that
quite different had the Germans followed the British region seethed with intrigue and was fraught with sudden
policy of fighting at all times. When they were forced death. Major Thomason's background is alive and the
to fight continuously to save the Somme bridges, Richt- story he tells could have happened.
hofen's old circus, then under Hauptmann GOring, was
The book reeks of adventure, romance, and the author
virtually destroyed. Adverse weather conditions pre- has added the spice of delightful humor. Gone to T exItS
vented the Royal Air Force from taking its full toll of the has a nostalgic quality which should appeal to those who
retreating German armies in the early days of Novem- look back to days when the American course of empire
ber,1918. was moving impetuously after having been interrupted
British air casualties were generally higher than those by war.

of the enemy. This can be attributed in part to the of- Second Lieutenant Edward Cantrell, 29th Infantrv.
fensive policy of the British, to the hasty training of re- goes to Texas and how! A. M."

"Ill Illllll " I11_"1111 II 1IIIlllllll 1111Ill" lllllllllllllll 1111111111111111
1IIIlllllllllllllllllll_..llllIIllIllII IIIII IIII11111 i

I & 9RAUJud YJ1a&& I

YJ~ The fact that you subscribe to The Coast Artillery Journal is evidence that you
i! desire to keep abreast of military developments. ft
u a
H • You can further ***
add to your professional advancement by subscribing to the Command and
uu General Staff Quarterly. It will mean that every three months you will receive a REVIEW OF ft
MILITARY LITERATURE that is the last word in its field. ::

.In general, the contents of each issue include book reviews, original studies, historical examples,
military news from all over the world, abstracts of articles from foreign military periodicals, and
Ii a review and digest of foreign and domestic military periodicals. Included also are academic :::
a notes which affect instrumental procedure or tactical doctrines.
One Year (4 issues) $1.00 Five Years (20 issues) $4.00
Send orders to:

I Book Department, The Command and General Staff School, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
1937 BOOK REVIEW'S 541
FLOOD LIGHT ON EUROPE-A Guide to the Next .... ..
War. By Felix Wittmer. New York: Charles Scrib-
ner's Sons. )41 pages; 53 illustrations; Index. $3'75' !! H ~
~fr. \Vittmer, lecturer at New Jersey Teachers College, ~~ FEDERBUSH SINGLE ROD ~~
wrote his guide to the next war for the purpose of giving
the public a general outline of European public affairs
and their background. He has carried out his self-appoint- The single magazine binder is used extensively in
ed mandate with unquestioned success. His book is waiting rooms and reading rooms of libraries, offices,
packed with an amazing amount of up-to-the-minute, steamships and other public places. Besides lending
a dignified appearance, when on the reading table or
concise information. This information, in spite of its en-
in the magazine rack, it keeps the copy clean and
cvclopedic scope, is presented in 3 breezy journ3listic m3n- inviting. Inadvertently, people often carry off maga-
~er occasionally the effort to be entertaining seems some- zines which are lying around loose, whereas it is less
what forced; this is particubrly true when the topic of the likely to happen if book is contained in a binder. The
moment is too tr3gic to be treated with levity. On the key lock mechanism locks the rod which holds maga-
zine fastened to binder. Binding is made of stiff
whole, however, this book sumn13rizes the European
boards. covered with canvas, genuine or imitation
staae, its 3ctors, 3nd the development of the current set- :: leather. Also made in Flexible Covers. Supplied in ::
~ .
ting and dram3, more comprehensively 3nd more read- :.:.
:: colors, if desired, for any size magazine. :.:.
ably th3n 3ny recent study I have seen. Ii Three lines of lettering in gilt allowed without ::
:: charge, i.e. name of magazine, organization and loca- ::
The n3rr3tive opens on The W3r to End War, points
:: cion. Instead of location you may substitute "Do Not ::
out its bilure 3nd the failure of the tre3ties which fol- :: Remove Franl Day Room. It ::

lowed it, and fin3lly the bilure of the Le3gue. The help- ::.... ::
lessness of the "p3wns on the B3ltic" composing "the
u ....
.. ::
northeastern crazy quilt" is described. Then the see-S3W
g ~ .~ 1\ . ~.~'" ii
~l~if1 \'1 .~
of nation31ities is introduced with an anecdotal description
of affairs among the "midgets on stilts"-the small fry n -+

of southeast Europe. "The Heart of Europe" is the cap-
...... - 1\\ '.
tion of Part Six which deals mainly with Hitler and his H ..
:: I ~-
"poker deuces wild." The Scandinavian and Low coun- :: '
tries are treated under the title of "Showers and Sunshine." ......
.. II \ ::
:: I \ ::
Next, of course, comes France, described as the bnd of ::
.. 1::
\ ..
clarity and order, where diplomacy is centered on security. ::
I :::
0 ::
Surprisingly, France is now less adequately protected, the
author holds, than in 1914'
:: lot'

.... ....
Spain is a nation of individuals, of people who are ..
.... ....
unruly lovers of freedom. Nfr. Wittmer remarks, "If the .... ......
fate of a country depended solely on the heroism and self-
........ ..
sacrifice of its inhabitants, and not also on collective .... ....
wisdom, Spain might duly come first; but in the face of
.... ....
an inborn inclination towards anarchy, self-destruction, ......
.... ....
and death, the party slogans of Communists evaporate ......
...... ......
like frivolous soap bubbles." .. ..
The author arraigns Alfonso XIII and makes him ap- ....
:: Key Lock Mechanism ::
pear as bad as his dissolute Bourbon forbears who ruled ....
.. Prices ::
France. In part there may be a foundation for this de-
nunciation, but I am convinced that Alfonso unhappily ..••
Style MK -
1 to 22 -
$2.00 eac h', any size
was cursed by the system and conditions into which he •• <I: h' ••
:: 23 up - ..;>1.90 eac , any size ::
was born king. Perhaps a strong monarch might have .. ~
g.... F.O.B. NEW YORK g
~one something drastic. But it has been a long time
SlI1cea king stepped out and did things .
.. ..
!he author claims that England, and not Mussolini or
H.lder. would eventually dominate Spain if Franco should g.... ON REQUEST g
WInthe Civil War. The Spaniards would throw out the .. ..
Teutons and Romans as they once evicted the Na- -..
:: Order from
poleonic horde. Then John Bull would slide in as the g THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL
industrial adviser and money lender. :: 1115 17th Street, N.W. ::
Here is an interesting statement on the foreign "vol- ii Washington, D. C. U
Unteers" aiding Franco: "In Italy and Germany, at least
::::::u::::::::::::::::::~.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::==::::;: ::::tm:
542 THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL 1'1ove1lJber- December
...•.•.....•.•..•.•..............................•......••...•. -•...............•n
~ semiofficially, volunteer tourists were encouraged to spend
a paid vacation in sunlit Spain. Italians who enlisted Were
-ti ELECTION OFI OFFICERS -ti guaranteed a premium of 2,000 lire, a so,ooo-lire insurance
policy, and wages of 40 lire a day. Nazis were promised

.... -
a salary of 200 marks a month."

g- g-
INSTRUCTIONSANDINFOR~IATION And this: "Aviators of all nations tried out their planes.
I. The list shown on page 52 I is the slate prepared The previously confident Germans learned that their
H by a nominating committee to replace those members :: machines ought to attain higher speed if they wished to
",-hose term of office expires on December 31, 1937.
2. Record your vote by making an "X" in the ap-
survive the coming struggle. They made another experi-
ence by realizing that their light tanks could easilv be
it propriate square or indicate your choice by writing in g pierced and destroyed. It was also found out that I[quid
H the name of your candidate. Ballots received with :: gases, which burn the victims, for the time being are of
:: signature, but no individual votes recorded will be ::
.. 3, No member is to be deprived of
:: considered proxies. ::
greater avail than any of the poison gases which were-at
some occasions-used. It became evident that terroriza-
:: 3 voice in the ::
nomination and selection of the new members of the
Council. you do not approve of the Committee's
tion of the civilian population by air raids, and by per-
manent use of the radio, may be more effective than the
i: choice, enter your personal choice in the space pro- :: most deadly air attack on fortresses."

4, Ballots received after January 5, 1938, will not

Italy and Great Britain with its empire also come in for
extensive treatment by Mr. Wittmer. He shows why
i:n be counted. ::
~ Mussolini is compelled to seek land elsewhere-princi-
U 5, If residing on a military post, please hand your U pally to get the raw materials which Italy lacks. Mare
:: ballot to the AdJ'utant to be forwarded together with :: Nostrum begins to look like a proud threat. Meanwhile
:: u
H all other ballots collected on the post. Members of :i Britain is sitting on an anthill and suffering one nightmare
:: National Guard and Organized Reserve Regiments ::
after another.
g•• should turn in their ballots to their regimental head-
b f
Ii•• Before turning off his floodlight, Mr. Wittmer switches
H quarters to e orwarded at one time. Those members i1
H for whom the foregoing instructions are not appli- U it momentarily to the Far East to illuminate the "dyna-
cable should mail their ballots to The Secretary, U. S.
Coast Artillery Association, I I 15 17th St., N.W.,
mite" involving China and Japan. He says that at the
outbreak of the coming war in Europe, Japan, China, and
.. Washington, D. C .
H Russia will dash in the East. At that time it is not im-
g THE U. S. COAST ARTILLERY ASSOCIATION g probable that China and Russia will be allies.
One cannot help but wonder whether the mass of
it FOR VICE PRESIDENT (1938-1939) it factual data assembled in this book is entirely accurate,
•• H
H •• and whether the twists put on the author's "unbiased"
ii 0 Colonel Avery J. Cooper, CA.C it
H declarations of government policies give correct inter-
ii FOR ADDITIONALME~lBERS OF THE EXECUTIVE it pretations. It seems unlikely. But it would be humanly
ii.. COUNCIL (1938-1939) if.. impossible to hit the truth on every matter covered .
*\'ote for four only
0 Colonel C. J. Smith, 213th C.A., Pa. N .G.
Nevertheless, Floodlight on Europe is an outstanding
book and wins this reviewer's unqualified recommenda-
it D Colonel E. C. Webster, 243d C.A., R.I. N.G. tion. W. G. J.
0 Colonel E. W. Thomson, C.A.-Res.
i: f f f
i: 0 Colonel W. W. Burns, 260th C.A., D.C. N.G. i:

New Books
:: 0 Lt. Col. R. M. Perkins, C.A.C. i:

.. ..itii THE BA TILE OF THE MARNE. An administrative tour

•• H
:: 0 Lt. CO!. J. P. Hogan, CA.C
of the battlefield. A British official publication. $1.00 .
ii 0
n 0
Lt. Co!. H. L. Spencer, 2IIth CA.,
Lt. CO!. J. H. Sherman, 251st CA., Calif. N.G.
Mass. N.G.
THE CRUSADES, Hilaire Belloc. An account of the crusad-
ing period from the viewpoint of a military strategist. $3.00.
D Major Milo H. Brinkley, C.A ...Res. i:
THE BRITISH ARMY, E. C T. Booth. History, customs,
ii Fill in names of other candidates you desire to vote H traditions, and uniforms. $2'75.
ii for in lieu of those above H THE MEN I KILLED, General F. P. Crozier. The last book
M M of adventures of this outspoken British officer caused a diplomatic

D i:

incident. $3.00 .



.. . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. .. ..
Crozier. The author's adventures on the Western Front. Cheap
~ ~ edition. $1.50' .
:: Signature::

.... MODERN WAR, Colonel B. C Dening. The author, a Bnt-

M _
" M
ish officer, shows that armies, not air forces, decide wars. $3.00.
~ "
:: Rank and Organization a SOLDIERS OF DARKNESS, Colonel T. R. Gowenlock. The
H H story of spy work carried out in No Man's Land. The author
served as G-2 of the 1st Division in the World War. $2.75'
H n
Co\. R. 5'1

H,",y. N= ,nd ~,i,,,, ,diu.n. $'-35'
Volume LXXX, 1937

AUTHORS Sheppard, Senator Morris 3

Simpson, Lt. Co\. G. 1. 320
AgnostlCuS '" , 34 Smith, Major Bernard 225, 302
,\~mstrong, Major C. H 235 Spaulding, Colonel T. M 322
Stamm, G. V 212
Braly,}'1ajor William C. 477 Strong, Capt. P. N 107
Brand, Major C. E 26
Bundy, Major C. W 112, 330 Taliaferro, Major E. H., Jr. 207
Burne, Lt. Co!. A. H 402 Tatum, Capt. J. M 30
Burnell. Capt. N. A 137 Tindall, Major R. G , , 37, 127, 217
Tyng, S. T. 139, 371
Clark. Major C. I. , 53
Cooke, Major E. D 23 Verbeck, Lt. \Vl.] 123
Corbin, 1st Lt. F. P., Jr. , 244
Cowen,Major E. G , 500 \'l;radsworth, Congressman ]. \'X'. 195
Crawford, Lt. Co\. J. B 4 Williams, Colonel R. H 412
Crichlow, Capt. R. W., Jr. .. , , 147 Wood, Lt. Co\. John S " 492
Cross, Colonel M. A 306
Cunningham, Colonel J. H 299
DeWeerd, H. A 198, 469
Engelhart, Capt. E. C. 55 A Bas Eligibility, Hagood 8
Englehart, Major A. F 232 Aircraft \XTarning Service, Cllnningham 299
Ennis, Capt. R. F 381 Airplanes Can Be Stopped, l\fackin 396
All-Time Command Team, Simpson 320
Fergusson, Colonel F. K. 150 Antiaircraft Defense in the Combat Zone, Crawford 4
Antiaircraft Impact Chart, Harry " 50
Gibson, Lt. Co!. R. T. 489 Antiaircraft Machine Gunnery, Taliaferro 207
Gill, Capt. B. D 24, 507 Antiaircraft Records Section, Corbin 244
Green, Lt. Co\. F. M 291 Armored Forces, G"derian 462
Green, Colonel ]. A , 483 Artillery Epic, Verbeck 123
Greene, Capt.]. I. 12, 116 At the Schools, 1937-1938 358
Guderian, Major General Heinz 462
Gunner, Captain 407 B
Hagood, Major General Johnson 8, 386 Battle Over a Battle 126
Harbord, Major General ]. G .. , 458 Bilibids' Guard Battalion, Gibson 489
Harry, Capt. John 50 Bofors Antiaircraft Guns 326
Harvey, Colonel G. U 10 Book Reviews 92,188,281,361,442, 534

lmpertinax 252 c
lnvictus 487 Changes in Antiaircraft Tactics, lrzline 237
Irvine, D. D , 230 China Tour (Pictures) 408
Irvine, Major Willard 237 Coast Artillery Activities 61,157,253,332,420,509
Coast Artillery Board Notes 86, 180,273,352, 437, 529
Johnson, Honorable Louis , 451 Coast Artillery Corps, Sheppard " 3
Coast Artillery Orders 89, 183, 277, 356, 440, 519
Lanham, Capt. C. T , 308 Command Post Trailer 154
luebbe, Staff Sgt. C. 1. 155 Contributors 90, 186,279,359,441, 532
Convention 508
Mackin,Major R. N . 396
McCatty,Major K. . 99 D
Mead, Major Edwin C. . 480 Debunking Bunker Hill, Green 291
Melson, E. ~T ...••..•••.••••••••••••••.•••••••• 316 Defending Our Harbors, Green 483
Device for Training Stereoscopic Observers, Crichlow 147
Fletcher ................................. 389 Difficulty is Opportunity, Hagood " 386
Dispersion Slide Rule, Bllrnell 137
Rothgeb, Captain C. E . 505
Sackville, Major William . 502
Sawyer, 1st Lt. J. A . 249 Early Literature of Artillery, Spalliding 322
hildroth, Capt. W. H . 404 Eighteenth Century Foch, Bllme 402
544 THE COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL j\,Tovember- Dece1lJb~

Excellent National Guard Batteries 185 o

Excellent Regular Army Batteries 185
Open Forum 83, 178, 271, 351
Optical Glass and Fire Control Instruments, ,\Ielsoll .. " 316
Organized Reserve, Clark , " 53
Fall of a Fortress, T)ng '" 371
Far East (Pictures) 144 p
Flag of Truce, T)'llg 139 Panic, L~nhalll , , ", .. 308
Floods Came, And the, Strong 107 Personnel Policies, Armstrong , , 235
Fort Hancock's Gun No.2 142 Promotion, IFood 492
Fort Observation Planes, Gil/ " 507 Promotion's Very Slow, Engelhart " 55
Fortunate Islands, Smith 225 Proposed 3-Inch AA Gun " 410
Fourth Army Maneuvers, Williams 412
Recent Developments in Submarine Mining, Englehart. 232
Give Us This Day Our Daily Bread, Cooke 23 Records Section, Antiaircraft, Corbin " 244
Gun Defense Against Bombardment Attack 99 ROTC Instruction Aids, 8ral)' " 47-
Guns in Spain 453
H Schlieffen, De IF'eerd 469
Heavies (Pictures) 328 Seacoast Fortifications of the Future, Blind)' " 112
Heligoland: The Gibraltar of the North Sea, Smith , 302 Security, II/'adsl/lorth 1951
Highway Traffic and Modern War, Greene " 12, 116 Spell on the Yukon, T,ttllm 30
Stereoscopic Observers, Device for Training, Crichlow .. 147
Summer Complaint, Gllnner " 407 I
Sword of the Border, Praff 389
Idiot's Delight, AgnostiClfs 34
Impact Chart, Antiaircraft, Harr)' '" 50 T
Index for 1937
Industrial Preparedness, Johnson
Tactics Isn't Common Sense, Impertinax " 252 I
Telephone Amplifiers, Saw)'er " 2491
Italian Antiaircraft Activities (Pictures) 146

Television in "'far, Mead
Toward an Ideal, IIlI'ictus
Trainer for Sound Locator Listeners, COI/'en "
Knox Medal ,. 60 Transportation Progress 143
Knox Trophy 59 Trophies 41 i'
Trophy, 62d CA. (AA) Wins U.S.CA.A., Fergmson 150
M Trophy, 243d CA. (HD) Wins CA. Association
Man Behind, Hanle)' 10 National Guard 153
Maneuvers, Fourth Army, Williams 412 Turrets and Casemates for Seacoast Batteries, Cross 306
Mastery of the Future, Hm'bord 458 Typical American Field Uniform, Gill 24
Military Justice in Ancient Rome, Brand , 26 V
Military Sun Rose Early in the East, Schildroth 404
Vickers-Armstrong Antiaircraft and Antitank Equipment 35
Misuse of Air Power, InJine 230
More Power, Ennis , 381 W
\Xfarning Service, Antiaircraft, Cunningham 299
N \Xfas Lawrence a Great Soldier? DeWeerd 198
New Claws (Pictures) 496 Will of the Leader, Tindall 37,127,217
News and Comment 77, 172, 266, 346, 433, 520 Wire-Laying Apparatus, Luebbe , 155
New Standard AA Searchlight Unit, 811nd)' 330
No Medals, Stamm 212
Notes on the 155-mm. Gun, Rothgeb 505 Zeiss Machine-Gun Sight, Sack ville 502
:;:::~:~::.::~~~~ ~:~:::::::::::~:::mUllmllUllmllum:m:mmUmm::::m::=::::::::=U~mumumm1:::Ull::UmU:::::UllU~~.:
g~ ************************ f:E

a H
a H


~a"e InOu.e~ ou. ou't 4 ~

lna9a:z.iu.e ~ubsc'tiptiou.s ~

oFor many years The COAST ARTILLERY JOURNAL has been handling the iiH
magazine business of organizations and individuals of the Corps at a saving and U
::a ::
.. with great convenience to those taking advantage of this service. H
.. oNo matter the number of magazines to which you subscribe, you have only one Ii..
..e letter to write to place your order-one letter to enter complaint in case of non-

.... delivery of copies - one letter to enter changes of address - one remittance to il
..~- ....U

We qualt.a.l-ttee I..

oTo meet the best price quoted by any responsible agent for any magazine or com-
bination of magazines. Should any agent or publisher
your orders to us at their price. \'7e will supply any periodical
quote better prices, send
published any-

g:: where in any language at publishers' rates or less.

::a i:H
.... 0 Prices and descriptive circulars for magazine binders will be furnished on re-
quest. These binders protect your magazines from becoming lost or mutilated. g
:: Send All Y ollr i\1agazine Orders to ::
i: i:
:: ::
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a \'7 ASHINGTON, D. C.
:: i:
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.. ....

.. ************************ g..
:::: lll.::::: :::::++"::::::::::::::::::::::"-- .. ::::::::::=:::::::::::
The Coast Artillery Corps

January 20, 1937



Washington, D, C.


~I8jor Gt>Ilt>ral . :\. H. Sunderland

Rur!i:'in, H. T.
LU:t;'T£X.\~T COI.OXF.l.~ ~IMORS
Homer, J. L. Bund~', C. W.
"'kene, C. ~1. S. Holmes. H. B .. Jr.
Bradshaw, Aaron, Jr.
ArmstrOD.E:. C. H.
~IcCroskey. S. L.
Warren, "'. H
Fort Monroe, Va. Fort Monroe, Va.
Shl'<ltl, W. E., Jr. Cottrell, J. F.
Colter, C. E. En~elhart, E. C.
En~lehart, A. F.
~lichlsen, S. H.
('on way. E. T.

Hewitt. Hounrt
Wolfe, \Y. J.


Boston, Mass. New York, N. Y. Fort Monroe, Va. Fort McPherson, Ga. Presidio San Francisco, RATE COAST ARTIL-
BRIGADIER GEXER.-\l4 BRH •.\OU:R fh:xt:HAL COLOX};I~ Fort DeRnssy, T. H.
Cheney. S. A. COI.OSF.I ..~ Gulick. J. W. Coh'in. W. ~1. BRH-;.\UU:R Gt:SI.;RAL
Ft'rgul;!o.'on, F. K. Tra('y, .T. 1'. BnlGADIER GEXER.\L
Ln:uTExAXT COLOXF.L Bowen, "., S. IJu:uTEx.:\xT COI.OXEI .. LIEUT}.;XAXT COI.OXI':I. Woodruff, J. A.
Guthrie, R. E. ~loore, G. F. Xichols. II. F. LIEL'TF.SA~T COI.O~EL8
~IAJOR )(ollutford, l<~.A. li-'T LIEt:Tt:XA~1' Call1phell, A. G. Williallls, B. II. L.
Toppin~. F. L. Gh.st" T.)1. Pullt'r. A. I.... Jr., Aide
Grt't'n, }o1.::\1. CA PT.-\I X LIECTEXA~T COI.OXt:I.:O;
l:o:'r LIEliTEX.\XT Carter, C. C., Aide Smith, ,J. P.
Fredt'rick. H. T., .\ide Haines. R. E.
Davis, H. C., Jr.
Lewis, J. T.
Branham, C. ~L


1st COAST ARTIL- 1 S1' LIF.l"TEXAXTS Fort Rosecrans, Calt!. Rcierson. J. }O;. C.\]>T.\IX~ 1 s1' I.Jn:uTEx .\~T
LERY Baiu, ,J. G. Smith, P. ~[cC . •JCHlC:-;, H. C. ~lacX8ir, T. K.
Fort Sherman, C. Z. l.ePllin~, .\. J. Ln:UTl:SAST COI.OSF.L Shumate, J. P. O'Connt'll. G. ~l.
<iilhert, O. 11. Kell\', E. L. Xiethamer, W. Y. Scott. W. W. 20 LIEUTEXAXT
COLOXEL • Toftoy. II. X. Hartman, X. E. ~lurrin, W. R.
Carpenter, \\"'. T. CAPTAIX ~liller, H. L. Shelton. C. Q.
Young, .N. D. Grinder, H. II. Luce, Dean
Wilson, n. W. Fort Monroe, Va. 1ST LIEUTEXAXT!o\ 1 ST LIEUTEXAXTS Lu wton. "". S.
-'loore, R. P. Dunham, C. E. Heuney, G. P., Jr. CAPTAI~l'\
~lAJORS COLOXEL St'henck, II. W. 1I0lst, J. J. Vandersluis. H. J. Xichols, G. F.
Grimm. H. F., Jr. SfJur~in, H. G. Samuels, Andrew, Jr. Pape, H. B. Xewman, Glenn
Whyb.rk, G. "'. Congdon, X. A. Vichule:-;, L. D.
Dunn, G. 'V., Jr. Ln;uTExAXT COI.OX1:1.Fort Stevens, Ore. Parks, H. C. Hendrix, H. R.
Clark, F. S. ~[AJORS Ledward, W. J.
~lcGeehan. C. '\".
Shunk. P. W. -'L-\JORS
French, P. H.
J~~~'~:rX.~~;.R. Gllll.~ht'r. R. Eo Snyder. C. ~1.
Coit, W. S.
Fort Preble, Maine
Strickland, II. E. Campbell, J. T. 2D LU;UTF.XAXTS B.II, W. H.
Rutter, W. C. Rutledge, P. W. C.-\PTAI~S ,lllhlousky, H. J. Ta~'lor, E. O. LU:UTEXAXT COLOXEI.
Chambers, A. K. Stu.rt, A. J., Jr. Chapman, E. A.
1ST Ln:UTExAXT~ Heuter, H. C. Prench, C. A.
CAPTAIXS Bondley, C. J., Jr.
Thompson. ~f. R. Brusher, H. A. Perkins, ~. T.
~lcGhrraugh, H. E. Ingram, L. L . W.ldron, A. "'.
Bri~I:s, K. M. ~loss, J. D. ..Adam!':. G. N.
Francis, \\~. H. Hale. II. R.
Rousseau, J. H., Jr. ~[iner, R. ),1. CAPT.\IS'S
Seward, .J. R. .\liller, A. D. 5th. COAST ARTIL-
Sutherl.nd, A. J. .A~hman, A. !.ins.H. W .
Tracy, ~1. W. LERY Person!", H. P. Kirkpatrick, L. S.
Cory. I. W. Wri~ht, W. L. 4th COAST ARTIL-
Powell. C. W. LERY Fort Hamilton, N. Y. Swain,Oren
Kinard, W. II .. Jr. 1ST Ln:UTEXAXT
l~T LIEUTEXAXTS Fort Amador, C. Z. Somen ille, E. C.
20 LIt:l"TY.XA~TS ~lAJORS Kallman, 11. ~1. 9

Kimm. V. ~f.
van Ormt'r. H. P. Lane, J. ,J. Gilbert, W. ,J.
(~r('enl~~, l-!. n ... Tr. COI.OXEI, Ri~~s, C. G.
f oote. :So " • Pt'arce, E. D'A.
2D LIEU'TEXAXTS "'illiford. F. E.
Alfrt'y. John Hildebrandt, C. W. 7th COAST ARTIL- 9th Coast ARTIL-
Wolfe. Y. H. Whipple, H. R. LERY LERY
SpIller, O. L. LERY Fort Hancock, N.J. Fort Banks, 1I1ass.
Fort Randolph, C. Z.
COLOXEL ~IAJORS )Iag-ruder, L. B.
Frt'eland. E. H. Calif. Tilton, R. L.
~leyer. C. B. Fort MacArthnr, Calif.
Pierce, H. R.
Dt'twiler. H. P. Greenwood, D. B. Cloke, H. E. Dennis, E. B. tI ret I ••
Thompson, L. H.
Dt'nnis. L. C.
Denny, C. S.
Stuart. L. L. Stephens •.J. C.
Ward. E. H. C.
Xeprud, L.
C. ~I ... 1r.
~lcComse". J. A.
Franklin; A. G., Jr.
Chaplin. H. T. ::\L-\JOR5 CAPTAIX~
~lortimer, J. E. 1ST LIEUTEXAXT ::\Ioore, J. ::\f. In-ine. W. W. Cowen. E. G. 1ST LIEL"TEXAXT
Haaken.!'f'n. ~. T. Peirce. G. F. Ericson, R. A. ~lcCarthy, E. B. ~lcF.dden, W. C. Leahy, P. A.
LERY LERY LERY GI8.~~. T. A. LERY ~leLamb, X. A.
Fort Adams. R. I. Fort Worden, Wash . Fort Totten. N. Y. Ross, L. G.
.Fort :r.ronroe, Va. 2n LIEl'TE~.\XTS. Sawyer, J. A.
H~rmln, P. H. Peace, \\'. G. F~r!:u .. on. F. K. Carey, G.,R.
Walker, E. B. ~t~~~~~:?D~~". Logan, ". B.
PiIIi'"sut. R. A. LIErTEsAxT COLOXl:L Lipscomb, Lafar, Jr.
"uppl~. E. I•. Frazer, \Y. D. Bucher, O. B. ~rhW'(>idt"l. K. R.
B~nnett .•E. E. 2D Ln:UTEXAXTS
Ilro~"n. R. D. Stark, J. J.
t:-oT Ln:l:-TEX .\XT C.\PT.\IX~ ~l<-Calll, ,1. D. Piram. J. S.
Gerhardt. H .. \. ~L'JORS Dingemsll, R. E.
Owens. G. R. "'i1,on, A. ~l.. ,1r. Eb~I, H. W.
Barr, E. l.. 59th COAST ARTIL- ~!.\JORS Finken8ur. R. G.
Fort Rodman. Mass. Shepard. Lloyd LERY Taliaf~rro, E. II .. Jr. Kenerick. K. R.
.P8rn~worth. L. D. ~lcGoldrir.k, F. ~l.
C."PT.\IX 2D LIE{;TEX.\~'T:-i Fort Mills. P. I.
Johni.;on .• T. J. Hartman, L. Y. Harrison. H. J.
"nell. Y. C. Katz, H .• r. COLoxrl. CAPT.\IX:-:'
~lcCormic1,;, \\'. L. ~Ioor~, J. C. Bunker P D De~[errill. R. E.
11th COAST ARTIL- Barker. W. I,. Thomp,on. E. H .. Jr. , .. lIa~!:art .. \. L. 69th COAST ARTIL-
LERY B~II. C. O. Blair, W. S. Runtinl? G. C. LERY
Lamson, D. D. Ln;rT~.xA ..xT COl.ox}a. 'Yhitt>. L. A.
Fort H. G. Wright, N. Y. Gibb" G. G. Turner. E ". Ho~an •. T. L. Fort Crockett, Texas
Gurlpy, F. K. X~bon. O. A.
52d COAST ARTIL- Donovan, Richard.
Collins. H " ... 1:-;1'LIEl'T};S .\ST~ LERY )fOTg-81l. )Iaurice Bull~ne, t.. Il.
E. H.
Fooh", \\', C.
COLOSEI. ~?Che\"1\T .•
'.I(:kt'r~. 1... T.
T. 11. Fort Hancock, N. J.
g;~i~:;'~: ~'::
Ca rroll, ,1 B.
Hlllbert, E. O.

Edl!'on. 0. n. CAPT.\IS:-;
Lawlor. R .• J. Ln:YTF.SAST COLOS}:1. ::\ty('rs. C. )r. ~IAJOR
:\t.\J O~
IIllwkms, S. F. (;riffin, "', E.
Ho~e, Il H. ~IH'partl!ooon. F. H. 1.:-;1' Ln:I'TKs.\="'T8
Sehounmaker, L. E.
\\'ood,. F. ,J.
Foster, V. P.
Klt>inmuli. E .• \. ~:li~n;~II~(~h~~~
S-rhmidl, Y. C. Youn~. Ellsworth
Built'y. n .. T. Liwski. F .. \.
Bnllard, A. L.
\\'iIIard, S. E. 15th COAST ARTIL- ::\l('::\forro\\', P .• T. llollin~sht'IHI, F . .A.
\\.alers, T. L. LERY I~T Ln,:vTEsAXTS Fritl. \\'. G. Smith, H. \\'.
Goorl~11. J. R. CAPTAI.s~ Pt'idwhnnnn, )1. K. Hllin. H. \\'. Pllpenfoth, W. H.
~lcCarth)', \Y. ,1. Fort Kamehameha. T. H. Lowr)', R. C. \VoodLurv, K. S. Fonvielle, J. n.
~Iubhs. G 11.
Putnam, " •. F., Jr. \\'iIIiltms: R. L., ~Ir. 2n LIEl'TEX.\XTS YOUI1.f;:'. G. E.
t:n~land .. r. ~1. COLOXEII Carli,le, \Y. H. Pntter!'-on, C. G. Rohhill!'- .• \. D.
Simmon!'. ~. B. Bisrop, Earl GotT, ,r. L. Cooper . .-\. ,J., ,Ir. \\'~Id. S. I,. 1:0'1' Ln':UT:ExAXTS
~Ierritt, W. B, ~Iltll~rll. R. 11. Kpplt-r, G. E., Jr.
Folk, F. T. ~[a)'llllrd, ,10hn B. 1ST LIEUTF.XAXT~ P(l(,8. P. S. Do\,I". P. V.
:'18\"lon, T. Y. ~[elll~r .• 1. E. llaiclitT~, L. C.
Cooper, H. B.
rha'e. E. X.
Cra\'~m, W. ~1.
lIane)', T. H.
IJackmllll. E. E.
!leihold, F. B,
Thorlin, J. P.
LongatlPcker, C. U.
~[ellnik. S. ~1. Smith, C.•1. Guiuey, P. "r., .Ir. LERY
Ebe)', F. W. Kerr, Crei~hton Fort MacArthur, Calif. 211 LIF.UT}:XAXT8
O"enher~, F. T. Crowell. E. R. 20 LIEUT1:XAXT Frith, R. E.
llt-Bfron . .:\liltoll Jordan, W. II. 60th COAST ARTIL- LIElYTEXAXT COI.OX EI. Lockhard. E. E.
LERY Thieh', C. ,I.
Donohue, ,r. ~l.
110)", R. C. C.\PTAIXS Fort Tilden, N. Y.
R~lld, ~1.]\1. Fort Mills, P. I. :\1.\JOR ... 91st COAST ARTIL-
Hllrris, P. A. CAPT.\lX Grij!g"!'. P. ~r. LERY
B~nz, II. T. COI.OXF.I. Lawrpnce. A. )r.
13th COAST ARTIL- Bowers, A. T. Kimherly, Allen Fort Mills. p, I.
LERY Holcomb. C. W.
,Jar('ard, P. A. CAI'TAlS":-;
Fort B..rrancas, Fla, Fort Monroe, Va, • LIEl'TJo:XAXT. COI.OXEL .\mornso . ..A. D. LIEUTKS"AXT COLOX}:J.S

K(lmhlf'. Frankhn Y01IHg" C. P. Cunl1in~hnm, .J. H.

A th R b t Edwards, P. W. ~IEUTEXAXT COI.OXEIJ Du\"nl: II. H.
r lir, 0 er Shaw, J.J. E. Price, F. A. ~[AJOR Aldrich, II. S. )IA.JORI;;;
Parsons,)1. II. DH.,'i~.• r. \V. Cook, P. W.
LtEUTEXAXTCOl.OXF.I.S~~~::~, ~~~rt ~IAJOR IIawthorllP, W". R.
Humhert, G. F .• Gncppert, L. \V.
B~nit~z, F.. 111. CAPTAIXS
Jones, C. R.
20 LIEl'TKX.-\XT l'ellPrs, B. F. l:-oT Ln:rTExAxTS CAPTAISS
~[AJORS ':\loorman, Richard CAPTAI,,"S Rirhnr(bon, \\ •. L. .\lpxRIHI(lr. D. S. Krue~~r, H. H .
Harrinlrton, J. II. Chamberlain, 1'\ R. lIowell, .1. F., ,1r. Hamptull. \Y . ..:\. Oli\'llr~s, ,1. E. (1'.S.)
Swett, F. S. Xewman. II. B., .Jr. ~Iarlin. E.G. ~[a~~f'lo, \Y., .Tr. Xicholson, A. n.
16th COAST ARTIL- Baron. A. S. \\'hit~, T. n. ~["Feely, H. G. ~Ierkel, E. A.
CAI"TAIS:-; LERY Bpncler, A. 11. ~Iorrow. S. II.
Kin!:, E. W. 1ST Ln:U'T'F,XAXT 20 LIE1:TEXAXTS Smith, D. H.
Fort Ruger, T. H.
Haf~r, J. B. Ky.ter. O. II .. ,1r. 1ST Ln:rTF.x.-\xTS Curtis. K ..l.
Bonn~Y. K. C Dunn. G. G. lIow~II, J. X. 1 ST l.tlEUTEXAXTS
Hatch: ~1. A.. Wollaston, P. H. Iloth, Arthur
Harriman, ,1. E.
Wildrick, G.. \.
~Ior~an. ,r. B.
~\\~\. Furph)', F. L. Alh", B. ~1. (1'.8.)
AncleNon. Gratlg"('.r B u yno,ki. .\. S. 1'ohl, 111. G.
1.1F.UTE>:AXTCOl.OXEl.S \Yalt~r, E H. Roth, 1. D.
Burn~tt, J. R .. Cook, T. C. Spann. C. E .. Jr. 2n LIEUTEXAXTt'oI
Roth~eb, n. E. Rowland, A. E. Kes!'iler, R. H. AlHlrp.ws, C. L.
Johnson, D. B.
f'onzf>lman, C. ~I. Cord~s, C. F., ,Tr. St~ele, Pr~ston
Gilman. S. T. ~Iatt~son, R. L.
~[AJORS Hill. C. W.
LoCquist. Frederick 64th COAST ARTIL-
Hunter, H. \\'. LERY 20 LIEITTEXAXTS
f1lallisburn. R. D. Sw~et. W. H. Kemhle. Franklin, Jr.
Atkin,on. C. E. 55th COAST ARTIL- Fort Shafter. T. H. Routh, D. B.
Brucker. W. H. LERY
Julian. Harry 61st COAST ARTIL-
Crlwford, G: H. CAPTAI,,"~ Fort Kamehameha. T. H. LERY COLOXEL
Holder, W. G. ~litch ..II, R. ~1.
Cord~II, B. E. ~IA.JOR Fort Sheridan, III. 92d COAST ARTIL-
20 LIErTF.x.\XTS
Wilkins, G. R ~Iit~r. F. F. LERY
Phillip', \\'. S.
Yost, J. B .. GOI.OSJo;I. LIEUT";'o'AXT COl.OXELSF rt Mill P I
(;ilmor, A. Hardaway. F. P. 0 S, ..
1 ST LIEliTf::iASTS C.\PTAISS EmeQ., I''. E., Jr.
Key West, Fla. Jo:lia"" Paul (;unn, C. O. LIEUTE~AXT COLOXt:I ..S
Clark, Erskine S..h~imer. F. F. )IAJOH.:': Dalao. E. B. (P.S.)
Tubhs. H. S. Hutson, ,J. C. ~IAJOR~ ~1~lberg, Reinold
MAJOR Kin~, V. lI. .\rmf'tron~, )1. G. lIaube, F. A.
Madlnllen, J. D. tRT Ln:eTt:x.\XT:-; Powers, J D. ~IAJOR
Barher. ,1 T. 111a hhott, II. C. Gib~on, R. T.
2n LnaiTEsAxT II~idlllnd. E. F. CAI.,.AIXS lIarris. C. S.
Turner, n. F. Xelson. n. ~1. \\'ilson, A. E. JetTords, T. E.
John"on. " •. L. Ellis, H. P. CAl'TAIX"
Rude, W. A. Roherts. C. R. CllluYII. P. Q. (P.S.)
Turnhull, H. T. Donald,on. W. n., Jr.
Fort Moultrie, S, C. 41st COAST ARTIL- _\shworth, E. T. \\'lIhl~.C. n. Pamplin, D. G.
Fit'ld, G. I.J. Bates. R. B.
\\'aIhrid~~, Y~rn
Dunn, "-. K. Fort Kamehameha. T. H. B~yma, 8 R . IIarw~lI. ,I. H. .\m~b, G. \Y. ~[cKinney, ~L ,J.
Wh ittaker, L. A.
CAPTAIS J~tTords, W. Q .• Jr.
(;Imo. H. 'V. Fort Rug~r, T, H . •TetTerson. L. 'W. \\'il,on, D ~l.
Rohj~on_ G. R.
Lowder. J. R. Thomlls. A. R.
~IAJOR Cassard, H. D. ~lcK~~. W. S.
Fort Crockett. Texas C.-\PT."-IXS ,1I1cob,. ,1. P. .Tolls, E. P. Ru",ell. S. C.
Dunham, ,\'P". H .•T. Wilson, C. F. ~lcReyno1<ls, S. ~l., Jr.
CAPT.US 'Y",ldell, W. A. CAPTAIX~ 20 Lu.:rTEX.\XTS Ha)'den, F. L.
Kendall. W. H. Dod~~. F. B .. ,Jr. Root. " ....G. Hincke. J. I. 20 LIEl:TEXAXT8
l:-iT LIEt:1'EX ASTS Pitler, J. H. RomIein, ,T.W. Palm~r. G. 'V. 'Ioore, E. \Y.
1::i1' LIEt1'EXAXT DII\'haT,h. T. J. K~ler. F. Il. Warfi~ld. B. 111. Den8on. P. B. \\' eitz~I. G. J.
Le.Ii~,R. C.. - Fai'rchild, F. H. Ti.chbein. C. F. Lind. H. D. Skinner, ~I. L. Hardy, R. ~l.
Turtle. Ll'\\'i ... LIEl"TEX.AXT C01.0XA1.:-o
."'rm:.ktnu. E .. \ .. Jr .. \cheoi:on, H. H. Hi:-;hop, P. P. Dodson, R. S.
LU;CT.:S.\ST CUI.OX EI. \\"arren, A. H.
('APTAt'" r(JI.OXY.I.
:Smith, E. K. Bad"er. G. ~1. Terry, T. A. C.\M'AI'S',s
Flory. L. D. Crim, C. H.
~L'JORS :::;immons, J. F.
HIIlI"in" L.. \. LIECTKS'AXT COLOX.:I.:-: Tucke-T. G .. \.
Xt;» ....on, P. B. Warner, O. C. Tredenniek. D. C.
1~T LIFCTEXAXTS Hood, J. H. Smith, J. "'. (P.";.)
Partin, C. L. Pitz, O. G.
Tomlin, R. S. ]~T LIEl"TES.:\:ST~
~IAJORS Anderson. R. L.
~D L[El~E:S.\:ST~ Ht'rzer, C .T. Tarrallt, 14. K.
:\(orri~. Robert Foltz. C. G.
Holterman. G. H. Riehl. P. F. 2D LIEl1T£XAXT.s
Kramf>T •• \rthur Gib....
on. )1. B. . ..;kinrood. X. ,A.
Hesketh, Willialll Baynes, \\,'. H.
i't.'ward, \\'. H. Waterman, B. K
Cozart, C. A.
nillette, C. A.
Wilson, F. M. (PS)
~(artelino, Pastor (PS)
Zeller, F. ,T.
Donnell)', H. C.
Giffin, S. F.

INSTRUCTORS ~I.UORR Students Diee, J. B. F.
'l'owllsend .. 1. H. Advanced Technical
East, .T. C. Course
BI{l(UUlER GESE«AI. Tactics Coehran, H. )leC. C.\I'T.\IXS )llleLllehlan, C. 1,.
Gnlick, ,T. \\'. Ellerthorl'e. D. S. Gay,..A. C. Students
LIF.UTEXAST CUI.OXf:L CA.PTAIX:-. i'hort, W. H. Schmi~k. P~tf'r
Cox, R. ~'. Burlll'lI, X A. deGraveline!'. K. L. jo"'l. Corhin, F. P., Jr. CAPT ..\,ISS
STAFF Bnrb('r, Edward Gamber. J. F. Irvine, ~L ~l.
~(AJORS ~heIJherd. C. E.
Cron, 1.... ~. Chester. G. A.
COLO""" Jackson, H. R. Engineering J ST Lll:rTKxAxT~ Berg, F. T.
Gllrdn"r, F. Q. C. ~lackin, R. X. Davi" W. V.
L(n'eJ)' J. R. Gough, A. D. Gllnl, II. P.
Edgecomb, F. E. ~I.UOR Gritlith. E. G. Bogart, F .. \.
LIElTTE~.\XT COLora:I. II opkins, .A rma nd
Hieke)" D. \Y., ,lr. I-\>rnstrorn. C. H. We her, )1. G.
Kahle, ,J. k'. Le~:;;r:.,~~ L. L. Twymnn .. 1. H., .1r. Cassevant, A. F. 1:-;1' LIEUTEXAST
C.\PT.HS Darrah, ,r T. Wilsc.n, X. B. Chllmherl.in, E. \1'.
~1.'JOR Bllrtlett, L. W. Pt'rr)T, \\'. A.
Lowry, Port('r
lIiddl"ton, E. W.
EXTENSION COURSES Tliber .. \. P. Passart'll., P. F.
Enll s t e d S peel 'all'.Swt Odenweller, C. J., Jr.
Peterson. A. C.
K:luft'man. R. K.
~!.\JOR Luzar, A. ~1.
C'llrril1Ktnll. G. lh~1... Spnrgin, W. F.
LtWT""""T Co..o".a, ~~~'r~: \~. H. Cloud, C. C.
P,>ndleton, R. T. Koscielniak, A. A.
Starr, H. E. CAI'T.H"S
Kane, F. B.
Artillery McPherson, W. L.
Stevens, V. C.
("ramer, R. V.

Washington, D. C.
Fort Leavenworth, . Newport, R. 1. Washington, D. C. Maxwell Field, Ala. Fort Benning, Ga.
Kansas Instructor
Student Instructor
Instructors ('OJ.O;:"'F.I.
Students Instructor
~I.\JOR _\1.\.1 OR
I..IEUTEXA:ST COL()S}.a.~ Pratt .. J. S. LIEUTJo:,SAST C01.0XEL~ ~IAJOR R. E. Torle)'
Crawford, .J. B. Uoodrnun, 'V. ltL Gage, P. S. ~;I'ling. F. G.
~re)'l'r. G. R. Students Babeock, F.
Finley, C. R. Student
~(AJORR Hickok, ~l. J. Ha.tin~8, F. H. ~IAJOR
Phillips, T. R. Koenig, W. C. Herrick, H. X.
Wilson, J. H. Hines, Charles
Rultman. H. F. E.
CAPTAI" Ricker, G. W.
Weihle. "'. L. rase. Homer
\(c~herrv. F. ,J.
Students ~Jilhnrn:R. T..
'[cCatt)', Kenneth
.\nder80n, S. "-.
Handwe-k, ~r. C.
Christian, F. L .
.John,on, H. ~.
Cochran. H. \Y.
\\"jnton. A. V.
rleCamp. J. T.
Lfl:wir.:, P. lV'.

Davi!il. L. L.
~[ever8. H. F.
Reil)', P. B.
~[adison, ;T. H.
Crichlow. R. W .. Jr.
('ole. P. W.
Denson. 1,. .\ .. Jr.
Kreuter. R. H.
"mith. L. 8.
Featherston. J. H.
~Iitchell. F. A.
Sevilla, P. C. (P.S.)
Santos. ~r. M. (P.S.)
hf'" .. wl
~tl).~alo"4 Ro.ird Cabl('~hil-l Jo.~~plt /l~nrtl ';,",rnl Ed u'urd O. C. (;t'1ltTul John Jl. SC'ho~ Gr",rnl J. Franklin B,n Gen,ral n~illialll.l1.
Ft. H. G. Wri"ht. X. Y. Fort Hancock. X.• 1. Fort Hancock. X .. 1. fi-{d Pt. Worden. Wash. Graham
CaptAin P. S. Lowe Captain Burgo Gill Captain Ch8rJt:>~::\1. "'oHf 1-'1. )lonro('. Ya. I~t Lt. H. F. Town~('ntl Ft. Sherman. C. Z.
IH Lt. .\. R. Hartllltill C'slltain G .• \. For(l
('tl/o"el (;eoru, F. H.
Fort ~lills. P. 1.
Captain Samuel Hubin

OFFICE CHlEF OF Capt. ::;amuel ~IcCul- *'Iajor llenjamill BoweT- Lt. Col. J. L. Sinclair, Lt. Col. }'. L. Hoskins. ~Iajor H. A. ~[c~lorrow,
NATIONAL GUARD lough, 197th (.\A), ing. 244th (TD). 246th (HD), L~-nch. 265lh (lID), Jack- 206th (AA), Fayette-
BUREAU Concord. X. H. Xew York. X. Y. burg'. Ya. sonvillE". Fla. ville. Ark.
Washington, D. C. I.t. Col. R. F. ~laddux. Lt. Col. J. P. Hogan. ~[8jor E. C. Seaman. ~ll\jor X. L. Adams, ~\ajor W. W. Rhein.
211th (AA). Roston, 212th (AA), X~W 213th (AA). Allen- 202d (AA), Chicago. 250th (lID), San
I.t Col. L. B. Weeb )lass. York, X. Y. town, Pa. Ill. Francisco, Calif.
Major Lt"Roy Lutes .\tajor B. \'ogel. 2"'1~t Co1. L. L. P('IHllt>tOIl. \lajor O. D. )leXeel)'. ~(ajor A. A.. \lten, 203d :\lajor Kenneth Rown.
(HD), Fall River, 245th (lID). Brook- 213th (AA) .• Wen- (AA). Carthage, ~lo. tree. 24'lth (lID),
::\ls1'os. I~'n, X. Y. town, Pa. Capt. B. C. Daile~', 203d Salem, Ore.
COAST ARTILLERY ('apt. A. L. Lavery. Capt. A. L. Parmelee. Lt. Col. D. S. Lenzner, (AA), Sprin~eld. Major M. E. Con able.
NATIONAL GUARD 24lst (BD). Boston, 245th (HD), Brook- 260th (A.\), \\'a,h .. ~lo. 248!h (lID), Ft.
REGIMENTS ~Ias~. Ivn. X. Y. D.C. )lajor C. ~. DOl1e~', Lewi~. ""as-h.
Lt. Col. H. E. Small. Cal;t. Syh-llU BprJinPT, \(njor J. deB. Walhach. 206th (AA), Little
Instructors 242d (HD), Bridge. 198th (AA), \\'i1ming- 252d (TD). Wil- Hoek. Ark.
port, Conn. ton. Dpl. ming'ton, X. C.
I.t. Col. W. ~l. Chapin, Lt. Col. E. H. ~Ietlger, Lt. Col. H. W. ~tark. \lajnr T. R. Bartlett.
240th (HD), Port- 24~d (liD), Pre)\'i- 261't (lID). Laurel. 2ti3d (lID), Colum-
land. )(aine dencE", R. I. Ilel. bia. S. fl.
~Iajor G('(lTg'e Blaney, :\rnjor H. T. Gpor~(>, \1ajor II. II. Rlackwell. Lt. Cot. E. P. Xu.re~,
240th (HD), Rock. 243d (JIll). Prod- 24(;lh (1Ij). Hoan. 264th (liD), States.
land. Mninp dence, R. 1. ukt'o '"'n. horo. Ga.

Boston, Mass. New York, N. Y. Fort Monroe, Va. Fort McPherson, Ga. Columbus, Ohio Chicago, Illinois

Colonel L P. Horsfall Colonel C. W. Baird Colonel L. C. Brinton, Jr. )lnjor V. W. Hall Colonel )1. A. Cro", Colonel J. S. Dusenbun'
lIajor F. C. Scofield Lt. Col. E. H. Thompson Lt. Col. W R. Xiehols Cnpt. A. P. ~ulli\"nn Lt. ,Col. ~(. ~1. Kimmel Lt. Col. C. D. Peirce .
~(ajor F. ~'. Gallag-her Ll. Col. II. LeH. )luller Ll. Col..\ G. Frick )lnjor X. Boudreau Lt. Col. G. W. Ensterdav
~[ajor R. J. VanBuskirk Lt. Col. F. A. Holmer Ll. Col. H. S. Atwood \(ajnr W. R. ~laris \lnjor T. R. Parker •
Lt. Col. S. S. Gitlin ~lajor R. ~1. Ca",well
Lt. Col. H. F. Loomis ~ll\jor A. n. Camphelt
:\rnjoT Delbert Ausmu~ \lajor C. D. Hindle
Sioux City, Iowa San Antonio, Texas Presidio, San Francisco,
Colonel R. P. Glassburn Lt. Col. \\'. E. Du,'nl
)Iajor B. 1.. Flanigen )[ajor R. t;. Philipps Colonel G. T. Perkins
~lajnr E. C. Mead Colonel R. H. Williams
\(njor S. E. Wolfe Colonel George Ruhlen
~["jnr I. B. Hill Lt. Col. A. L. Louslnlo!
Ll. Col. Willis Shippam
Lt. Col. A. J. French
\lajor H. R. Behrens
.\lajor C. R. Adams
Capt. D. ,1. Rutherford


University of Maine, Orono, Maine Clift High School, Opelika, Ala. Soliet Township High School. Sollet, Illinois
Lt. Col. J. C. Haw ('apl. G. W. Brent ~lajor H. W. ~(eI3rjde
Cllpt. G. J. I_oupre!
University of Alabama, University, Ala.
Massachusetts Institute of TechnOlogy, Rockford High School, Rockford, Illinois
~lnjor E. H. Und(>Twood
Ca.mbrldge, Mass. )rajor 'Y. 'V". \\~eTtz Capl. P. C. Ho,\'e
Col. S. C. Vestal Capt. 'Y. H. Carbon
Lt. Col. C. Thoma8-Stahle Cal.t. .1. S. llpnn University of illinois, Urbana.. Illinois
)fajoT A. n. Fi~ken ('apt. H. \\". HlI~!o<f'lI Lt. Col. B. S. Dubois
\Iajor ./. C. Ruddell :\fajor .T. D. Brown
Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta, Ga. \(ajor J. B. ~luir, .Jr.
University 01 New Hampshire, Durham, N. H. Capt. )1. G. Cary
Lt. Col. T. H. JOII!'S Cnflt. V. ",.. "'"ortman
LI. Col. E. W. Putne" )lajor \\'. D. E,'ans
Callt. ""'. G. Devans' ~rajor D. E. :\rorri~on Detroit High Schools, Detroit, Mich.
Cap\. F. n. Wllters
University of Delaware, Newark, Del. Capt. P. T. Gre"or)"
~rajor n. L. Dutton MissisSippi State College, State College, Miss.
~Iajor R. W. Ar"o Michigan State College of Agriculture and
('apt. F .• J. CunninJ:hnm ~Iajor A. C. Chesledon Applied Science, East Lansing, M.ich.
Capt .. John Harr~' I.t. Col. C. T. ~larsh
Fordham University, Fordham. N. Y. Capl. W. K. Stennis Capt. D. D. ~lartin
~lajor J. P. Kohn Capt. J. G. Renno
:\(ajor.J. G. )IUTphy Pearl River ColIeg6, Poplarville, Miss.
)[ajor :\rario Corrl(>To Columbia College, Dubuque, Iowa
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh. Pa. ~lajor W. L. ~Ic~lorris
Colonel J. L. Holeombe The Citadel. Charleston, S. C.
Lt. Col. O. H. Sehrader l..t. Col. Eu~ene ViParet Kansas State College of Agriculture and
Capt. K. P. Flagg Capt. G. .-\..Patrick Applied Science, Manhattan, Kansas
Cavt. J. D. ~litchell Ca pI. .J. S. Robinson )Iajol' L. R. Crews
)lajor L. H. Lohman
Virginia. Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg. Va. University of CincinnatI. Cincinnati, Ohio Capt. K. C. Frank
Lt. Col. C. H. Tennev ~lajor R. V. Ladd
)lajor Xelson Dingley.'III :\fajor C. ,,~. Higl:dn~ University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas
Capt. D. B. Herron Capt. H. P. HennE'!"sy LI. Col. K. F. Baldwin
Capt. T. W. ~Iunford Capt. W. L Brady
University of Minnesota, Uinneapolts. Minn. Ball High School. Galveston, Texas University of San Francisco,
Lt. Col. .\. L. POI" )lajor )laitland Bottoms San Francisco, Calif.
~Iajor C. L. Berry Lt. Col. Frauk Drake
Capl. L. _\. ZiUtnWT Alameda High School. Alameda, Calif. ~[ajor ",. G. Brey
-'fHinT L . .1. Rowlt~r .\Iajor W. F. Lafrenz
Washington University, St. Louis. Mo.
)taJor A. n. Chipman Sacramento High School. Sacramento. Calif. Boise High School. Boise, Idaho
('apt. .1. C. Smith )(ajor.J. C. Batl!'" Capt. E. R. Guill!

Willtam Chrisman High School, St. Ignatius High School, San Francisco. 'Cali!. Reno High School. Reno. Nevada.
Independence. Mo. )1.doT 11 (i .• \rehibald Capt. J. H. Smith
:\lajor II. E. Pt'lltllt'tOIi
San Francisco High Schools. Logan Senior High School. Logan. Utah
Denver High Schools. Denver. Colorado Sa n Francisco. Calif. ~[ajor E. H. ;;tillman
)Iujor ~T.G. Deyine C'.qH. O. T. FOTllWU
Utah State Agricultnral College, Logan, Utah
University of Californb, Berkeley, Calif. Lt. Col. J. D. Brown
Athens High School, Athens. Ga. Capt. H. E. C. Breit un!:'
)'lajor.\. '., Rillt'ar~on Lt. Col. ~1. .1. O'Brien Cal't. W. R. Goodrich
~Iajor W. C. Bral\"
('apt. ~. J. Uootlman University of Washington. Seattle. Wash.
AgriCUltural aud Mechauical College of Texas
College Station. Texas • Colonel Edward Kimmel
University of California, Los Angeles, Calif. Lt. Col. T. H. Otto,en
1..1. Col. \\', C. \\'a~hillg'toll )Iujor 1.). H. Xorris Ca pt. E. ~l. GTt'g'or)'
~Iajor R. L. Hill Capt. L. C. Wallace Cal't. ,T. F. Stile)'

GENERAL STAFF Col. Frands J. Behr,

Col. Frallci:s H. l..illt"ulu (;.~ .. \Ya:-:.hiuKtnn. n. C. San JUHn, Puerto Hi('o.
Col. A\"er)' ,J. Cooper " .. Lt. Col. J. T. n. O'Rear.
Col. George \\'. Coehen . S. F. Port of Emuarkation. Fort ~IHl'on, Cnlif.
Col. Howard K. L.ouJ:hr~' . Lt. CuI. Alden G. Strong'.
Col. Cliffo"l Jones . 1~t A rrny Stuff, Boston • .\ln8-8-
Col. Sanderford .Jarmul) . Lt. CuI. Cyril .A. \\ •. Da \\'1'011,
Lt. Col. Hane)' C. AII"n . Sun Frands('o, Port of EmlmrkatioJl, Port )'lal'ou, Calif.
IA. Col. Hobert)1. Perkins . (Clllllg-. Troo}l~ on Trnns}lorts).
Lt. Col. John H. Lindt . Capt. OUa ~Ia",hllll.
Lt. Col. Robert H. Van "olkeIlIJUr!:,h . O\'ert.;,P1l~ Rt'rruiting- Depot, Fort Slo("u1ll, 'X. Y.
"laj. Gen. Thomas O. A~hhurn.
G. S. WITH TROOPS Chief, 1. &0. W.W. S"T\';"", Washin!:,toll. D. C.
Co1. \\"IlItt'T K. \\".ill'on. Hq. 7th Corps .\rf>lI. Omaha. Xebraska .
Col. Fn'dpric II. Smith. Hq. PnnUII111 CaranI Dept.. QuarT). Hei~ht