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STAAD PRO

ADVANCE FEATURES
FOR APPLICATION TO
BUILDING STRUCTURES

BY
SAROJ BISWAS
B.E. in Civil(Gold Medallist)
University of Mysore
M. Tech in Structural Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi
LIST OF TOPICS
Modelling
Radial Grid
Inclined Grid
Structure Wizard
Load
Self Weight check
Cladding load
Varying Load
Load Position and Direction
Shear Value Jump
Curve Member Loading
Linearly Varying Load on Different Segment
Empty Load
Editing Load on a Member
Set NL Command
Overturning Moment
Re-entrant Corner and Floor Load
No Load Generation on Bracing Member
Load Generation on inclined Plane
Weight and Load
Support Displacement
Pre-stress and Post Stress
Varying Load Generation on Multiple Plates
Partial Loads on plates
Temperature Load
Load Generation
Wind Load Generation
Seismic Load Generation With Torsion
P Delta Analysis
Dynamic Analysis
Response Spectrum Methods
Torsion in Dynamic Analysis
Composite Damping
Time History Methods
Stiffness Warnings
Stability Warnings
Page 1 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

MODELLING
Radial Grid

Inclined Grid
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Structure Wizard

LOAD
Self Weight
STAAD pro attempts to predict Self weight of the Structure. However for This one has write
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
If Self weight computed is more STAAD Pro will Show Message Similar as below

*WARNING- APPLIED SELFWEIGHT IS MORE THAN TOTAL WEIGHT OF ALL STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS IN LOAD CASE 1 ALONG Y.
THIS COULD BE DUE TO SELFWEIGHT APPLIED TO SPECIFIC LIST OF MEMBERS/PLATES/SOLIDS/SURFACES.
TOTAL UNFACTORED WEIGHT OF THE STRUCTURE = 1438.436 KN
TOTAL UNFACTORED WEIGHT OF THE STRUCTURE APPLIED = 2216.322 KN
If the Factor is less than or More Than 1, STAAD pro will not compare Expected Self weight with
assigned Self weight.
With The Command
Page 4 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK will check the Following. Comparing Applied Load and Reactions
accuracy can be Ascertained.

***TOTAL APPLIED LOAD ( KN METE ) SUMMARY (LOADING 1)


SUMMATION FORCE-X = 0.00
SUMMATION FORCE-Y = -1438.44
SUMMATION FORCE-Z = 0.00

SUMMATION OF MOMENTS AROUND THE ORIGIN-


MX= 8728.16 MY= 0.00 MZ= -12903.51

***TOTAL REACTION LOAD( KN METE ) SUMMARY (LOADING 1)


SUMMATION FORCE-X = 0.00
SUMMATION FORCE-Y = 1438.44
SUMMATION FORCE-Z = 0.00

Adding Cladding load to Member


Using Fire Proofing Load command , we may add cladding load to the Members
General Format
MEMBER FIREPROOFING
Member-list FIRE { BFP | CFP } THICKNESS f1 DENSITY f2
Page 5 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

BFP stands for Block Fire proofing whose area is calculated as ,For Wide Flanges (I-shaped sections),
Afp = [(Bf + 2T)*(D+2T)] - Asteel
CFP stands for Contour Fire Proofing, Example

SUPPORT
1 FIXED ; 4 PINNED
UNIT KN METER
MEMBER FIREPROOFING
1 3 FIRE BFP THICK 0.005 DENSITY 500
2 FIRE CFP THICK 0.005 DENSITY 500
UNIT KIP FT
LOADING 1 DEADWEIGHT OF STEEL + FIREPROOFING
SELF Y -1.0
LOAD 2 LIVE
MEMBER LOAD
2 UNI GY -0.8
LOAD COMBINATION 3
1 0.75 2 0.75

Adding a Parabolic Load Two a Member


These can be done by writing a Excel Sheet. The Bolded Part Can be paste in a Primary Load Case
MEMBER LOAD Member Length= 5 Meter
4 CON GY 0 0 Member Division= 10 No
5 CON GY 0.5 -0.11364 Min Load= 0 KN/m
6 CON GY 1 -0.45455 Max Load= KN/m
7 CON GY 1.5 -1.02273 SL NO Y= X2
8 CON GY 2 -1.81818 1 0 0
9 CON GY 2.5 -2.84091 2 0.5 0.113636
10 CON GY 3 -4.09091 3 1 0.454545
11 CON GY 3.5 -5.56818 4 1.5 1.022727
12 CON GY 4 -7.27273 5 2 1.818182
13 CON GY 4.5 -9.20455 6 2.5 2.840909
14 CON GY 5 -11.3636 7 3 4.090909

8 3.5 5.568182
9 4 7.272727
10 4.5 9.204545
11 5 11.36364
STOP
43.75
Page 6 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Load Position and Direction


When a Uniformly Distributed load is applied beyond a member Length, STAAD Pro gives warning and
applied it internally to upto the length of Member
If a Concentrated Load is applied beyond a Member Length, STAAD Pro triggers a Warning and applies the
Same at End of the Member.
Note That STAAD pro Applying the Load along the Shear Centre for Bending Analysis, Hence for a Section
Such as C actual effect of Torsion will not be captured. For such Section, one should always specify d2
distance.
Page 7 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Now See the Effect of Applying following load on the Frame as Concentrated Member Load and Joint Load.

Therefore, the Load on the column should be entered as Nodal Load/Joint load. Or if the Member is offset
to the face of the column, the load will be automatically applied to face of the column.
A joint load can be applied in Global Direction only. If the Load is in some other direction, the Load should
be resolved in the global directions and then applied.
A curved member of STAAD can take only UDL. If Floor Load is to be applied, it should be broken in small
pieces of Short Straight Lengths.

After Deciding the coordinates, copying from excel, click Geometry, cancel Snap/Node Beam Dialoge we,
Node Coordinate Dialog will be seen, need to past the node as follow
Page 8 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

The Following diagram will appear on pasting , where we need to map the coordinated to X, Y, Z Global
Mapping will appear, double click on each of the Row in Top data area, and Map them to X, Y, Z.
Following Nodes for Curved beam will be displayed
Page 9 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Now Go to Geometry
Run Structure Wizard ,choose Frame Model from Drop down,Double click The Bay Frame, fill as follow,
apply, Click on Transfer Icon, chose appropriate coordinate, to create the Structure as Follow

Now You May Load it, defining floor Group, The Curved Beam will be loaded as below
Page 10 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

The other way to model a curved beam is using radial grid


Click Grid Icon, Click Create Snap/Node Beam Dialogue, Choose Radial from Drop Down, fill appropriately ,
such as shown below
Page 11 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Now draw the curved beam as segment of straight member, using Snap Node beam.

Linearly varying Load on different Segments


Suppose, a Beam or Column has many segment, as it is loaded with linearly varying load, Apply a
Hydrostatic load on the member, then break the Member. Suppose the Selected beam has Load varying
from 0 to 100 KN/m from one end to another end, Selection these member, join them, apply Hydrostatic
or Linearly varying member load , then add node by Insert Node command, to member. Note that
Creating the Member by intersection may not be able to break load appropriately
Page 12 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Empty Load
There is nothing fundamentally wrong having empty load case. STAAD pro Generates message, because 0

.
occupies lots of Memory space of the CPU

Editing load or Adding new Load on a Selected Beam


Double click the Member will pop the dialogue box shown. Chose appropriate load case for adding or
changing a load
Page 13 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

The Set NL Command.


This command specify number of primary load cases which by Default 30. If Primary load cases exceeds
30, one should tell STAAD pro , in the beginning itself, just below input width.
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
Page 14 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

INPUT WIDTH 79
SET NL 75
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 4 0 0; 3 8 0 0; 4 12 0 0; 5 0 6 0; 6 4 6 0; 7 8 6 0; 8 12 6 0;
13 0 0 5; 14 4 0 5; 15 8 0 5; 16 12 0 5; 17 0 6 5; 18 4 6 5; 19 8 6 5;
20 12 6 5; 21 4 2 0; 22 4 4 0; 23 8 2 0; 24 8 4 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 5 6; 7 1 5; 8 2 21; 9 3 23; 10 4 8; 15 17 18; 21 13 17; 22 14 18; 23 15 19;
24 16 20; 29 5 17; 30 6 18; 31 7 19; 32 8
Otherwise, a Error message will be generated. This is done optimum resource allocation

Overturning Moment due to Gravity load.


Consider the Model below
Page 15 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Print Statics check Gives moment about Origin of Coordinate System. For Example for Above, print static
check will give
SUMMATION OF MOMENTS AROUND THE ORIGIN-
MX= 200.00 MY= 0.00 MZ= -200.00
Now this is not the Overturning Moment about the C.G. of the Structure. For This We need to move the
Structure using a shown
Page 16 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Floor Load Generation on Floor Plan Having Re-entrant


Corners.
Staad pro Load generation works best when in Floor Plan having no Re-Entrant corners for Floor Load generation
using X Range Y Range-Z Range . To avoid the Problem of Floor Load Generation, it is better to define Floor Groups
not having Re-Entrant Corner. For The Structure Shown below it is better to define two floor Group. The Selected
Part a Group Group1, Then Reaming part as Group2
Page 17 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Then assign load using


Page 18 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

For No Load Generation on Bracing Member on Horizontal


Frame
Simply Do not include these members while Defining Floor Group.

Floor Load Generation on Inclined Plane.


It is recommended to include. GY inclined as Shown. However Non inclusion does not affect.

When the Inclined plane have nodes at different elevation, The way is to add Plate with very small
thickness and E=1/100th of the that of Material with Zero Density, and apply pressure load, so that the
plate does not contribution to the Structure becomes insignificant and the plate acts as a medium of load
transfer only.

Difference between Member Weight, Joint Weight etc to


Member Load, Joint Load etc.
Weight is for Equivalent Static Seismic Load where as load is for all other types of load including Response
Spectrum /Time History type of Seismic Load.

Support Displacement load and Support rotation load


Page 19 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Following example shows input file for a support


STAAD PLANE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 11-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 0 4 0; 3 7 4 0; 4 7 0 0; 5 10 2 0; 6 7 2 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 2 3; 3 3 6; 4 6 4; 5 5 6;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 2.05e+008
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 76.8195
ALPHA 1.2e-005
DAMP 0.03
TYPE STEEL
STRENGTH FY 253200 FU 407800 RY 1.5 RT 1.2
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
1 TO 5 TABLE ST TUB1501506
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL STEEL ALL
SUPPORTS
1 4 5 FIXED
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Dead TITLE DEAD
MEMBER LOAD
2 5 UNI GY -10
LOAD 2 LOADTYPE Live TITLE LIVE
MEMBER LOAD
2 5 UNI GY -8
LOAD 3 LOADTYPE None TITLE SUPPORT DISPLACEMENT
SUPPORT DISPLACEMENT LOAD
4 FY -0.1
**FOR 5 DEGREE ROATION AT 5
LOAD 4 LOADTYPE None TITLE SUPPORT ROTATION
SUPPORT DISPLACEMENT LOAD
5 MZ 5
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH
Page 20 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Meaning of Pre-Stress and Post Stress in STAAD


Pre-stress- When Post Tensioning force of the Member is transmitted to the structure.
Post Stress- When Post Tensioning force of the Member is NOT also transmitted to the structure.
In industry it is defined opposite. Consider the Example of STAAD Reference
STAAD PLANE FRAME WITH PRESTRESSING LOAD
UNIT METER KNS
JOINT COORD
1 0. 0. ; 2 12. 0. ; 3 0. 6. ; 4 12. 6.
5 0. 10.5 ; 6 12. 10.5 ; 7 0. 15. ; 8 12. 15.
MEMBER INCIDENCE
113;235;357;424;546
668;734;856;978
SUPPORT
1 2 FIXED
MEMB PROP
1 TO 9 PRI AX 0.2044 IZ 8.631E-03
UNIT MMS
CONSTANT
E 21. ALL ; POISS CONC ALL
LOADING 1 PRESTRESSING LOAD
***EFFECT IS TRANSMITTED TO STRUCTURE**
MEMBER PRESTRESS
7 8 FORCE 1350. ES 75. EM -300. EE 75.
LOADING 2 POSTSTRESSING LOAD
***EFFECT IS NOOOOOOT TRANSMITTED TO STRUCTURE**
MEMBER POSTSTRESS
7 8 FORCE 1350. ES 75. EM -300. EE 75.
PERFORM ANALYSIS
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Page 22 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

The Pre-stressing force available for STAAD is only about local Z axis only for Frame members. The Default Tendon of
a member when ES, EM, EE are defined is parabolic. To define a linearly varying eccentricity, for example such as
below

We need to break the beam in two parts and define eccentric load as below
STAAD PLANE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 12-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
Page 23 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

1 0 10 0; 2 5 10 0; 3 10 10 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 1 2; 2 2 3;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 2.05e+008
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 76.8195
ALPHA 1.2e-005
DAMP 0.03
TYPE STEEL
STRENGTH FY 253200 FU 407800 RY 1.5 RT 1.2
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY
1 2 PRIS YD 0.75 ZD 0.3
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 3 PINNED

LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 1


MEMBER PRESTRESS LOAD
1 FORCE 10 ES 0.3 EE -0.3
2 FORCE 10 ES -0.3 EE 0.3
PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK
FINISH

Following code will create Pre-stressing by Default


LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 1
MEMBER PRESTRESS LOAD
1 FORCE 10 ES 0.3 EM -0.3 EE 0.3

How to Model a Restressed slab, Model the slab using plates and then make dummy beams of same depth
as of plates and apply restressing force using these beams.
Page 24 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Trapezoid ally varying loads on plates


Consider applying water pressure to a Rectangular tank( Or Soil Pressure from Outside of the tank).Say the
Model looks like as below

You can choose Min Pressure and Highest Pressure following steps as below. Click Select plate. Drag Mouse
to select all the plates.
Page 25 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Selected plates will be listed. Click Done. Fill as required similar to following figure

On clicking Add, Staad pro will internally interpolate the Pressure on various plate.

Applying Partial load on Plates


It can be done as below.
Page 26 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Temperature load
It must be ensured that co-efficient of thermal expansion must be defined in the same unit as being used.
For Meter KN unit Alpha will be in oC. In Staad,
The Temperature Parameters are
1. Temperate that causes Axial Elongation of Shortening- parameter f1
2. Temperature that causes bending- parameter f2.
The parameter f1 and f2 can be derived as below.
Let us consider, A= Ambient Temperature
B=Temperature of Top fibre
C=Temperature of Bottom Fibre
Then f1=(B+C)/2-A i.e. Average temperature- Ambient Temperature
f2=B-C i.e. Temp difference Across the Member.
Will Applying Load, start and end of Member must be taken care of to develop desired Tension Or
Compression fibre due to differential load.
For a Table Frame Structure as Shown below , Summer time temperature differential can be Appllied as
below
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 13-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 3 8 0 0; 4 0 3 0; 6 8 3 0; 7 0 3 8; 8 8 3 8; 9 0 0 8; 10 8 0 8;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 4 6; 5 1 4; 7 3 6; 8 7 8; 9 9 7; 10 10 8; 11 4 7; 12 6 8;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
Page 27 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
5 7 9 10 PRIS YD 0.6 ZD 0.6
1 8 11 12 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.23
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 3 9 10 FIXED
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE LOAD CASE 1
TEMPERATURE LOAD
1 12 TEMP 0 0 20
8 11 TEMP 0 0 -20
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH
Now we will take example of a Practical situation as below for the above table top Structure
SEASONAL TEMPATURE VARIATION DINURAL TEMPATURE VARIATION
Since with AC Working, Actual Temperature Rise for Since with AC Working, Actual Temperature Rise for
Axial Elongation Axial Elongation
less than Difference Between Mean Annual and less than Difference Between Mean Annual and
Maxima Maxima
FOR SUMMER A= Mean Annual temp= 25 FOR SUMMER A= Mean Day temp= 30
B=Highest Temp in
Summer= 45 B=Highest Temp in Summer= 45
C=Inside Temperature= 20 C=Inside Temperature= 20
Rise Along X f1= 7.5 Rise Along X f1= 2.5
Difference Difference
Along y f2= 0 Along y f2= 0
Difference Difference
Along Z f3= 25 Along Z f3= 25

Since with Heater Working, Actual Temperature Rise for Since with Heater Working, Actual Temperature Rise for
Axial Elongation Axial Elongation
less than Difference Between Mean Annual and less than Difference Between Mean Annual and
Maxima Maxima
FOR WINTER A= Mean Day temp= 25 FOR WINTER A= Mean Day temp= 15
B=Lowest Temp in Winter= -5 B=Lowest Temp in Winter= -4
C=Inside Temperature= 20 C=Inside Temperature= 20
f1= -17.5 f1= -7
f2= 0 f2= 0
f3= -25 f3= -24

Note that Direction of f3 has to defined by considering the start and end of Frame Member and desired
hogging Or sagging moment.
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 13-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
Page 28 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 3 8 0 0; 4 0 3 0; 6 8 3 0; 7 0 3 8; 8 8 3 8; 9 0 0 8; 10 8 0 8;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 4 6; 5 1 4; 7 3 6; 8 7 8; 9 9 7; 10 10 8; 11 4 7; 12 6 8;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
5 7 9 10 PRIS YD 0.6 ZD 0.6
1 8 11 12 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.23
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 3 9 10 FIXED
*MEMBER RELEASE
*1 8 11 12 START MY MZ
*1 8 11 12 END MY MZ
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE None TITLE ANNUAL VARIATION WITH SUMMER
TEMPERATURE LOAD
1 12 TEMP 7.5 0 25
8 11 TEMP 7.5 0 -25
LOAD 2 LOADTYPE None TITLE ANNUAL VARIATION WITH WINTER
TEMPERATURE LOAD
1 12 TEMP -17.5 0 -25
8 11 TEMP -17.5 0 25
LOAD 3 LOADTYPE None TITLE DINURAL VARIATION IN SUMMER
TEMPERATURE LOAD
1 12 TEMP 2.5 0 25
8 11 TEMP 2.5 0 -25
LOAD 4 LOADTYPE None TITLE DINURAL VARIATION IN WINTER
TEMPERATURE LOAD
1 12 TEMP -7 0 -24
8 11 TEMP -7 0 24
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH
Page 29 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Temperature Loads are usually combined with Dead Load and Live Load in Analysis.
Page 30 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

LOAD GENERATION
Wind Load generation.
Suppose we need to generate a wind load case for the building as shown below
Go to wind Definition, click Add. The Dialogue shown on Left will pop up

These type of custom load cases is handy, when we need to define Load variation with height such as for
Multi-storeyed buildings. The Exposure factored can be made as 1.0(Programme assumed it to be1.0 if not
supplied) Or may be used to manage solidity factor Or Height Factor. Exposure Factor is assigned to view.
Now we may go Load Case and Make a Wind load case as below. Click Add, then Wind Load in Pop will give
the Screen as below. Factor can be altered to match Wind Pressure net Co-efficient on a wall
Page 31 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Using X-Range, Y Range or Z Range , we can instruct STAAD to Look for Windward, or Leeward face within
this range. These will enhance its performance during load generation. One needs to clearly understand
the Loading convention to define a Wind Ward or Leeward. On keep Clicking on Loading Convention, we
may see the loading convention used by STAAD.
Page 32 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Below is an Example how Windward or Lee Ward face could be adjusted.


LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Wind TITLE +X WINDWARDSIDE
WIND LOAD X 0.8 TYPE 1
WIND LOAD -X 0.5 TYPE 1
LOAD 2 LOADTYPE Wind TITLE -X WINDWARDSIDE
WIND LOAD -X -0.5 TYPE 1 XR -0.5 1
WIND LOAD X -0.8 TYPE 1 XR 15 17
Page 33 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

For Load generation, the Area has be bounded on all four side, except for Support side.
For Open Structure, the check box for open should be checked so that loads are generated on subsequent
member.
Shielding effect is not yet developed by the programmers of STAAD. However, using X Range, Y Range , Z
Range, Shielding effects can be simulated.
Non Intersecting member could cause problem such as below.
If Bracing are non load carrying member, then load could be applied, by Making group excluding the
bracings.
Page 34 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

For Example
START GROUP DEFINITION
GEOMETRY
_WIND+XGROUP 13 16 20 25 31 34 37 41 46 52 88 92 96 100 115 118 122 127 133 -
153 157 166 169 173 178 184 204 208
_WIND-XGROUP 57 58 60 65 69 73 74 76 81 85 104 107 110 113 138 139 141 146 -
150 161 164 189 190 192 197 201 212 215
END GROUP DEFINITION
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 2.05e+008
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 76.8195
ALPHA 1.2e-005
DAMP 0.03
TYPE STEEL
STRENGTH FY 253200 FU 407800 RY 1.5 RT 1.2
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY TATASTRUCTURA
13 TO 216 TABLE ST 260X180X8.0RHS
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 13 TO 216
SUPPORTS
Page 35 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

1 TO 9 28 30 32 34 36 38 46 48 50 55 57 PINNED
DEFINE WIND LOAD
TYPE 1 WIND 1
INT 1 1.5 HEIG 10 16
EXP 1 JOINT 1 TO 100
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Wind TITLE +X WINDWARSIDE
WIND LOAD X 0.8 TYPE 1 MEMB _WIND+XGROUP
WIND LOAD -X 0.5 TYPE 1 MEMB _WIND-XGROUP
FINISH

Seismic Load Generation.


Seismic load Types generated for Statically-equivalent Static Seismic Load Method , Dynamically Response
Spectrum Method and Time History Method.
We will first discuss Static Earthquake with Accidental Torsion for regular Building and
Torsion for a L shaped building.
Consider a Table Top Structure. Define Roof Beams and Roof Floor group.First we need to define reference
mass. Follow the Sequence as Marked.
Page 36 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

After step 4, click close. Select reference load case 1 . Click ADD.
Page 37 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Now Define IS 1893 Load.

Add a Load case


Add Accidental Torsion as below
Page 38 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

STADD file with Flexible Diaphragm would like below. Note that to remove IBC/UBC warning Regarding
Seismic load , perform analysis, followed by change needs to be added after every primary seismic load
case.
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 14-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 10 0 0; 3 0 5 0; 4 10 5 0; 5 0 0 10; 6 10 0 10; 7 0 5 10; 8 10 5 10;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 3 4; 2 1 3; 3 2 4; 4 7 8; 5 5 7; 6 6 8; 7 3 7; 8 4 8;
Page 39 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

START GROUP DEFINITION


FLOOR
_ROOF 1 4 7 8
END GROUP DEFINITION
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
1 4 7 8 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.5
2 3 5 6 PRIS YD 0.8 ZD 0.3
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 2 5 6 FIXED
***************************************
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
SELFWEIGHT X 1
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
SELFWEIGHT Z 1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GX
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GY
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GZ
LOAD R2 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 2
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GX
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GY
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GZ
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
****************************************
**FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
**DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 5
*********************************************
DEFINE 1893 ACCIDENTAL LOAD
ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.05 PX 0.5 PZ 0.5
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0 R2 0.25
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX+VE TOR +VE
1893 LOAD X 1 ACC 0.05

LOAD 2 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX+VE TOR -VE


1893 LOAD X 1 ACC -0.05

LOAD 3 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX-VE TOR +VE


1893 LOAD X -1 ACC 0.05
LOAD 4 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX-VE TOR -VE
1893 LOAD X -1 ACC -0.05
LOAD 5 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE TOR +VE
1893 LOAD Z 1 ACC 0.05
LOAD 6 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE TOR -VE
1893 LOAD Z 1 ACC -0.05

LOAD 7 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE TOR +VE


1893 LOAD Z 1 ACC 0.05

LOAD 8 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE TOR +VE


1893 LOAD Z 1 ACC -0.05

******************************************************
LOAD 9 LOADTYPE Dead TITLE DEADLOAD
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD -7 GY
*********************************************
LOAD 10 LOADTYPE Live TITLE ROOF SERVICELOAD
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GZ
*********************************
LOAD COMB 11 DL+LL
9 1.5 10 1.5
Page 40 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

*************************************
LOAD COMB 21 DL+EX+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 22 DL+EX+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 23 DL+EX-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 24 DL+EX-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 25 DL+EZ+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 26 DL+EZ+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 27 DL+EZ-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 28 DL+EZ-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 8 1.2
*************************************************
LOAD COMB 31 DL+EX+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 32 DL+EX+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 33 DL+EX-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 34 DL+EX-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 35 DL+EZ+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 36 DL+EZ+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 37 DL+EZ-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 38 DL+EZ-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 8 1.2
*****************************************
LOAD COMB 41 DL+LL+EX+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 42 DL+LL+EX+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 43 DL+LL+EX-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 10 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 44 DL+LL+EX-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 45 DL+LL+EZ+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 46 DL+LL+EZ+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 47 DL+LL+EZ-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 48 DL+LL+EZ-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 8 1.2
***********************************
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH

The STAAD input file with RIGID Floor Diaphragm should like below. Note that accidental is omitted
Seismic load definition and DEC is added in Primary Load cases.
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 14-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 10 0 0; 3 0 5 0; 4 10 5 0; 5 0 0 10; 6 10 0 10; 7 0 5 10; 8 10 5 10;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 3 4; 2 1 3; 3 2 4; 4 7 8; 5 5 7; 6 6 8; 7 3 7; 8 4 8;
START GROUP DEFINITION
FLOOR
_ROOF 1 4 7 8
END GROUP DEFINITION
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
Page 41 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
1 4 7 8 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.5
2 3 5 6 PRIS YD 0.8 ZD 0.3
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 2 5 6 FIXED
***************************************
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
SELFWEIGHT X 1
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
SELFWEIGHT Z 1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GX
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GY
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GZ
LOAD R2 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 2
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GX
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GY
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GZ
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
****************************************
FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 5
*********************************************
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.05 PX 0.5 PZ 0.5
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0 R2 0.25
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX+VE TOR +VE
1893 LOAD X 1 DEC 1 ACC 0.05
LOAD 2 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX+VE TOR -VE
1893 LOAD X 1 DEC 1 ACC -0.05
LOAD 3 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX-VE TOR +VE
1893 LOAD X -1 DEC 1 ACC 0.05
LOAD 4 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX-VE TOR -VE
1893 LOAD X -1 DEC 1 ACC -0.05
LOAD 5 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE TOR +VE
1893 LOAD Z 1 DEC 1 ACC 0.05
LOAD 6 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE TOR -VE
1893 LOAD Z 1 DEC 1 ACC -0.05
LOAD 7 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE TOR +VE
1893 LOAD Z -1 DEC 1 ACC 0.05
LOAD 8 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE TOR +VE
1893 LOAD Z -1 DEC 1 ACC -0.05
******************************************************
LOAD 9 LOADTYPE Dead TITLE DEADLOAD
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD -7 GY
*********************************************
LOAD 10 LOADTYPE Live TITLE ROOF SERVICELOAD
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GZ
Page 42 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

*********************************
LOAD COMB 11 DL+LL
9 1.5 10 1.5
*************************************
LOAD COMB 21 DL+EX+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 22 DL+EX+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 23 DL+EX-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 24 DL+EX-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 25 DL+EZ+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 26 DL+EZ+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 27 DL+EZ-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 28 DL+EZ-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 8 1.2
*************************************************
LOAD COMB 31 DL+EX+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 32 DL+EX+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 33 DL+EX-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 34 DL+EX-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 35 DL+EZ+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 36 DL+EZ+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 37 DL+EZ-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 38 DL+EZ-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 8 1.2
*****************************************
LOAD COMB 41 DL+LL+EX+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 42 DL+LL+EX+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 43 DL+LL+EX-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 10 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 44 DL+LL+EX-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 45 DL+LL+EZ+VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 46 DL+LL+EZ+VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 47 DL+LL+EZ-VE TOR+VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 48 DL+LL+EZ-VE TOR-VE
9 1.2 10 0.6 8 1.2
***********************************
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH

How to include Global Torsion in Addition to Accidental


Torsion in Static Earthquake .

Consider the Table Frame Shown Below


Page 43 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

To Find the Center of Mass and Center of Rigidity We can Take help from from Code Snippet of STAAD
Input file.
STAAD SPACE
------------------
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
SELFWEIGHT X 1
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
SELFWEIGHT Z 1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GX
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GY
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GZ
LOAD R2 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 2
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GX
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GY
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GZ
_HEAVYLOADFLOOR FLOAD -20 GY
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
Page 44 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

****************************************
FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 5
*********************************************
*********************************************
LOAD 100 LOADTYPE Live TITLE ROOF SEISMIC WEIGHT
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD -7 GY
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD -2.5 GY
_HEAVYLOADFLOOR FLOAD -10 GY
*****************************************************
PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT STATICS CHECK
PRINT DIA CR
FINISH
The Design torsion could be Arrived as follow from STAAD output
CENTER OF FORCE BASED ON Y FORCES ONLY (METE).
(FORCES IN NON-GLOBAL DIRECTIONS WILL INVALIDATE RESULTS)

X = 0.537716614E+01
Y = 0.482226747E+01
Z = 0.462283406E+01

CENTRE OF RIGIDITY UNIT - METE


------------------ -----------

DIAPHRAM FL. LEVEL X-COORDINATE Z-COORDINATE

1 5.000 5.000
5.000

10 m

X
4.82 m
Z 5 m
Center of Mass
0.537 m

5 m
Center of
Rigidity
10 m
Page 45 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Ecentricity for Load Along X=ex= 5-4.82= 0.18 m


Ecentricity for Load Along Z=ez= 5.38-5= 0.38 m

VALUE VALUE
If We take as Per IS 1893 OF DEC OF ACC

0.2
Clockwise Design Eccentricity Along +X= 1.5ex= 7 m 0.027 -0.05
0.1
Anticlockwise Design Eccentricity Along +X= ex= 8 m 0.018 0.05
0.1
Clockwise Design Eccentricity Along -X= ex= 8 m 0.018 -0.05
0.2
Anticlockwise Design Eccentricity Along -X= 1.5ex= 7 m 0.027 0.05

1.0
Clockwise Design Eccentricity Along +Z= 1.5ex= 7 m 0.107 -0.05
0.1
Anticlockwise Design Eccentricity Along +Z= ex= 2 m 0.012 0.05
0.1
Clockwise Design Eccentricity Along -X= ex= 2 m 0.012 -0.05
1.0
Anticlockwise Design Eccentricity Along -X= 1.5ex= 7 m 0.107 0.05

The STAAD input file would be


STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 14-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 10 0 0; 3 0 5 0; 4 10 5 0; 5 0 0 10; 6 10 0 10; 7 0 5 10; 8 10 5 10;
9 5 5 0; 10 5 5 10; 11 0 5 5; 12 10 5 5; 13 5 5 5;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
1 3 9; 2 1 3; 3 2 4; 4 7 10; 5 5 7; 6 6 8; 7 3 11; 8 4 12; 9 9 4; 10 10 8;
11 11 7; 12 12 8; 13 11 13; 14 9 13; 15 13 12; 16 13 10;
START GROUP DEFINITION
FLOOR
_ROOF 1 4 7 TO 16
_HEAVYLOADFLOOR 8 9 14 15
END GROUP DEFINITION
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
Page 46 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
2 3 5 6 PRIS YD 0.5 ZD 0.5
1 4 7 TO 16 PRIS YD 0.8 ZD 0.3
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
1 2 5 6 FIXED
***************************************
MEMBER RELEASE
13 14 START MY MZ
15 16 END MY MZ
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
SELFWEIGHT X 1
SELFWEIGHT Y 1
SELFWEIGHT Z 1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GX
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GY
_ROOF FLOAD 7 GZ
LOAD R2 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 2
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GX
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GY
_ROOF FLOAD 5 GZ
_HEAVYLOADFLOOR FLOAD 20 GX
_HEAVYLOADFLOOR FLOAD 20 GY
_HEAVYLOADFLOOR FLOAD 20 GZ
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
****************************************
FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 5
*********************************************
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.05 PX 0.5 PZ 0.5
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0 R2 0.25
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX+VE ACC CLOCK
1893 LOAD X 1 DEC 1.5 ACC -0.05
LOAD 2 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX+VE ACC ANTICLOCK
1893 LOAD X 1 DEC 1.0 ACC 0.05
LOAD 3 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX-VE ACC CLOCK
1893 LOAD X -1 DEC 1.0 ACC -0.05
LOAD 4 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX-VE ACC ANTICLOCK
1893 LOAD X -1 DEC 1.5 ACC 0.05
LOAD 5 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE ACC CLOCK
1893 LOAD Z 1 DEC 1.5 ACC -0.05
LOAD 6 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE ACC ANTICLOCK
1893 LOAD Z 1 DEC 1.0 ACC 0.05
LOAD 7 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE ACC CLOCK
1893 LOAD Z -1 DEC 1.0 ACC -0.05
LOAD 8 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE ACC ANTICLOCK
1893 LOAD Z -1 DEC 1.5 ACC 0.05
******************************************************
LOAD 9 LOADTYPE Dead TITLE DEADLOAD
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD -7 GY
*********************************************
LOAD 10 LOADTYPE Live TITLE ROOF SERVICELOAD
Page 47 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD -5 GY
_HEAVYLOADFLOOR FLOAD -20 GY
*********************************
*********************************************
LOAD 100 LOADTYPE Live TITLE ROOF SEISMIC WEIGHT
SELFWEIGHT Y -1
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD -7 GY
FLOOR LOAD
_ROOF FLOAD -2.5 GY
*****************************************************
_HEAVYLOADFLOOR FLOAD -10 GY
LOAD COMB 11 DL+LL
9 1.5 10 1.5
*************************************
LOAD COMB 21 DL+EX+VE ACC_CLOCK
9 1.2 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 22 DL+EX+VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 23 DL+EX-VE ACC _CLOCK
9 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 24 DL+EX-VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 25 DL+EZ+VE ACC _ CLOCK
9 1.2 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 26 DL+EZ+VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 27 DL+EZ-VE ACC _CLOCK
9 1.2 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 28 DL+EZ-VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 8 1.2
*************************************************
LOAD COMB 31 DL+EX+VE ACC _ CLOCK
9 1.2 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 32 DL+EX+VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 33 DL+EX-VE ACC _ CLOCK
9 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 34 DL+EX-VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 35 DL+EZ+VE ACC _ CLOCK
9 1.2 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 36 DL+EZ+VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 37 DL+EZ-VE ACC _ CLOCK
9 1.2 7 1.2
LOAD COMB 38 DL+EZ-VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 8 1.2
*****************************************
LOAD COMB 41 DL+LL+EX+VE ACC_CLOCK
9 1.2 10 0.6 1 1.2
LOAD COMB 42 DL+LL+EX+VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 10 0.6 2 1.2
LOAD COMB 43 DL+LL+EX-VE ACC_CLOCK
9 1.2 10 1.2 3 1.2
LOAD COMB 44 DL+LL+EX-VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 10 0.6 4 1.2
LOAD COMB 45 DL+LL+EZ+VE ACC_ CLOCK
9 1.2 10 0.6 5 1.2
LOAD COMB 46 DL+LL+EZ+VE ACC _ACLOCK
9 1.2 10 0.6 6 1.2
LOAD COMB 47 DL+LL+EZ-VE ACC_ CLOCK
9 1.2 10 0.6 7 1.2
Page 48 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

LOAD COMB 48 DL+LL+EZ-VE TOR_ACLOCK


9 1.2 10 0.6 8 1.2
***********************************
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH

The yielded value from above does not match with Mannual calculation.
Now let us Consider the Example 13 of Explanatory Examples on Indian Seismic Code IS 1893 (Part I)
byDr. Sudhir K Jain, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur
Kanpur
Page 49 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

The Similar STAAD Input file for the same would be as Given Below. Note that in STAAD DEC is Taken as
1.5 computed Eccentricity OR 1.0 x Computed Eccentricity depending on if the Accidental Eccentricity shall
add up or reduce resultant Torsion of the Structure. There are slight Difference in results as the Shear wall
has been modelled in the Frame with Column Properties
Page 50 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 16-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
5 0 0 4; 8 4 0 8; 10 12 0 4; 11 4 0 0; 12 0 4.5 4; 13 4 4.5 8; 14 12 4.5 4;
15 4 4.5 0; 16 0 4.5 0; 17 0 4.5 8; 18 16 4.5 8; 19 16 4.5 0; 20 12 4.5 0;
21 12 4.5 8; 22 4 4.5 4; 23 16 4.5 4;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
14 5 12; 15 8 13; 16 10 14; 17 11 15; 18 16 12; 19 17 13; 20 18 23; 21 19 20;
22 12 17; 23 21 18; 24 20 14; 25 13 21; 26 15 20; 27 14 21; 28 15 16; 29 13 22;
30 22 15; 31 12 22; 32 22 14; 33 23 19; 34 14 23;
START GROUP DEFINITION
FLOOR
_FLOOR 18 TO 34
END GROUP DEFINITION
*************************
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC M25
E 2.5e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
****************************
ISOTROPIC RIGID
E 2.5e+010
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
14 TO 17 PRIS YD 4 ZD 0.2
18 TO 34 PRIS YD 0.9 ZD 0.2
CONSTANTS
BETA 90 MEMB 14 16
MATERIAL M25 ALL
SUPPORTS
5 8 10 11 FIXED
*******************************
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass_TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
FLOOR LOAD
_FLOOR FLOAD 13.0208 GX
_FLOOR FLOAD 13.0208 GY
_FLOOR FLOAD 13.0208 GZ
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
*************************************
FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 4.5
********************************
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.05 PX 0.15 PZ 0.15
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX+VE ACCTOR CLOCK
1893 LOAD X 1 DEC 0 ACC -0.05
Page 51 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

LOAD 2 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX+VE ACCTOR ANTICLOCK


1893 LOAD X 1 DEC 0 ACC 0.05
LOAD 3 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX-VE ACCTOR CLOCK
1893 LOAD X -1 DEC 0 ACC -0.05
LOAD 4 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX-VE ACCTOR ANTICLOCK
1893 LOAD X -1 DEC 0 ACC 0.05
LOAD 5 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE ACCTOR CLOCK
1893 LOAD Z 1 DEC 1.5 ACC -0.05
LOAD 6 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE ACCTOR ANTICLOCK
1893 LOAD Z 1 DEC 1 ACC 0.05
LOAD 7 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE ACCTOR CLOCK
1893 LOAD Z -1 DEC 1.5 ACC -0.05
LOAD 8 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE ACCTOR ANTICLOCK
1893 LOAD Z -1 DEC 1 ACC 0.05
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH
EVEN
Comparing the Results will show variation from the Manual Calculation form above. Instead It is
suggested that DEC be Kept Zero, as the Software includes Natural Torsion in Analysis. The Amplification
factor can be for the Natural torsion be added to ACC as below
Natural Eccentricity Computed=2 meter. Amplified Torsion will be 1.5x2=3m
Software includes Natural Eccentricity. Therefore,
Remaining Eccentricity=1m
Accidental Eccentricity=0.8 m
Therefore Take ACC=(1+0.8)/16=0.1125 for Adding Amplification to Natural torsion.

LOAD 5 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE


1893 LOAD Z 1 DEC 0 ACC -0.1125
LOAD 6 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ+VE
1893 LOAD Z 1 DEC 0 ACC 0.05
LOAD 7 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE
1893 LOAD Z -1 DEC 0 ACC -0.05
LOAD 8 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQZ-VE
1893 LOAD Z -1 DEC 0 ACC 0.1125

P-Delta Analysis
In STAAD P-delta analysis is possible only for Primary Load cases. P-Delta Analysis is not possible with
Response Spectrum, as in Resultant forces looses sign in this method.
So P-Delta Analysis is possible with Static Earth quake where Primary load cases are defined using Repeat
Load Method.

The GUI for P Delta Analysis looks as below


Page 52 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

We Can either chose number of iteration OR Convergence. The Default Tolerance for convergence is the
Member Span/120 . However it is recommended to use Iteration of high numbers say up to 30 to 35. The
Default value is not provided, which calls for engineer to used his judgement, as high number of
convergence may detect buckling load.
A Example Input of 2 D frame is given below
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
3 0 0 0; 7 5 0 0; 9 0 3.5 0; 10 5 3.5 0; 12 0 7 0; 13 5 7 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
2 3 9; 5 7 10; 9 9 12; 10 10 13; 12 9 10; 17 12 13;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
ISOTROPIC M20
E 2.236e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
Page 53 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

ISOTROPIC M20RIGID
E 2.236e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
2 5 9 10 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.25
12 17 PRIS YD 0.4 ZD 0.25
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL M20 MEMB 2 5 9 10
MATERIAL M20RIGID MEMB 12 17
SUPPORTS
3 7 FIXED
CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 16
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
***************************************
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
MEMBER LOAD
12 17 UNI GY 63.243
**********************************
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS

DEFINE 1893 LOAD


ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.05 PX 0.5423
*ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 1 DM 5 PX 0.5423
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX
1893 LOAD X 1
PERFORM ANALYSIS
CHANGE
*********************************
LOAD 2
MEMBER LOAD
12 17 UNI GY -63.243
LOAD 3
REPEAT LOAD
1 1.0 2 1.0
PDELTA ANALYSIS CONVERGE 120 SMALLDELTA

***PDELTA 35 ANALYSIS SMALLDELTA


FINISH

Note that for P Delta Analysis/Perform Analysis to Work in Combining Lateral Load with Gravity load by
Repeat Load Method, Rigid Diaphragm Floor Definition by Height etc does not result moments in the
Column Members. The Issue can be resolved by Defining Master Slave. Say For the Space Frame Below, To
Obtained Moment Mz for the column, the Input file could be
Page 54 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
3 0 0 0; 7 5 0 0; 9 0 3.5 0; 10 5 3.5 0; 12 0 7 0; 13 5 7 0; 14 0 0 5;
15 0 3.5 5; 16 5 0 5; 17 5 3.5 5; 18 0 7 5; 19 5 7 5; 20 2.5 3.5 2.5;
21 2.5 7 2.5;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
2 3 9; 5 7 10; 9 9 12; 10 10 13; 12 9 10; 17 12 13; 18 14 15; 19 16 17;
20 15 18; 21 17 19; 22 15 17; 23 18 19; 24 12 18; 25 13 19; 26 9 15; 27 10 17;
28 9 20; 29 10 20; 30 12 21; 31 13 21; 32 20 17; 33 20 15; 34 21 19; 35 21 18;
START GROUP DEFINITION
FLOOR
_FF 12 22 26 27
_RF 17 23 TO 25
END GROUP DEFINITION
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
Page 55 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
ISOTROPIC M20
E 2.236e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
ISOTROPIC M20RIGID
E 2.236e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
2 5 9 10 18 TO 21 PRIS YD 0.2 ZD 0.2
12 17 22 TO 35 PRIS YD 0.35 ZD 0.2
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE ALL
SUPPORTS
3 7 14 16 FIXED
***************************************
MEMBER RELEASE
28 TO 31 START MY MZ
32 TO 35 END MY MZ
SLAVE ZX MASTER 20 JOINT 9 10 15 17 20
SLAVE ZX MASTER 21 JOINT 12 13 18 19
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
MEMBER LOAD
12 17 22 TO 27 UNI GX 63.243
12 17 22 TO 27 UNI GY 63.243
12 17 22 TO 27 UNI GZ 63.243
FLOOR LOAD
_FF FLOAD 5 GX
_FF FLOAD 5 GY
_FF FLOAD 5 GZ
_RF FLOAD 2.5 GX
_RF FLOAD 2.5 GY
_RF FLOAD 2.5 GZ
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
****************FLOOR DIAPHARGM DEF BE AVOIDED FOR REPEAT LOAD METHOD*****
****FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
****DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 3.5
****DIA 2 TYPE RIG HEI 7.0
**********************************
*************************************
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.05 PX 0.5423
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX
1893 LOAD X 1
PERFORM ANALYSIS PRINT LOAD DATA
Page 56 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

CHANGE
*********************************
LOAD 2
MEMBER LOAD
12 17 22 23 UNI GY -63.243
FLOOR LOAD
_FF FLOAD -5 GY
_RF FLOAD -2.5 GY
LOAD 3
REPEAT LOAD
1 1.0 2 1.0
PDELTA ANALYSIS CONVERGE 120 SMALLDELTA
***PDELTA 35 ANALYSIS SMALLDELTA
***PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BUILDING FRAME


Response Spectrum Method
Response Spectrum is a plot of Time Period Vs Acceleration (or Response e.g. Velocity or Displacement).
Dynamic Response Spectrum Method is discussed here. For These we Need to understand the Eigen Value
Solution for Single Degree Freedom System, as in Response Spectrum method a Building is assumed to
oscillate in the form of SDOF system. We shall consider Dynamic Analysis by RS method for a simple Frame.
Let us Discuss the Frame Below an 36.375 KN/m

63.422KN/m

The Floor to Floor height are 3.5 Meter. The Beams are of 250mmx400mm.Columns are of 250x350 mm.
Concrete M20.Bay Spacing is 5 meter. Seismic Weight of the Building is 2260 KN. The Mass matrix would
look like
M1 0 0 0 634.22 0 0 0
M= 0 M2 0 0 = 0 634.22 0 0
0 0 M3 0 0 0 634.22 0
0 0 0 M4 0 0 0 363.75
Page 57 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

K=12EI/L3=11880.78 KN/m

K1+K2 -K2 0 0 71284.72 -3564.36 0 0


K= 0 K2+K3 -K3 0 = 0 71284.72 -3564.36 0
0 -K3 K3+K4 -K4 0 -3564.36 71284.72 -3564.36
0 0 -K4 K4 0 0 0 3564.36

|K-w2 M| =0 will give us four Circular natural Frequencies and Time Period to 4 Different mode of
oscillation of the structure.
Will get Time Period T1=0.70 secs T2= 0.25Secs T3=0.16 Secs and T4=0.14 secs
We have W1=W2=W3=632.22KN, W4=363.75KN
Determination of Modal Mass of the 4 Modes of Vibration will lead
M1=2036 KN, M2=182 KN M3=37 KN M4= 4.6 KN corresponding to Mode1, Mode2. Mode3 and
Mode 4 respectively.
Since M=634.22+634.22+643.22+363.75=2260 KN.
The Modal Contribution of each Mode shall be
For Mode1 2036/2260 90.09 %
For Mode2 182/2260 8.05 %
For Mode3 37/2260 1.64 %
For Mode4 4.5/2260 0.20 %

A CQC combination as per IS 1893-2002 for Seismic Zone 4, Rock Type Soil, with Flexural Stiffness
of the columns will result a Base Shear of 80.70 KN
The STAAD Input file for the same would like below
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
3 0 0 0; 4 0 10.5 0; 5 5 10.5 0; 6 10 10.5 0; 7 5 0 0; 8 10 0 0; 9 0 3.5 0;
10 5 3.5 0; 11 10 3.5 0; 12 0 7 0; 13 5 7 0; 14 10 7 0; 15 0 14 0; 16 5 14 0;
17 10 14 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
2 3 9; 3 4 5; 4 5 6; 5 7 10; 6 8 11; 9 9 12; 10 10 13; 11 11 14; 12 9 10;
13 10 11; 14 12 4; 15 13 5; 16 14 6; 17 12 13; 18 13 14; 19 15 16; 20 16 17;
21 4 15; 22 5 16; 23 6 17;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
ISOTROPIC M20
E 2.236e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
Page 58 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
ISOTROPIC M20RIGID
E 2.236e+09
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
2 5 6 9 TO 11 14 TO 16 21 TO 23 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.25
3 4 12 13 17 TO 20 PRIS YD 0.4 ZD 0.25
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL M20 MEMB 2 5 6 9 TO 11 14 TO 16 21 TO 23
MATERIAL M20RIGID MEMB 3 4 12 13 17 TO 20
SUPPORTS
3 7 8 FIXED
CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 16
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
MEMBER LOAD
19 20 UNI GX 36.382
19 20 UNI GY 36.382
19 20 UNI GZ 36.382
3 4 12 13 17 18 UNI GX 63.243
3 4 12 13 17 18 UNI GY 63.243
3 4 12 13 17 18 UNI GZ 63.243
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
***EQUIVALENT STATIC EQX***
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.05 PX 0.5423
*ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 1 DM 5 PX 0.5423
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX
1893 LOAD X 1
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT STORY DRIFT
CHANGE
***DYNAMIC ANALYSIS***

LOAD 2
REFERENCE LOAD
R1 1.0
SPECTRUM CQC 1893 X 0.024 ACC SCALE 1 DAMP 0.05 MIS 0
SOIL TYPE 1
PERFORM ANALYSIS
CHANGE
FINISH\

The output of RS for CQC combination

MASS PARTICIPATION FACTORS IN PERCENT BASE SHEAR IN KN


-------------------------------------- ------------------

MANUAL
STAAD OUT PUT COMOPUTATION
MODE X(%) Y Z SUMM-X SUMM- SUMM- X Y Z X(%)
Page 59 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Y Z

1 0 0 68.48 0 0 68.483 0 0 0
2 0 0 21.68 0 0 90.168 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 90.168 0 0 0
4 89.25 0 0 89.26 0 90.17 65.8 0 0 90.09%
5 0 0 7.27 89.255 0 97.434 0 0 0
6 0 0 0 89.255 0 97.434 0 0 0
7 0 0 2.56 89.255 0 99.994 0 0 0
8 8.73 0 0 97.99 0 99.99 11.85 0 0 8.05%
9 0 0 0 97.989 0 99.994 0 0 0
10 0 0 0 97.989 0 99.994 0 0 0
11 1.77 0 0 99.76 0 99.99 2.4 0 0 1.64%
12 0.24 0 0 100 0 99.99 0.33 0 0 0.2%
13 0 0 0 99.998 0 99.994 0 0 0
14 0 0 0 99.998 0 99.996 0 0 0
15 0 0 0 99.998 0 100 0 0 0
16 0 88.58 0 99.998 88.582 100 0 0 0
ZPA 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0
---------------------------
TOTAL SRSS SHEAR 66.90 0.00 0.00
TOTAL 10PCT SHEAR 66.90 0.00 0.00
TOTAL ABS SHEAR 80.37 0.00 0.00
TOTAL CSM SHEAR 66.90 0.00 0.00
TOTAL CQC SHEAR 66.93 0.00 0.00 ---------------------------
Note that STAAD yields only 66.93 KN of base shear as against computed 80.7 KN. This is because in the
above example the Shear Deformation of the members has not been considered where as STAAD takes both
Flexural and Shear deformation for Stiffness Matrix formulation. Also is the example, the assumption is
beams are infinity rigid in STAAD although beam rigidity has been increased but increasing it to much
higher value results in computational error explained later.
Note the Participation factor in Various mode Vs Computed manually.
Also the Comparison of Time Period of STAAD and the Manual Computation as below
STAAD MANNUAL COMPUATION
MODE PERIOD Mode Period

1 8.078
2 1.361
3 1.122
4 0.736 1 0.7
5 0.509
6 0.389
7 0.292
8 0.258 2 0.25
9 0.255
10 0.212
11 0.169 3 0.16
12 0.142 4 0.14
Page 60 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

13 0.105
14 0.101
15 0.097
16 0.092

We Need to supply both Cut off Frequency. The Cut off Frequency of the above Example has been give as
16 as the STAAD is a analysis RS in Three Dimension and for each storey in Plane Frame will lead 1
Mode and Three dimensional Analysis for Mode in XZ diaphragm will have Lateral Displacement in X
Direction, Lateral Displacement in Y Direction, and A Tensional Displacement. So minimum cut off mode
Suggested is 4 Storey X 3 Direction= 12 .
STAAD by Default Provides only 6 Modes when cut off Mode Shape is not defined. If for the Above
example if cut-off mode shape is omitted, the output will be
SUMM- SUMM- SUMM-
MODE X Y Z X Y Z X Y Z

1 0 0 68.48 0 0 68.483 0 0 0
2 0 0 21.68 0 0 90.168 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 0 90.168 0 0 0
4 89.25 0 0 89.255 0 90.168 65.8 0 0
5 0 0 7.27 89.255 0 97.434 0 0 0
6 0 0 0 89.255 0 97.434 0 0 0
ZPA 10.75 0 0 100 0 0 8.48 0 0
---------------------------
TOTAL SRSS SHEAR 66.34 0 0
TOTAL 10PCT SHEAR 66.34 0 0
TOTAL ABS SHEAR 74.28 0 0
TOTAL CSM SHEAR 66.34 0 0
TOTAL CQC SHEAR 66.34 0 0

Note that Missing mass correction has been applied( in Bold above). The Missing masses are from Modes
below
STAAD OUT PUT
MODE X Y Z SUMM-X SUMM-Y SUMM-Z X Y Z
8 8.73 0 0 97.99 0 99.99 11.85 0 0
11 1.77 0 0 99.76 0 99.99 2.4 0 0
12 0.24 0 0 100 0 99.99 0.33 0 0
SUM 10.74

Even if Cut off Mode Shape is provided, STAAD will calculates Modes up to 108 Hz . One can state cut off
frequency similar to cut of mode, if mode beyond 108 cps in needed as below for say up to 500 Hz.

CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 15


CUT OFF FREQUENCY 500
Page 61 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

STAAD will by default Calculate Missing mass correction for up to 33 Hz for IS 1893 -2002 if Missing
mass Correction is requested without specifying the ZPA.

Note that STAAD Pro uses Response Spectra for IS 1893-2002 which is inbuilt in STAAD Pro. Different
code provides data for Response Spectrum in Different manner. In the Time Period Vs Acceleration data,
the Acceleration Ordinate is sometime scaled dividing by g(9.81 m/s 2Or 32.22 ft/s2). These are called
Normalized data. The Spectral data for IS 1893 , if generated by STAAD Program, is already multiplied by
9.81 m/. Hence ACC scale is not to be multiplied by 9.81 m/s2.It value supplied should be 1.0.

The Value followed by a Specified Direction e.g. in . SPECTRUM CQC 1893 X 0.024 ACC SCALE 1
DAMP 0.05 MIS 0 X=0.024 is the amount of actual force out of total earthquake force to be applied
for analysis i.e. for this Example Z/2.I/R=0.24/2*1/5=0.024. After obtaining Modal Time Period, the
Spectral ordinate for respective corresponding to each Time period is taken from the Spectral plot to arrive
at a base shear applying different method such as square root ,CQC etc.

Applying Torsion in Dynamic Analysis


Consider the following Figure. The code does not require natural torsion to be multiplied by Amplification
Factor when Dynamic Analysis is carried out.

X
5 m 5 m

1.73
CM
5 m 50 KN/sqm
10 KN/sqm
1.73

CR

5 m 10 KN/sqm

10 KN/sqm
Page 62 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Area Distance from Top Left Load


X Z P XP ZP
1 2.5 2.5 250 625 625
2 2.5 7.5 250 625 1875
3 7.5 7.5 250 1875 1875
4 7.5 2.5 1250 9375 3125
SUM= 2000 12500 7500
Centre of Mass
Xm= 6.25 m esix= 1.25 m
Zm= 3.75 m esiz= 1.25 m
eaccx= 0.5 m
Center of Rigidity eaccz= 0.5 m
XR = 5.00 m
ZR= 5.00 m
Ah= Z/2.I/R.SA/G= 0.06
BASE SHEAR= 120 KN
TORSION MOMENT= 150 KNm CLOCK WISE WHEN SEIMIC IN +VE X DIRECTION
ACCIDENTAL TORSION= 60 KNm CLOKWISE
ACCIDENTAL TORSION= 60 KNm ANTICLOKWISE

REACTION DUE TO NATURAL


Load REACTION DUE TO NATURAL STIFFNESS TORSION
SLNO Type of Torsion Diretion RAX RBX RCX RDX Mult Factor RAX RBX RCX RDX
1 edix+,dyn,acc_Clock= X+VE -30 -30 -30 -30 1 -3.75 3.75 3.75 -3.75

2 edix+,dyn,acc_AClock= X+VE -30 -30 -30 -30 1 -3.75 3.75 3.75 -3.75

3 edix+,dyn,acc_Clock= X-VE 30 30 30 30 1 3.75 -3.75 -3.75 3.75

4 edix+,dyn,acc_AClock= X-VE 30 30 30 30 1 3.75 -3.75 -3.75 3.75


REACTION DUE TO ACCIDENTAL TORSION FINAL VALUE OF REACTION
RAX RBX RCX RDX RAX RBX RCX RDX
-
1 edix+,dyn,acc_Clock= X+VE -1.5 1.5 1.5 -1.5 -35.25 -24.75 -24.75 35.25
-
2 edix+,dyn,acc_AClock= X+VE 1.5 -1.5 -1.5 1.5 -32.25 -27.75 -27.75 32.25

3 edix+,dyn,acc_Clock= X-VE -1.5 1.5 1.5 -1.5 32.25 27.75 27.75 32.25

4 edix+,dyn,acc_AClock= X-VE 1.5 -1.5 -1.5 1.5 35.25 24.75 24.75 35.25

MAXIMUM VALUE OF REACTION


Dir RAX RBX RCX RDX
X+VE -35.25 -27.75 -27.75 -32.25
X-VE 35.25 27.75 27.75 32.25
Page 63 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

The STAAD Input file for the same could be made as follow. Note in the Load combinations, Gravity loads
are not added as this input file is for explanation of application of Load in different directions, as RS
method , CQC loses its sign, hence we need Load combination to apply signs.
STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 22-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
1 0 0 0; 2 10 0 0; 3 10 0 10; 4 0 0 10; 5 0 5 0; 6 10 5 0; 7 10 5 10; 8 0 5 10;
9 5 5 0; 10 10 5 5; 11 5 5 10; 12 0 5 5; 13 5 5 5;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
5 1 5; 6 2 6; 7 3 7; 8 4 8; 9 5 9; 10 6 10; 11 7 11; 12 8 12; 13 9 6; 14 10 7;
15 11 8; 16 12 5; 17 12 13; 18 9 13; 19 13 10; 20 13 11;
START GROUP DEFINITION
FLOOR
_LIGHT_LOAD 9 11 12 14 TO 20
_HEAVY_LOAD 10 13 18 19
END GROUP DEFINITION
SUPPORTS
1 TO 4 FIXED
MEMBER RELEASE
17 18 START MY MZ
19 20 END MY MZ
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
ISOTROPIC RIGIDCON
E 2.17185e+009
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
9 TO 20 PRIS YD 0.85 ZD 0.4
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
5 TO 8 PRIS YD 0.8 ZD 0.8
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL CONCRETE MEMB 5 TO 8
MATERIAL RIGIDCON MEMB 9 TO 20
*********************************************
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
FLOOR LOAD
_LIGHT_LOAD FLOAD 10 GX
_LIGHT_LOAD FLOAD 10 GY
_LIGHT_LOAD FLOAD 10 GZ
_HEAVY_LOAD FLOAD 50 GX
_HEAVY_LOAD FLOAD 50 GY
_HEAVY_LOAD FLOAD 50 GZ
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
*************************************************
FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 5
*************************************************
Page 64 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

DEFINE 1893 LOAD


ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.05 PX 0.25 PZ 0.25
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0
*********************************************************
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE RSX +ve WITH ACC+VE
REFERENCE LOAD
R1 1.0
SPECTRUM CQC 1893 TOR ECC 0.05 X 0.024 ACC DAMP 0.05
SOIL TYPE 1
LOAD 2 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE RSX +ve WITH ACC _VE
SPECTRUM CQC 1893 TOR OPP ECC 0.05 X 0.024 ACC DAMP 0.05
SOIL TYPE 1

********************************************
LOAD COMB 5 LOAD X+VE ACC CLOCK
1 1.0
LOAD COMB 6 LOAD X+VE ACC ANTICLOCK
2 1.0
LOAD COMB 7 LOAD X-VE ACC CLOCK
1 -1.0
LOAD COMB 8 LOAD X-VE ACC ANTICLOCK
2 -1.0
**************************************
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH

The above calculation before the STAAD input, yielded following maximum reactions.

MAXIMUM VALUE OF REACTION


Dir RAX RBX RCX RDX
X+VE -35.25 -27.75 -27.75 -32.25
X-VE 35.25 27.75 27.75 32.25
The STAAD Reaction output is as below
Support STAAD OUTPUT
Node L/C Force-X Force-Y Force-Z Moment- Moment- Moment-
kN kN kN X kNm Y kNm Z kNm
A 1 5 30.3 15.2 7 17.718 0.775 76.399
6 33.2 15.2 7.9 19.982 1.284 83.679
7 -30.3 -15.2 -7 -17.718 -0.775 -76.399
8 -33.2 -15.2 -7.9 -19.982 -1.284 -83.679
B 4 5 29.9 15.8 7 17.715 0.775 75.222
6 27 15.8 7.9 19.969 1.284 67.947
7 -29.9 -15.8 -7 -17.715 -0.775 -75.222
8 -27 -15.8 -7.9 -19.969 -1.284 -67.947
C 3 5 29.9 15.2 9.4 23.654 0.775 75.223
6 27 15.2 9.7 24.457 1.284 67.949
7 -29.9 -15.2 -9.4 -23.654 -0.775 -75.223
8 -27 -15.2 -9.7 -24.457 -1.284 -67.949
D 2 5 30.3 16 9.4 23.654 0.775 76.4
6 33.2 16 9.7 24.462 1.284 83.68
7 -30.3 -16 -9.4 -23.654 -0.775 -76.4
Page 65 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

8 -33.2 -16 -9.7 -24.462 -1.284 -83.68

The Bold values in the table justifies that we are able to capture the Maximum forces in all the Direction
using load combinations.

Composite Damping
Many Instances Building has part in Concrete ,apart in Steel. The question is that what should be Time
Period for Static Earthquake computation. The Next question comes is that what should be Damping used
In ELF Method and Response Spectrum method.
Page 66 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

The above two dimensional frame is such an example. First the Composite damping be arrived using
CDAMP in response spectrum. The same Damping be used for ELF method( Equivalent Lateral Force using
Static Earthquake Method). The Time period may be taken as that of concrete as Time Period formulae for
concrete results in shorter Time Period, and the Seismic forces arrived as such would be more conservative.
However, a weighted average time Period may be taken.
The Following Inputs in STAAD may be used for the above Frame.

STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
3 0 0 0; 4 0 10.5 0; 5 5 10.5 0; 6 10 10.5 0; 7 5 0 0; 8 10 0 0; 9 0 3.5 0;
Page 67 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

10 5 3.5 0; 11 10 3.5 0; 12 0 7 0; 13 5 7 0; 14 10 7 0; 15 0 14 0; 16 5 14 0;
17 10 14 0; 18 15 10.5 0; 19 15 0 0; 20 15 3.5 0; 21 15 7 0; 22 15 14 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
2 3 9; 3 4 5; 4 5 6; 5 7 10; 6 8 11; 9 9 12; 10 10 13; 11 11 14; 12 9 10;
13 10 11; 14 12 4; 15 13 5; 16 14 6; 17 12 13; 18 13 14; 19 15 16; 20 16 17;
21 4 15; 22 5 16; 23 6 17; 24 6 18; 25 19 20; 26 20 21; 27 11 20; 28 21 18;
29 14 21; 30 17 22; 31 18 22;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
ISOTROPIC M20
E 2.236e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
ISOTROPIC M20RIGID
E 2.236e+009
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
ISOTROPIC STEEL
E 2.05e+008
POISSON 0.3
DENSITY 76.8195
ALPHA 1.2e-005
DAMP 0.02
TYPE STEEL
STRENGTH FY 253200 FU 407800 RY 1.5 RT 1.2
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
24 27 29 30 TABLE ST ISMB300
25 26 28 31 TABLE ST ISHB350
MEMBER PROPERTY INDIAN
2 5 6 9 TO 11 14 TO 16 21 TO 23 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.25
3 4 12 13 17 TO 20 PRIS YD 0.4 ZD 0.25
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL M20 MEMB 2 TO 6 9 TO 23
MATERIAL STEEL MEMB 24 TO 31
SUPPORTS
3 7 8 19 FIXED
CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 16
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
MEMBER LOAD
19 20 30 UNI GX 36.382
19 20 30 UNI GY 36.382
19 20 30 UNI GZ 36.382
3 4 12 13 17 18 24 27 29 UNI GX 63.243
3 4 12 13 17 18 24 27 29 UNI GY 63.243
3 4 12 13 17 18 24 27 29 UNI GZ 63.243
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 3.5
DIA 2 TYPE RIG HEI 7
DIA 3 TYPE RIG HEI 10.5
DIA 4 TYPE RIG HEI 14
Page 68 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

**EQUIAVALENT STATIC EQX***


**DAMPING VALUE CHANGED AFTER OBTAINING PERCENTAGE DAMPING
**FROM DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
**CONSERVATIVELY TIME PERIOD OF CONCRETE STRUCTURE BE USED**
DEFINE 1893 LOAD
ZONE 0.24 RF 5 I 1 SS 1 ST 2 DM 0.0435 PX 0.543
REFERENCE LOAD Y
R1 1.0
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE EQX
1893 LOAD X 1
PERFORM ANALYSIS
PRINT STORY DRIFT
CHANGE
LOAD 2 RESPONSE SPECTRA IN X DIRECTION
REFERENCE LOAD
R1 1.0
SPECTRUM CQC 1893 X 0.024 ACC SCALE 1 CDAMP MIS 0
SOIL TYPE 1
PERFORM ANALYSIS
FINISH

Time History Method.


The Response Spectra for a Place is obtained by Subjecting a SDOF system to Ground Motion Time
History. Time History is plot of Time Vs Acceleration. Usually , code suggest that usually 7 such Time History
of Seven Different Earthquake be used for arriving a Response Spectrum for a place. Sometimes, Ground
Motion Time History may be supplied for Design of a Structure. The Example below considers a
approximately compatible Time History of BHUJ Earthquake
The Time History Graph is also shown

STAAD SPACE
START JOB INFORMATION
ENGINEER DATE 09-Aug-17
END JOB INFORMATION
INPUT WIDTH 79
UNIT METER KN
JOINT COORDINATES
Page 69 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

3 0 0 0; 4 0 10.5 0; 5 5 10.5 0; 6 10 10.5 0; 7 5 0 0; 8 10 0 0; 9 0 3.5 0;


10 5 3.5 0; 11 10 3.5 0; 12 0 7 0; 13 5 7 0; 14 10 7 0; 15 0 14 0; 16 5 14 0;
17 10 14 0;
MEMBER INCIDENCES
2 3 9; 3 4 5; 4 5 6; 5 7 10; 6 8 11; 9 9 12; 10 10 13; 11 11 14; 12 9 10;
13 10 11; 14 12 4; 15 13 5; 16 14 6; 17 12 13; 18 13 14; 19 15 16; 20 16 17;
21 4 15; 22 5 16; 23 6 17;
DEFINE MATERIAL START
ISOTROPIC CONCRETE
E 2.17185e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 23.5616
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 27579
ISOTROPIC M20
E 2.236e+007
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
ISOTROPIC M20RIGID
E 2.236e+009
POISSON 0.17
DENSITY 0
ALPHA 1e-005
DAMP 0.05
TYPE CONCRETE
STRENGTH FCU 25000
END DEFINE MATERIAL
MEMBER PROPERTY AMERICAN
2 5 6 9 TO 11 14 TO 16 21 TO 23 PRIS YD 0.45 ZD 0.25
3 4 12 13 17 TO 20 PRIS YD 0.4 ZD 0.25
CONSTANTS
MATERIAL M20 MEMB 2 5 6 9 TO 11 14 TO 16 21 TO 23
************************************************
** TOO MUCH STIFFNESS OF MEMBER COMPARED TO
*OTHER WILL RESULT ZEROS IN DIAGONAL MATRIX**
************************************************
MATERIAL M20RIGID MEMB 3 4 12 13 17 TO 20
SUPPORTS
3 7 8 FIXED
***************THESE GIVES WARNINGS*****************
*SLAVE ZX MASTER 10 JOINT 9 TO 11
*SLAVE ZX MASTER 13 JOINT 12 TO 14
*SLAVE ZX MASTER 5 JOINT 4 TO 6
*SLAVE ZX MASTER 16 JOINT 15 TO 17
**************************************
***************************
*FLOOR DIAPHRAGM
*DIA 1 TYPE RIG HEI 3.5
*DIA 2 TYPE RIG HEI 10.5
*DIA 3 TYPE RIG HEI 14
************************
*FLOOR HEIGHT
*3.5; 7; 10.5; 14; 4;
********************************************************
*****************************************
CUT OFF MODE SHAPE 30
DEFINE TIME HISTORY DT 0.005
*****EITHER DATA CAN BE READ FROM A EXTERNAL FILE**
Page 70 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

*TYPE 1 ACCELERATION
*READ ELECENTRO_EW_DATA.TXT
*********OR CAN BE PU DIRECTLY INTO STAD***
***IS 1893 COMAPATIBLE TIME HISTORY FROM BHUJ EQ*************
TYPE 1 ACCELERATION
0 -0.00218 0.005 -0.00224 0.01 -0.00193 0.015 -0.00145 0.02 -0.000957
0.025 -0.00088 0.03 -0.00136 0.035 -0.00201 0.04 -0.00246 0.045 -0.00204
0.05 -0.000474 0.055 0.00147 0.06 0.00317 0.065 0.00388 0.07 0.0032 0.075 0.00178
0.08 0.000169 0.085 -0.00139 0.09 -0.00257 0.095 -0.00347 0.1 -0.00413
0.105 -0.00407 0.11 -0.00321 0.115 -0.00194 0.12 -0.000651 0.125 -0.000111
0.13 -0.000676 0.135 -0.00174 0.14 -0.00276 0.145 -0.00299 0.15 -0.00201
0.155 -0.000476 0.16 0.00106 0.165 0.00185 0.17 0.0015 0.175 0.000611
0.18 -0.000272 0.185 -0.000393 0.19 0.000607 0.195 0.00195 0.2 0.00298
0.205 0.00297 0.21 0.00152 0.215 -0.000553 0.22 -0.00256 0.225 -0.00414
0.23 -0.00489 0.235 -0.0051 0.24 -0.00498 0.245 -0.00404 0.25 -0.00233
0.255 -0.000371 0.26 0.00134 0.265 0.00174 0.27 0.000387 0.275 -0.00171
0.28 -0.00373 0.285 -0.00483 0.29 -0.00442 0.295 -0.00333 0.3 -0.00214
0.305 -0.000746 0.31 0.000605 0.315 0.00189 0.32 0.00299 0.325 0.00262
0.33 0.000472 0.335 -0.00213 0.34 -0.00405 0.345 -0.00321 0.35 0.00128
0.355 0.00731 0.36 0.0131 0.365 0.0167 0.37 0.0171 0.375 0.0154 0.38 0.0129
0.385 0.00998 0.39 0.00747 0.395 0.00538 0.4 0.00363 0.405 0.00216 0.41 0.00105
0.415 0.000242 0.42 -0.000158 0.425 0.0013 0.43 0.0048 0.435 0.00871
0.44 0.0116 0.445 0.0101 0.45 0.003 0.455 -0.00617 0.46 -0.0145 0.465 -0.0184
0.47 -0.0159 0.475 -0.00987 0.48 -0.00295 0.485 0.00321 0.49 0.007 0.495 0.00913
0.5 0.0102 0.505 0.00987 0.51 0.00812 0.515 0.00549 0.52 0.00235 0.525 -0.00103
0.53 -0.00418 0.535 -0.00691 0.54 -0.00886 0.545 -0.00861 0.55 -0.0058
0.555 -0.00167 0.56 0.00256 0.565 0.00442 0.57 0.00281 0.575 -0.000473
0.58 -0.00377 0.585 -0.00426 0.59 -0.00067 0.595 0.00454 0.6 0.0093 0.605 0.0103
0.61 0.00484 0.615 -0.00236 0.62 -0.00115 0.625 -0.000755 0.63 -0.0212
0.635 -0.0135 0.64 0.0649 0.645 -0.0317 0.65 0.0432 0.655 0.0722 0.66 -0.0377
0.665 0.00574 0.67 -0.00429 0.675 -0.00737 0.68 -0.0154 0.685 -0.0207
0.69 -0.0222 0.695 -0.0211 0.7 -0.0181 0.705 -0.0105 0.71 0.00143 0.715 0.0143
0.72 0.025 0.725 0.0272 0.73 0.0182 0.735 0.00393 0.74 -0.0106 0.745 -0.0195
0.75 -0.019 0.755 -0.0134 0.76 -0.00616 0.765 4.96e-005 0.77 0.0031 0.775 0.00475
0.78 0.00643 0.785 0.00861 0.79 0.0117 0.795 0.0143 0.8 0.0152 0.805 0.014
0.81 0.0105 0.815 0.00567 0.82 0.000325 0.825 -0.00605 0.83 -0.013 0.835 -0.0189
0.84 -0.0226 0.845 -0.0216 0.85 -0.0148 0.855 -0.00515 0.86 0.00476 0.865 0.0132
0.87 0.0183 0.875 0.0207 0.88 0.0208 0.885 0.0174 0.89 0.0106 0.895 0.00278
0.9 -0.00431 0.905 -0.00913 0.91 -0.0103 0.915 -0.00949 0.92 -0.00761
0.925 -0.00154 0.93 0.00853 0.935 0.0193 0.94 0.0275 0.945 0.0243 0.95 0.00646
0.955 -0.0172 0.96 -0.0391 0.965 -0.0482 0.97 -0.0386 0.975 -0.0201 0.98 -0.000968
0.985 0.0109 0.99 0.0101 0.995 0.00331 1 -0.00403 1.005 -0.00984 1.01 -0.0114
1.015 -0.0111 1.02 -0.0105 1.025 -0.00664 1.03 0.000472 1.035 0.00846
1.04 0.0152 1.045 0.0147 1.05 0.00467 1.055 -0.00871 1.06 -0.0205 1.065 -0.0244
1.07 -0.017 1.075 -0.00422 1.08 0.00905 1.085 0.0205 1.09 0.0273 1.095 0.0308
1.1 0.0317 1.105 0.0262 1.11 0.0137 1.115 -0.00194 1.12 -0.0172 1.125 -0.0243
1.13 -0.0199 1.135 -0.01 1.14 1.57e-006 1.145 0.00283 1.15 -0.00536 1.155 -0.0175
1.16 -0.0277 1.165 -0.0308 1.17 -0.0232 1.175 -0.0101 1.18 0.00406 1.185 0.0179
1.19 0.0303 1.195 0.0398 1.2 0.0394 1.205 0.0381 1.21 0.0558 1.215 0.0463
1.22 -0.0303 1.225 0.0575 1.23 0.00104 1.235 0.00353 1.24 -0.000686 1.245 0.00312
1.25 0.00516 1.255 0.0075 1.26 0.00975 1.265 0.00607 1.27 -0.00407 1.275 -0.0168
1.28 -0.0351 1.285 -0.044 1.29 -0.0207 1.295 -0.0162 1.3 -0.0741 1.305 0.0332
1.31 -0.00206 1.315 0.0195 1.32 0.0314 1.325 0.0405 1.33 0.035 1.335 0.0232
1.34 0.0107 1.345 0.000878 1.35 -0.00302 1.355 -0.00369 1.36 -0.00372
1.365 -0.00613 1.37 -0.0125 1.375 -0.0199 1.38 -0.0258 1.385 -0.026 1.39 -0.0186
1.395 -0.00812 1.4 0.000314 1.405 0.00212 1.41 0.002 1.415 -0.00707 1.42 -0.0424
1.425 -0.0452 1.43 0.0331 1.435 -0.0598 1.44 0.00604 1.445 0.00497 1.45 0.00404
1.455 -0.00558 1.46 -0.00917 1.465 -0.00663 1.47 0.00281 1.475 0.0159
1.48 0.0283 1.485 0.0352 1.49 0.0341 1.495 0.028 1.5 0.0201 1.505 0.0139
1.51 0.0115 1.515 0.0103 1.52 0.00808 1.525 0.000758 1.53 -0.0131 1.535 -0.0289
1.54 -0.0426 1.545 -0.0479 1.55 -0.0417 1.555 -0.0297 1.56 -0.0167 1.565 -0.0095
1.57 -0.0117 1.575 -0.018 1.58 -0.0238 1.585 -0.0234 1.59 -0.0126 1.595 0.00179
1.6 0.0069 1.605 0.0113 1.61 0.0364 1.615 0.0286 1.62 -0.0578 1.625 0.0524
1.63 -0.00615 1.635 0.0051 1.64 0.00644 1.645 0.0111 1.65 0.00619 1.655 -0.0008
Page 71 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

1.66 -0.00616 1.665 -0.0124 1.67 -0.0188 1.675 -0.0244 1.68 -0.0283 1.685 -0.0257
1.69 -0.0154 1.695 -0.00186 1.7 0.0107 1.705 0.0147 1.71 0.00653 1.715 -0.00711
1.72 -0.0204 1.725 -0.0253 1.73 -0.0178 1.735 -0.00399 1.74 0.0103 1.745 0.0182
1.75 0.0159 1.755 0.00906 1.76 0.0026 1.765 0.00289 1.77 0.0131 1.775 0.0269
1.78 0.039 1.785 0.0423 1.79 0.0332 1.795 0.018 1.8 0.00208 1.805 -0.00808
1.81 -0.00874 1.815 -0.00503 1.82 -0.00143 1.825 -0.00303 1.83 -0.0126
1.835 -0.025 1.84 -0.0358 1.845 -0.0405 1.85 -0.0362 1.855 -0.027 1.86 -0.0167
1.865 -0.00916 1.87 -0.00683 1.875 -0.00726 1.88 -0.00801 1.885 -0.00546
1.89 0.00193 1.895 0.0112 1.9 0.0194 1.905 0.0202 1.91 0.0116 1.915 -0.00113
1.92 -0.0129 1.925 -0.0142 1.93 -0.000859 1.935 0.0182 1.94 0.0354 1.945 0.0391
1.95 0.0238 1.955 0.000363 1.96 -0.0222 1.965 -0.0333 1.97 -0.0252 1.975 -0.00871
1.98 -0.00193 1.985 0.00634 1.99 0.0422 1.995 0.037 2 -0.068 2.005 0.0721
2.01 -0.00537 2.015 0.00407 2.02 0.0019 2.025 0.00585 2.03 0.000908 2.035 -0.00465
2.04 -0.00681 2.045 -0.00485 2.05 0.00233 2.055 0.0116 2.06 0.02 2.065 0.0244
2.07 0.0227 2.075 0.0179 2.08 0.0121 2.085 0.00635 2.09 0.00193 2.095 -0.00092
2.1 -0.002 2.105 0.00034 2.11 0.00654 2.115 0.015 2.12 0.0243 2.125 0.0326
2.13 0.0384 2.135 0.0416 2.14 0.0423 2.145 0.0413 2.15 0.0387 2.155 0.0341
2.16 0.0272 2.165 0.0151 2.17 -0.0023 2.175 -0.0208 2.18 -0.0367 2.185 -0.044
2.19 -0.0398 2.195 -0.0293 2.2 -0.0169 2.205 -0.00718 2.21 -0.00324 2.215 -0.00235
2.22 -0.00232 2.225 -0.00253 2.23 -0.00198 2.235 -0.00166 2.24 -0.00219
2.245 -0.00267 2.25 -0.00294 2.255 -0.00285 2.26 -0.0025 2.265 -0.00379
2.27 -0.00713 2.275 -0.0113 2.28 -0.0147 2.285 -0.0132 2.29 -0.00539
2.295 0.00476 2.3 0.0135 2.305 0.0136 2.31 0.00228 2.315 -0.0139 2.32 -0.0291
2.325 -0.035 2.33 -0.0275 2.335 -0.0135 2.34 0.000963 2.345 0.00928 2.35 0.00742
2.355 0.000792 2.36 -0.00602 2.365 -0.00885 2.37 -0.00504 2.375 0.00114
2.38 0.00624 2.385 0.00809 2.39 0.005 2.395 -0.000151 2.4 -0.00515 2.405 -0.0106
2.41 -0.0156 2.415 -0.0196 2.42 -0.0218 2.425 -0.0172 2.43 -0.00488 2.435 0.0105
2.44 0.0245 2.445 0.0297 2.45 0.0223 2.455 0.00949 2.46 -0.00315 2.465 -0.00941
2.47 -0.0054 2.475 0.00298 2.48 0.0111 2.485 0.0176 2.49 0.0202 2.495 0.0202
2.5 0.0186 2.505 0.011 2.51 -0.00288 2.515 -0.0179 2.52 -0.0297 2.525 -0.0308
2.53 -0.0175 2.535 0.00241 2.54 0.0226 2.545 0.0384 2.55 0.0458 2.555 0.0475
2.56 0.0444 2.565 0.0353 2.57 0.0287 2.575 0.015 2.58 -0.0264 2.585 -0.0307
2.59 0.0541 2.595 -0.0453 2.6 0.0269 2.605 0.0259 2.61 0.0231 2.615 0.00904
2.62 -0.000217 2.625 -0.00486 2.63 -0.00383 2.635 0.000548 2.64 0.00471
2.645 0.00415 2.65 -0.00313 2.655 -0.0124 2.66 -0.0196 2.665 -0.0202
2.67 -0.0118 2.675 0.000651 2.68 0.0128 2.685 0.0219 2.69 0.0252 2.695 0.0245
2.7 0.0209 2.705 0.0136 2.71 0.00285 2.715 -0.00904 2.72 -0.0203 2.725 -0.0284
2.73 -0.0316 2.735 -0.0314 2.74 -0.0291 2.745 -0.0242 2.75 -0.0175 2.755 -0.0103
2.76 -0.00382 2.765 -0.000919 2.77 -0.00288 2.775 -0.00719 2.78 -0.0118
2.785 -0.0147 2.79 -0.0143 2.795 -0.0123 2.8 -0.00968 2.805 -0.0058 2.81 -0.00104
2.815 0.00456 2.82 0.0104 2.825 0.0127 2.83 0.0102 2.835 0.0053 2.84 0.000461
2.845 0.00302 2.85 0.0153 2.855 0.0303 2.86 0.0415 2.865 0.0381 2.87 0.0154
2.875 -0.0158 2.88 -0.0459 2.885 -0.0638 2.89 -0.0626 2.895 -0.0513 2.9 -0.0372
2.905 -0.0271 2.91 -0.0259 2.915 -0.0284 2.92 -0.0302 2.925 -0.0285 2.93 -0.0215
2.935 -0.0131 2.94 -0.00658 2.945 -0.0037 2.95 -0.00588 2.955 -0.0108
2.96 -0.0166 2.965 -0.0242 2.97 -0.0326 2.975 -0.0401 2.98 -0.0451 2.985 -0.0429
2.99 -0.0318 2.995 -0.0165 3 -0.0024 3.005 0.00735 3.01 0.0183 3.015 0.0198
3.02 -0.0107 3.025 -0.0107 3.03 0.0734 3.035 -0.0444 3.04 0.0197 3.045 0.0119
3.05 0.0125 3.055 0.0058 3.06 0.00432 3.065 0.00369 3.07 0.00216 3.075 0.00172
3.08 0.00188 3.085 -0.00147 3.09 -0.009 3.095 -0.0174 3.1 -0.0234 3.105 -0.0181
3.11 0.00154 3.115 0.0263 3.12 0.0483 3.125 0.0549 3.13 0.0401 3.135 0.0155
3.14 -0.00898 3.145 -0.0225 3.15 -0.0184 3.155 -0.00504 3.16 0.0103 3.165 0.0222
3.17 0.0263 3.175 0.026 3.18 0.0242 3.185 0.0235 3.19 0.025 3.195 0.0262
3.2 0.0244 3.205 0.0157 3.21 -0.00119 3.215 -0.0207 3.22 -0.0379 3.225 -0.047
3.23 -0.0445 3.235 -0.0353 3.24 -0.0235 3.245 -0.0122 3.25 -0.00444 3.255 0.000819
3.26 0.00444 3.265 0.00675 3.27 0.008 3.275 0.00752 3.28 0.00476 3.285 -0.00219
3.29 -0.0134 3.295 -0.025 3.3 -0.0337 3.305 -0.0359 3.31 -0.0294 3.315 -0.018
3.32 -0.00472 3.325 0.0104 3.33 0.0256 3.335 0.0395 3.34 0.0504 3.345 0.0517
3.35 0.0412 3.355 0.0246 3.36 0.00721 3.365 -0.000918 3.37 0.00487 3.375 0.0169
3.38 0.0282 3.385 0.0288 3.39 0.0137 3.395 -0.0073 3.4 -0.026 3.405 -0.0325
3.41 -0.0214 3.415 -0.00246 3.42 0.0164 3.425 0.0284 3.43 0.0286 3.435 0.023
3.44 0.0163 3.445 0.00843 3.45 0.00132 3.455 -0.00532 3.46 -0.0111 3.465 -0.00875
3.47 0.0031 3.475 0.0185 3.48 0.0323 3.485 0.0321 3.49 0.0132 3.495 -0.0136
3.5 -0.0385 3.505 -0.0472 3.51 -0.0325 3.515 -0.00699 3.52 0.0182 3.525 0.0304
Page 72 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

3.53 0.0222 3.535 0.00437 3.54 -0.0136 3.545 -0.0232 3.55 -0.0186 3.555 -0.0077
3.56 0.00305 3.565 0.00929 3.57 0.00766 3.575 0.00309 3.58 -0.000536
3.585 -0.00292 3.59 -0.00252 3.595 -0.000107 3.6 0.00392 3.605 0.0136
3.61 0.028 3.615 0.044 3.62 0.0655 3.625 0.0717 3.63 0.0354 3.635 0.0205
3.64 0.0814 3.645 -0.0434 3.65 0.0118 3.655 0.00484 3.66 0.00819 3.665 0.00681
3.67 0.0106 3.675 0.0143 3.68 0.0161 3.685 0.0145 3.69 0.00877 3.695 0.000859
3.7 -0.00714 3.705 -0.0122 3.71 -0.0124 3.715 -0.01 3.72 -0.00657 3.725 -0.0042
3.73 -0.0041 3.735 -0.00454 3.74 -0.00404 3.745 -0.00081 3.75 0.00594
3.755 0.014 3.76 0.0213 3.765 0.0256 3.77 0.0256 3.775 0.0225 3.78 0.018
3.785 0.0142 3.79 0.0124 3.795 0.0122 3.8 0.0125 3.805 0.0092 3.81 0.00143
3.815 -0.00758 3.82 -0.0144 3.825 -0.00904 3.83 0.0125 3.835 0.0399 3.84 0.0573
3.845 0.0606 3.85 0.0638 3.855 0.0311 3.86 -0.0677 3.865 0.0176 3.87 -0.0185
3.875 0.0157 3.88 0.0413 3.885 0.0551 3.89 0.0385 3.895 0.0101 3.9 -0.0162
3.905 -0.0289 3.91 -0.0204 3.915 -0.00129 3.92 0.0195 3.925 0.0326 3.93 0.0323
3.935 0.0291 3.94 0.0278 3.945 0.0309 3.95 0.0444 3.955 0.0424 3.96 0.00925
3.965 0.0204 3.97 0.0722 3.975 -0.0407 3.98 0.0255 3.985 -0.08 3.99 -0.473
3.995 -0.0991 4 0.0332 4.005 0.041 4.01 0.0627 4.015 -0.0211 4.02 -0.0535
4.025 0.0288 4.03 0.528 4.035 -0.0088 4.04 -0.0327 4.045 -0.0402 4.05 -0.0295
4.055 0.0545 4.06 -0.00108 4.065 -0.0581 4.07 0.0432 4.075 -0.387 4.08 -0.515
4.085 0.0649 4.09 -0.223 4.095 -0.168 4.1 -0.00271 4.105 -0.0155 4.11 0.0253
4.115 -0.0102 4.12 0.0103 4.125 0.0227 4.13 -0.007 4.135 0.173 4.14 0.102
4.145 0.119 4.15 0.15 4.155 0.0149 4.16 0.0711 4.165 -0.0223 4.17 -0.293
4.175 -0.432 4.18 -0.034 4.185 0.0299 4.19 -0.0133 4.195 -0.0674 4.2 -0.026
4.205 0.00663 4.21 0.00167 4.215 -0.0067 4.22 -0.008 4.225 -0.00365 4.23 0.00177
4.235 0.0149 4.24 0.0532 4.245 0.0608 4.25 -0.0112 4.255 0.0937 4.26 0.0324
4.265 0.0278 4.27 0.00771 4.275 -0.0089 4.28 -0.0283 4.285 -0.0366 4.29 -0.0283
4.295 -0.0121 4.3 0.00574 4.305 0.013 4.31 -0.00725 4.315 -0.0368 4.32 -0.0353
4.325 -0.0601 4.33 -0.174 4.335 -0.000639 4.34 -0.0329 4.345 -0.0718
4.35 -0.258 4.355 -0.26 4.36 -0.234 4.365 0.00836 4.37 0.146 4.375 0.245
4.38 0.0389 4.385 0.0371 4.39 0.0213 4.395 0.0629 4.4 0.0472 4.405 -0.0168
4.41 -0.165 4.415 -0.152 4.42 -0.298 4.425 -0.273 4.43 0.0519 4.435 0.0313
4.44 -0.156 4.445 0.0211 4.45 -0.135 4.455 0.043 4.46 -0.0114 4.465 -0.00776
4.47 -0.0311 4.475 0.0135 4.48 0.0629 4.485 0.184 4.49 0.526 4.495 -0.0751
4.5 0.021 4.505 0.0269 4.51 0.0218 4.515 -0.275 4.52 -0.493 4.525 -0.175
4.53 -0.0347 4.535 -0.0347 4.54 0.2 4.545 0.167 4.55 0.0175 4.555 0.0382
4.56 0.354 4.565 0.798 4.57 0.825 4.575 0.662 4.58 0.267 4.585 -0.024
4.59 -0.0304 4.595 0.0172 4.6 -0.0168 4.605 -0.0454 4.61 -0.0501 4.615 -0.0575
4.62 -0.0644 4.625 -0.0587 4.63 -0.0382 4.635 -0.0133 4.64 0.00806 4.645 0.0131
4.65 -0.00619 4.655 -0.0305 4.66 -0.0375 4.665 -0.0403 4.67 -0.0455 4.675 0.0431
4.68 0.281 4.685 0.65 4.69 -0.0409 4.695 -0.0397 4.7 -0.0101 4.705 0.0403
4.71 0.224 4.715 0.469 4.72 0.187 4.725 -0.156 4.73 -0.695 4.735 -0.52
4.74 -0.187 4.745 0.263 4.75 0.462 4.755 0.0781 4.76 0.0532 4.765 -0.0646
4.77 -0.0243 4.775 -0.0372 4.78 -0.0863 4.785 0.0776 4.79 0.0689 4.795 -0.056
4.8 -0.0125 4.805 -0.046 4.81 0.000191 4.815 -0.106 4.82 -0.566 4.825 -0.217
4.83 -0.084 4.835 0.126 4.84 -0.0653 4.845 -0.142 4.85 -0.332 4.855 -0.435
4.86 0.0272 4.865 0.446 4.87 0.714 4.875 0.191 4.88 -0.0848 4.885 -0.542
4.89 -0.0332 4.895 -0.0484 4.9 0.637 4.905 0.742 4.91 0.699 4.915 0.194
4.92 -0.0156 4.925 -0.0488 4.93 0.0468 4.935 0.00345 4.94 0.0242 4.945 0.224
4.95 0.116 4.955 -0.0463 4.96 -0.0841 4.965 -0.638 4.97 -0.691 4.975 -0.672
4.98 -0.507 4.985 0.0469 4.99 -0.0246 4.995 -0.165 5 -0.0982 5.005 0.0499
5.01 -0.0397 5.015 0.174 5.02 -0.133 5.025 0.123 5.03 0.492 5.035 0.508
5.04 0.492 5.045 0.321 5.05 0.231 5.055 -0.0872 5.06 -0.0725 5.065 -0.548
5.07 -0.658 5.075 -0.555 5.08 -0.491 5.085 -0.436 5.09 -0.495 5.095 -0.754
5.1 -0.681 5.105 0.0532 5.11 0.0242 5.115 0.284 5.12 0.143 5.125 0.219
5.13 0.0556 5.135 0.0226 5.14 -0.132 5.145 -0.029 5.15 0.103 5.155 0.526
5.16 0.0114 5.165 0.018 5.17 0.196 5.175 0.346 5.18 0.106 5.185 0.193
5.19 0.402 5.195 0.534 5.2 0.351 5.205 0.00998 5.21 0.076 5.215 0.0728
5.22 -0.0695 5.225 -0.114 5.23 0.108 5.235 0.26 5.24 -0.0171 5.245 -0.0791
5.25 -0.00255 5.255 0.0531 5.26 -0.101 5.265 -0.257 5.27 -0.0509 5.275 -0.459
5.28 -0.511 5.285 -0.612 5.29 -0.465 5.295 -0.534 5.3 -0.509 5.305 -0.133
5.31 -0.0321 5.315 -0.0383 5.32 0.52 5.325 0.836 5.33 0.812 5.335 0.598
5.34 0.159 5.345 -0.0931 5.35 0.0917 5.355 0.0914 5.36 -0.00522 5.365 0.183
5.37 -0.0488 5.375 -0.271 5.38 -0.497 5.385 -0.461 5.39 -0.582 5.395 -0.504
5.4 -0.346 5.405 -0.16 5.41 -0.214 5.415 -0.00855 5.42 0.0166 5.425 0.241
Page 73 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

5.43 0.863 5.435 0.647 5.44 0.225 5.445 -0.00126 5.45 -0.0408 5.455 0.166
5.46 0.591 5.465 0.0126 5.47 -0.0502 5.475 -0.0133 5.48 0.0434 5.485 -0.48
5.49 -0.398 5.495 0.00385 5.5 -0.0648 5.505 0.133 5.51 0.0879 5.515 0.076
5.52 0.0306 5.525 -0.00599 5.53 -0.0183 5.535 -0.00864 5.54 0.0119 5.545 0.0373
5.55 0.0819 5.555 0.0817 5.56 -0.0208 5.565 0.021 5.57 0.322 5.575 0.391
5.58 0.0312 5.585 -0.311 5.59 -0.475 5.595 -0.0825 5.6 -0.0289 5.605 0.0275
5.61 0.0882 5.615 0.616 5.62 0.64 5.625 0.608 5.63 0.275 5.635 0.0141
5.64 0.0239 5.645 -0.0687 5.65 -0.0281 5.655 -0.0592 5.66 -0.0364 5.665 -0.621
5.67 -0.818 5.675 -0.876 5.68 -0.464 5.685 0.000372 5.69 0.554 5.695 0.682
5.7 0.14 5.705 0.148 5.71 -0.0189 5.715 -0.00667 5.72 -0.151 5.725 0.0152
5.73 0.032 5.735 0.539 5.74 0.501 5.745 0.19 5.75 0.199 5.755 0.0695
5.76 -0.0106 5.765 0.0201 5.77 0.0501 5.775 0.0825 5.78 0.0749 5.785 -0.0801
5.79 -0.452 5.795 -0.822 5.8 -0.827 5.805 -0.37 5.81 0.0262 5.815 0.661
5.82 0.672 5.825 -0.0106 5.83 0.0914 5.835 0.271 5.84 -0.0218 5.845 0.343
5.85 0.125 5.855 0.0224 5.86 -0.805 5.865 -1 5.87 -0.98 5.875 -0.499
5.88 0.219 5.885 0.664 5.89 0.0757 5.895 -0.558 5.9 -0.894 5.905 -0.178
5.91 0.0272 5.915 0.015 5.92 -0.0166 5.925 0.26 5.93 0.0625 5.935 0.0433
5.94 0.00255 5.945 0.0592 5.95 0.241 5.955 0.292 5.96 0.0426 5.965 0.103
5.97 0.0683 5.975 0.132 5.98 0.0732 5.985 0.0241 5.99 0.0516 5.995 -0.242
6 0.0205 6.005 -0.00388 6.01 -0.0022 6.015 0.00715 6.02 0.0648 6.025 0.123
6.03 0.148 6.035 0.117 6.04 0.0244 6.045 -0.154 6.05 0.0609 6.055 0.148
6.06 0.00685 6.065 0.0419 6.07 0.013 6.075 0.0332 6.08 0.0337 6.085 0.262
6.09 0.0241 6.095 0.193 6.1 0.125 6.105 -0.0646 6.11 -0.603 6.115 -0.66
6.12 -0.449 6.125 -0.119 6.13 0.0162 6.135 -0.00292 6.14 0.491 6.145 -0.00403
6.15 0.0851 6.155 -0.0128 6.16 0.0683 6.165 0.0945 6.17 0.0105 6.175 -0.0146
6.18 0.099 6.185 0.185 6.19 0.162 6.195 0.13 6.2 0.0985 6.205 0.0462
6.21 0.0753 6.215 -0.0398 6.22 -0.509 6.225 -0.0654 6.23 -0.0465 6.235 0.00634
6.24 0.157 6.245 -0.0161 6.25 0.029 6.255 0.00579 6.26 0.0283 6.265 0.119
6.27 0.112 6.275 0.443 6.28 0.0787 6.285 0.0212 6.29 0.000365 6.295 0.0297
6.3 -0.0509 6.305 -0.0575 6.31 0.0618 6.315 0.139 6.32 0.0904 6.325 0.0372
6.33 0.0424 6.335 0.0377 6.34 -0.000852 6.345 -0.0179 6.35 0.00907 6.355 0.0333
6.36 0.012 6.365 -0.0165 6.37 0.0537 6.375 0.105 6.38 -0.0189 6.385 0.0538
6.39 -0.116 6.395 -0.446 6.4 -0.606 6.405 -0.226 6.41 -0.00969 6.415 -0.0548
6.42 -0.114 6.425 -0.0555 6.43 0.00293 6.435 0.0376 6.44 0.0222 6.445 0.00516
6.45 0.00616 6.455 0.0112 6.46 0.0125 6.465 0.0138 6.47 0.021 6.475 0.0167
6.48 -0.0132 6.485 0.00371 6.49 0.102 6.495 0.144 6.5 0.0609 6.505 -0.0207
6.51 -0.0294 6.515 -0.0108 6.52 0.0085 6.525 0.0409 6.53 0.0653 6.535 -0.0486
6.54 -0.287 6.545 -0.495 6.55 -0.411 6.555 -0.22 6.56 0.101 6.565 -0.0615
6.57 0.0289 6.575 0.166 6.58 0.0603 6.585 -0.00405 6.59 0.0994 6.595 -0.0156
6.6 -0.0462 6.605 0.0271 6.61 -0.0136 6.615 -0.0227 6.62 -0.099 6.625 0.0129
6.63 0.0977 6.635 -0.0733 6.64 0.0271 6.645 0.0211 6.65 0.0367 6.655 0.0352
6.66 0.00356 6.665 0.0337 6.67 0.188 6.675 -0.0631 6.68 0.081 6.685 0.0693
6.69 0.0662 6.695 0.0454 6.7 0.0315 6.705 0.0182 6.71 0.0072 6.715 -0.000906
6.72 -0.0147 6.725 -0.011 6.73 0.0393 6.735 0.0627 6.74 -0.00412 6.745 0.132
6.75 0.0499 6.755 0.0348 6.76 0.00874 6.765 0.0204 6.77 0.0626 6.775 -0.0421
6.78 0.0261 6.785 0.028 6.79 0.0089 6.795 -0.00894 6.8 0.0561 6.805 0.0743
6.81 -0.234 6.815 0.00476 6.82 0.0258 6.825 0.0977 6.83 -0.0129 6.835 -0.0653
6.84 0.028 6.845 0.104 6.85 0.084 6.855 0.0618 6.86 0.0754 6.865 0.0747
6.87 0.0445 6.875 0.00822 6.88 -0.0236 6.885 -0.0458 6.89 -0.0527 6.895 -0.0497
6.9 -0.0415 6.905 -0.0284 6.91 -0.0127 6.915 0.00436 6.92 0.021 6.925 0.0306
6.93 0.0302 6.935 0.0223 6.94 0.0114 6.945 0.00679 6.95 0.00819 6.955 0.021
6.96 0.0553 6.965 0.0517 6.97 -0.0274 6.975 -0.0409 6.98 0.106 6.985 0.201
6.99 -0.0214 6.995 -0.054 7 -0.00102 7.005 0.0467 7.01 -0.00311 7.015 -0.031
7.02 0.0318 7.025 0.0146 7.03 -0.192 7.035 -0.257 7.04 0.0272 7.045 0.0151
7.05 -0.0436 7.055 0.0252 7.06 -0.0234 7.065 -0.0162 7.07 -0.0284 7.075 -0.15
7.08 -0.0286 7.085 0.017 7.09 -0.00681 7.095 -0.0383 7.1 -0.0327 7.105 -0.0207
7.11 -0.0112 7.115 0.00214 7.12 0.0162 7.125 0.0229 7.13 0.0188 7.135 0.0104
7.14 0.000841 7.145 0.0116 7.15 0.0446 7.155 -0.0597 7.16 -0.00609 7.165 -0.00374
7.17 0.00731 7.175 0.0137 7.18 0.0188 7.185 0.0192 7.19 0.0135 7.195 0.00444
7.2 -0.00581 7.205 -0.0157 7.21 -0.0237 7.215 -0.0298 7.22 -0.0339 7.225 -0.0348
7.23 -0.0324 7.235 -0.0281 7.24 -0.0229 7.245 -0.0172 7.25 -0.0119 7.255 -0.00648
7.26 -0.00133 7.265 -0.000523 7.27 -0.00629 7.275 -0.0141 7.28 -0.0126
7.285 -0.00703 7.29 -0.0194 7.295 0.000924 7.3 0.0973 7.305 -0.0185 7.31 0.0232
7.315 -0.0126 7.32 -0.0378 7.325 -0.0596 7.33 -0.0586 7.335 -0.0655 7.34 -0.0873
Page 74 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

7.345 0.035 7.35 0.00357 7.355 0.0251 7.36 0.0371 7.365 0.0391 7.37 0.023
7.375 -0.00135 7.38 -0.025 7.385 -0.0308 7.39 -0.0111 7.395 0.0199 7.4 0.0495
7.405 0.0593 7.41 0.0403 7.415 0.00797 7.42 -0.0257 7.425 -0.0402 7.43 -0.0145
7.435 0.0162 7.44 0.00315 7.445 0.0134 7.45 0.115 7.455 -0.0642 7.46 -0.0227
7.465 -0.0398 7.47 0.0578 7.475 -0.0281 7.48 -0.0173 7.485 0.0181 7.49 0.245
7.495 0.109 7.5 0.151 7.505 0.0764 7.51 0.0627 7.515 0.0291 7.52 -0.025
7.525 -0.0567 7.53 -0.0491 7.535 -0.0249 7.54 0.000685 7.545 0.0154 7.55 0.0105
7.555 -0.00363 7.56 -0.0175 7.565 -0.0221 7.57 -0.0122 7.575 0.00296
7.58 0.0154 7.585 0.0161 7.59 0.000414 7.595 -0.0223 7.6 -0.0438 7.605 -0.0557
7.61 -0.0529 7.615 -0.0427 7.62 -0.0314 7.625 -0.0226 7.63 -0.0196 7.635 -0.0194
7.64 -0.0195 7.645 -0.0219 7.65 -0.0261 7.655 -0.0302 7.66 -0.0325 7.665 -0.0277
7.67 -0.0141 7.675 0.00305 7.68 0.0191 7.685 0.0292 7.69 0.0301 7.695 0.0258
7.7 0.018 7.705 0.00907 7.71 0.00907 7.715 0.00481 7.72 -0.0278 7.725 -0.0267
7.73 0.0589 7.735 -0.0482 7.74 0.0203 7.745 0.0165 7.75 0.0159 7.755 0.00625
7.76 0.00159 7.765 -0.00216 7.77 -0.00558 7.775 -0.0075 7.78 -0.00845
7.785 -0.00745 7.79 -0.00433 7.795 -0.000417 7.8 0.00335 7.805 0.0059
7.81 0.00643 7.815 0.0062 7.82 0.00597 7.825 0.00441 7.83 0.00171 7.835 -0.000786
7.84 -0.00181 7.845 0.00297 7.85 0.0148 7.855 0.0287 7.86 0.0406 7.865 0.0448
7.87 0.0384 7.875 0.0262 7.88 0.0124 7.885 -6.19e-005 7.89 -0.00855 7.895 -0.0144
7.9 -0.0187 7.905 -0.0201 7.91 -0.0185 7.915 -0.0147 7.92 -0.00977 7.925 -0.00648
7.93 -0.00619 7.935 -0.00741 7.94 -0.0088 7.945 -0.00725 7.95 -0.00161
7.955 0.0048 7.96 0.00919 7.965 0.00737 7.97 -0.00249 7.975 -0.0158 7.98 -0.0287
7.985 -0.0372 7.99 -0.0389 7.995 -0.0363 8 -0.0318 8.005 -0.0257 8.01 -0.0194
8.015 -0.0129 8.02 -0.00629 8.025 -0.00129 8.03 0.0014 8.035 0.003 8.04 0.00427
8.045 0.00612 8.05 0.00922 8.055 0.0119 8.06 0.0132 8.065 0.0147 8.07 0.0162
8.075 0.0172 8.08 0.0169 8.085 0.00966 8.09 -0.00571 8.095 -0.0227 8.1 -0.036
8.105 -0.0361 8.11 -0.019 8.115 0.00456 8.12 0.0265 8.125 0.0413 8.13 0.0438
8.135 0.0421 8.14 0.039 8.145 0.0248 8.15 0.00332 8.155 -0.0292 8.16 -0.0772
8.165 -0.0696 8.17 0.0292 8.175 0.09 8.18 0.0408 8.185 -0.00533 8.19 0.0162
8.195 0.0246 8.2 -0.0274 8.205 -0.0445 8.21 0.0324 8.215 -0.0518 8.22 0.0116
8.225 0.0089 8.23 0.00253 8.235 -0.0136 8.24 -0.0233 8.245 -0.0265 8.25 -0.0217
8.255 -0.0119 8.26 -0.00138 8.265 0.00828 8.27 0.015 8.275 0.0198 8.28 0.0235
8.285 0.0234 8.29 0.0181 8.295 0.011 8.3 0.0111 8.305 0.0113 8.31 -0.00771
8.315 6.09e-006 8.32 0.0738 8.325 -0.0242 8.33 0.0209 8.335 0.00429 8.34 -0.00438
8.345 -0.0176 8.35 -0.0237 8.355 -0.0276 8.36 -0.0308 8.365 -0.0264 8.37 -0.0137
8.375 0.0023 8.38 0.0172 8.385 0.0208 8.39 0.00916 8.395 -0.00856 8.4 -0.0244
8.405 -0.028 8.41 -0.0151 8.415 0.0056 8.42 0.034 8.425 0.05 8.43 0.0242
8.435 0.0196 8.44 0.0898 8.445 -0.0367 8.45 0.00857 8.455 -0.0141 8.46 -0.0262
8.465 -0.0364 8.47 -0.0306 8.475 -0.0185 8.48 -0.00619 8.485 0.00121
8.49 7.93e-005 8.495 -0.00484 8.5 -0.00928 8.505 -0.0076 8.51 0.00296
8.515 0.0164 8.52 0.0278 8.525 0.0314 8.53 0.0242 8.535 0.0117 8.54 -0.0016
8.545 -0.0119 8.55 -0.0164 8.555 -0.0173 8.56 -0.0165 8.565 -0.0143 8.57 -0.0117
8.575 -0.00887 8.58 -0.00584 8.585 -0.00259 8.59 0.000559 8.595 0.00341
8.6 0.00552 8.605 0.00412 8.61 -0.00127 8.615 -0.00766 8.62 -0.0124 8.625 -0.0101
8.63 0.0014 8.635 0.0168 8.64 0.0316 8.645 0.0407 8.65 0.0409 8.655 0.0364
8.66 0.031 8.665 0.0261 8.67 0.0238 8.675 0.0225 8.68 0.0211 8.685 0.0217
8.69 0.0245 8.695 0.0275 8.7 0.0289 8.705 0.0241 8.71 0.0115 8.715 -0.00417
8.72 -0.0189 8.725 -0.0273 8.73 -0.0266 8.735 -0.0204 8.74 -0.0123 8.745 -0.00552
8.75 -0.0025 8.755 -0.00167 8.76 -0.00145 8.765 0.000783 8.77 0.00592
8.775 0.0115 8.78 0.015 8.785 0.0108 8.79 -0.00261 8.795 -0.0196 8.8 -0.036
8.805 -0.0421 8.81 -0.0265 8.815 -0.00933 8.82 -0.0188 8.825 -0.0102
8.83 0.0565 8.835 -0.0556 8.84 -0.0131 8.845 -0.0304 8.85 -0.036 8.855 -0.0442
8.86 -0.0448 8.865 -0.0396 8.87 -0.0297 8.875 -0.0168 8.88 -0.00376 8.885 0.00533
8.89 0.00807 8.895 0.00677 8.9 0.00344 8.905 -0.000438 8.91 -0.00347
8.915 -0.00621 8.92 -0.00903 8.925 -0.0121 8.93 -0.0155 8.935 -0.0177
8.94 -0.0178 8.945 -0.015 8.95 -0.00882 8.955 -0.00151 8.96 0.00538 8.965 0.0125
8.97 0.0191 8.975 0.0242 8.98 0.027 8.985 0.0214 8.99 0.00612 8.995 -0.0127
9 -0.0295 9.005 -0.0342 9.01 -0.0223 9.015 -0.00255 9.02 0.0173 9.025 0.0273
9.03 0.022 9.035 0.00926 9.04 -0.00409 9.045 -0.0112 9.05 -0.00789 9.055 -0.000175
9.06 0.00676 9.065 0.00874 9.07 0.00299 9.075 -0.00625 9.08 -0.0153 9.085 -0.0217
9.09 -0.0235 9.095 -0.0224 9.1 -0.0198 9.105 -0.0165 9.11 -0.0133 9.115 -0.0103
9.12 -0.00701 9.125 -0.00242 9.13 0.00355 9.135 0.00932 9.14 0.0133 9.145 0.0117
9.15 0.00334 9.155 -0.00794 9.16 -0.0186 9.165 -0.023 9.17 -0.0185 9.175 -0.00892
9.18 0.00183 9.185 0.00845 9.19 0.00814 9.195 0.00403 9.2 -0.000209 9.205 0.00239
Page 75 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

9.21 0.0145 9.215 0.0321 9.22 0.0488 9.225 0.0504 9.23 0.0352 9.235 0.00372
9.24 -0.0452 9.245 -0.0492 9.25 0.025 9.255 0.063 9.26 0.00306 9.265 -0.0442
9.27 -0.022 9.275 -0.000647 9.28 -0.0093 9.285 -0.0104 9.29 0.00764 9.295 0.028
9.3 0.0433 9.305 0.0474 9.31 0.0365 9.315 0.0188 9.32 0.00131 9.325 -0.00755
9.33 -0.00113 9.335 0.0113 9.34 0.0129 9.345 0.0175 9.35 0.0538 9.355 0.0481
9.36 -0.063 9.365 0.0815 9.37 -0.00659 9.375 -0.005 9.38 -0.0156 9.385 -0.0155
9.39 -0.0189 9.395 -0.0204 9.4 -0.0191 9.405 -0.0209 9.41 -0.0272 9.415 -0.0341
9.42 -0.0387 9.425 -0.0359 9.43 -0.0236 9.435 -0.00724 9.44 0.00857 9.445 0.0185
9.45 0.0193 9.455 0.0147 9.46 0.00819 9.465 0.00267 9.47 0.000375 9.475 -0.000527
9.48 -0.00149 9.485 -0.00392 9.49 -0.00843 9.495 -0.0122 9.5 -0.0134
9.505 -0.0106 9.51 -0.00313 9.515 0.00584 9.52 0.0141 9.525 0.0238 9.53 0.0341
9.535 0.0421 9.54 0.0453 9.545 0.0342 9.55 0.00642 9.555 -0.0268 9.56 -0.056
9.565 -0.0685 9.57 -0.0575 9.575 -0.0342 9.58 -0.00804 9.585 0.0163 9.59 0.033
9.595 0.0445 9.6 0.0521 9.605 0.0476 9.61 0.03 9.615 0.00433 9.62 -0.0219
9.625 -0.0322 9.63 -0.0228 9.635 0.00538 9.64 0.0534 9.645 0.0601 9.65 -0.00838
9.655 -0.0386 9.66 0.0299 9.665 0.0794 9.67 0.0496 9.675 0.0195 9.68 0.0221
9.685 0.0166 9.69 -0.00397 9.695 -0.0325 9.7 -0.071 9.705 -0.0613 9.71 0.0265
9.715 0.0802 9.72 0.0378 9.725 -0.0041 9.73 0.00422 9.735 0.00469 9.74 -0.0241
9.745 -0.0433 9.75 -0.0381 9.755 -0.0259 9.76 -0.0144 9.765 -0.00151
9.77 0.01 9.775 0.02 9.78 0.028 9.785 0.0264 9.79 0.013 9.795 -0.00559
9.8 -0.0237 9.805 -0.0296 9.81 -0.0182 9.815 0.000488 9.82 0.0181 9.825 0.023
9.83 0.00913 9.835 -0.0124 9.84 -0.0324 9.845 -0.0425 9.85 -0.0369 9.855 -0.0237
9.86 -0.00886 9.865 0.00523 9.87 0.0139 9.875 0.02 9.88 0.0327 9.885 0.0336
9.89 -0.00268 9.895 -0.013 9.9 0.0566 9.905 -0.063 9.91 0.00535 9.915 0.00914
9.92 0.0215 9.925 0.0226 9.93 0.0211 9.935 0.0152 9.94 0.00623 9.945 -0.00426
9.95 -0.0148 9.955 -0.0239 9.96 -0.0304 9.965 -0.0315 9.97 -0.0259 9.975 -0.0174
9.98 -0.0082 9.985 0.00328 9.99 0.0158 9.995 0.03 10 0.0427 10.005 0.0406
10.01 0.0241 10.015 -0.0089 10.02 -0.0621 10.025 -0.064 10.03 0.0233
10.035 0.0662 10.04 -0.00675 10.045 -0.0628 10.05 -0.0346 10.055 -0.00627
10.06 -0.0143 10.065 -0.0218 10.07 -0.0172 10.075 -0.013 10.08 -0.0114
10.085 -0.00708 10.09 0.000776 10.095 0.00967 10.1 0.0177 10.105 0.0206
10.11 0.0165 10.115 0.00941 10.12 0.00269 10.125 0.000623 10.13 0.00552
10.135 0.0129 10.14 0.0193 10.145 0.0223 10.15 0.0199 10.155 0.0141 10.16 0.00654
10.165 -0.00361 10.17 -0.0156 10.175 -0.0267 10.18 -0.0349 10.185 -0.0373
10.19 -0.0324 10.195 -0.0229 10.2 -0.0109 10.205 0.00423 10.21 0.0211
10.215 0.0371 10.22 0.0496 10.225 0.0526 10.23 0.0436 10.235 0.0283 10.24 0.0115
10.245 -0.000904 10.25 -0.00506 10.255 -0.00557 10.26 -0.00595 10.265 -0.00755
10.27 -0.0122 10.275 -0.0178 10.28 -0.0232 10.285 -0.0308 10.29 -0.0406
10.295 -0.0498 10.3 -0.0561 10.305 -0.0536 10.31 -0.0403 10.315 -0.0219
10.32 -0.0034 10.325 0.00894 10.33 0.0113 10.335 0.00716 10.34 1.96e-005
10.345 -0.00561 10.35 -0.0072
ARRIVAL TIME
0
DAMPING 0.05
*******************************
DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD R1 LOADTYPE Mass TITLE REF LOAD CASE 1
MEMBER LOAD
19 20 UNI GX 36.382
19 20 UNI GY 36.382
19 20 UNI GZ 36.382
3 4 12 13 17 18 UNI GX 63.243
3 4 12 13 17 18 UNI GY 63.243
3 4 12 13 17 18 UNI GZ 63.243
END DEFINE REFERENCE LOADS
LOAD 1 LOADTYPE Seismic TITLE DYNAMIC TH
REFERENCE LOAD
R1 1.0
GROUND MOTION X 1 1 1.000000
PERFORM ANALYSIS
**************************************************************
**************************************
FINISH
Page 76 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

The Base shear obtained is

BASE SHEAR UNITS ARE -- KN METE

MAXIMUM BASE SHEAR X= -4.968752E+01 Y= 0.000000E+00 Z= 0.000000E+00


AT TIMES 6.695000 0.000000 0.000000
The Base shear for by Response Spectra Method is
TOTAL SRSS SHEAR 66.90 0.00 0.00
TOTAL 10PCT SHEAR 66.90 0.00 0.00
TOTAL ABS SHEAR 80.37 0.00 0.00
TOTAL CSM SHEAR 66.90 0.00 0.00
TOTAL CQC SHEAR 66.93 0.00 0.00

STIFNESS WARNINGS
STAAD Pro works on the basis of Global Stiffness Matrix. For the Plane Frame Beam Shown Below, with four Degree
of Freedom, allowed, a Global Stiffness Matrix will be as below.
Page 77 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

How does a Stiffness Matrix arrived at, by allowing unit translation and Rotation along or about the axes available i.e
available degree of Freedom(d.o.f).

When a Joint has No Member to take rotation or Translation, it will give Zero Stiffness Warning, For
Example for the Plane Frame Below , the It will Give warning similar as below
*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 7 EQN.NO. 12
LOADS APPLIED OR DISTRIBUTED HERE FROM ELEMENTS WILL BE IGNORED.
THIS MAY BE DUE TO ALL MEMBERS AT THIS JOINT BEING RELEASED OR
EFFECTIVELY RELEASED IN THIS DIRECTION.
Page 78 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Removal of Truss Spec from Any one of the Above Three Member will allow a Rotational Freedom, the warning will disappear.
In The Figure Below, Insertion of Joint within Truss Member will cause warning as follow

*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 2 AT JOINT 10 EQN.NO. 17


Page 79 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

LOADS APPLIED OR DISTRIBUTED HERE FROM ELEMENTS WILL BE IGNORED.


THIS MAY BE DUE TO ALL MEMBERS AT THIS JOINT BEING RELEASED OR
EFFECTIVELY RELEASED IN THIS DIRECTION.
*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 10 EQN.NO. 18

Making Either Member 7 OR 12 as Axial- Flexural Member will make a Path for Translation along Y and Rotation about Z Axis(
Since its a Plane Frame in X Y Plane, hence Translation along Z is not required and Rotation about X and Y is not required),The
Warnings will Disappear.
Defining the Member as Space Frame will cause Zero Stiffness in 5 Directions. Since Both Member 7 and 8 are Axial Member,
Hence Cannot Translate in Z Direction, Cannot Translate in Y Direction and Cannot rotate in
About X, Y, Z Direction. Since Axial Member, it can Move around X Direction.

The above warning may also appear when member releases or element releases deprive the structure of stiffness at associated
node along global translation or rotational direction. For the Figure 3 shown for a Plane Frame, beam 7 and 12 are released at
Node 10,the Warning appears as follow

*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 10 EQN.NO. 18


LOADS APPLIED OR DISTRIBUTED HERE FROM ELEMENTS WILL BE IGNORED.
THIS MAY BE DUE TO ALL MEMBERS AT THIS JOINT BEING RELEASED OR
EFFECTIVELY RELEASED IN THIS DIRECTION.
STAAD treats these as warning, not Error as , if there is no force applied at or along the degree of Freeddom, the point may not
be a trouble spot, as they may not necessarily be detrimental to proper transfer of load, from the Structure to Foundation,
which is basic requirement for Stability of a Structure.

What could be the use of Zero Stiffness warning? It could an indication of absence of Load path to foundation, causing
instability in the structure.
A duplicate Node Number (say node 13 and 14 have same coordinates) causes Message as Follow

**WARNING- JOINT NO. 14 NOT CONNECTED. OK, IF PART OF MASTER/SLAVE.


**WARNING- THIS STRUCTURE IS DISJOINTED. IGNORE IF
**MASTER/SLAVE OR IF UNCONNECTED JOINTS.
Page 80 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

STABILITY ERROR
Consider the Plane Frame Truss shown in the Figure 4. Although all of the Nodes creates stiffness warning, the Load 10 KN is
able to find path to reach the support thru the inclined member, as the inclined members axial stiffness supports vertical load ,
which is transferred to this member as shear force for the Truss as a whole.

What happens if we remove the diagonal members??

*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 1 EQN.NO. 3


LOADS APPLIED OR DISTRIBUTED HERE FROM ELEMENTS WILL BE IGNORED.
THIS MAY BE DUE TO ALL MEMBERS AT THIS JOINT BEING RELEASED OR
EFFECTIVELY RELEASED IN THIS DIRECTION.
Page 81 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 2 EQN.NO. 4


*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 3 EQN.NO. 7
*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 4 EQN.NO. 10
*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 5 EQN.NO. 13
*WARNING- ZERO STIFFNESS IN DIRECTION 6 AT JOINT 6 EQN.NO. 15

***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 4 DIRECTION = FY


PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 2.6220993E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 9
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
**NOTE** STAAD DETECTS INSTABILITIES AS EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
DURING DECOMPOSITION. WHEN A DECOMPOSED DIAGONAL IS LESS THAN THE
BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR TIMES THE ORIGINAL STIFFNESS MATRIX DIAGONAL,
STAAD PRINTS A SINGULARITY NOTICE. THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR
IS 1.000E-09
THE ABOVE CONDITIONS COULD ALSO BE CAUSED BY VERY STIFF OR VERY WEAK
ELEMENTS AS WELL AS TRUE SINGULARITIES.
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 5 DIRECTION = FX
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 2.3598851E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 4.5474735E-13 EQN NO 11
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY

The alignment of the Members does not remain as before, the axial force from vertical member cannot
find any path( Thru Force Resolution into component, thus thru diagonal members) to the Support. If the
members were Axial Flexural, than Flexural Shear would have taken care of the load transfer.
One way to avoid these instability, to partially release Moment of the members at ends.

All warning messages and stability error messages disappear. However we must be careful about using this
method to remove error and warnings as structure may be stable in the Programme, but is not actually.
We must be careful about support releases as well, a Plane Frame with pinned support analysed as space
frame, we generate following error messages
Page 82 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 6 DIRECTION = MX


PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 5.2074578E+04 L-MATRIX DIAG= 4.3655746E-11 EQN NO 24
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
**NOTE** STAAD DETECTS INSTABILITIES AS EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
DURING DECOMPOSITION. WHEN A DECOMPOSED DIAGONAL IS LESS THAN THE
BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR TIMES THE ORIGINAL STIFFNESS MATRIX DIAGONAL,
STAAD PRINTS A SINGULARITY NOTICE. THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR
IS 1.000E-09
THE ABOVE CONDITIONS COULD ALSO BE CAUSED BY VERY STIFF OR VERY WEAK
ELEMENTS AS WELL AS TRUE SINGULARITIES.
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 6 DIRECTION = MY
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 8.5276952E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= -1.5825208E-10 EQN NO 25
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY

A Space frame with all support having FX, FY , FZ released will generate following Error messages

***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 11 DIRECTION = FX


PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 4.3827921E+01 L-MATRIX DIAG= 5.4001248E-13 EQN NO 46
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
**NOTE** STAAD DETECTS INSTABILITIES AS EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
DURING DECOMPOSITION. WHEN A DECOMPOSED DIAGONAL IS LESS THAN THE
BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR TIMES THE ORIGINAL STIFFNESS MATRIX DIAGONAL,
STAAD PRINTS A SINGULARITY NOTICE. THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR
IS 1.000E-09
THE ABOVE CONDITIONS COULD ALSO BE CAUSED BY VERY STIFF OR VERY WEAK
ELEMENTS AS WELL AS TRUE SINGULARITIES.
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 11 DIRECTION = FY
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 2.6220993E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 47
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 11 DIRECTION = FZ
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 4.3827921E+01 L-MATRIX DIAG= 8.5265128E-14 EQN NO 48
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
Making any one of them as pinned or Fixed will create a load path, Error messages will disappear.

Now consider the Plane Frame Portal.


While increasing the Stiffness of shaded part 1 0 times , generates no warning, while increasing it by 100
times, generate warning as below
** WARNING ** A STIFF MATERIAL WITH 1.086E+01 TIMES THE STIFFNESS OF STEEL
ENTERED. PLEASE CHECK.
Page 83 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

Which is some times done to simulate rigidity of beam column junctions in RCC, which is OK

Increasing Stiffness of Shaded part by 100,000, 000 times causes Error Messages for all the 6 Degree of
Freedom for the Joints under consideration.
This is due to numerical instability in matrix decomposition, at joint one of the Term becomes, Term= 1/(1-
F), where F= EI1/(EI1+EI2), resulting F=1, Term =1/(1-1)=1/0.
These Types of Error may also results from the mistakes done in unit , say same Numerical value of one
beam Witten as MMS Newton as 1000, an other beam in M KN witten as 10,000( which actually 10, 000
mm). Also may arise when very stiff properties are Assigned to member connecting to a another
member( Flexible Member).
**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 7 DIRECTION = FX
PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
K-MATRIX DIAG= 9.9134905E+11 L-MATRIX DIAG= 5.9138909E+03 EQN NO 13
**NOTE** STAAD DETECTS INSTABILITIES AS EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
DURING DECOMPOSITION. WHEN A DECOMPOSED DIAGONAL IS LESS THAN THE
BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR TIMES THE ORIGINAL STIFFNESS MATRIX DIAGONAL,
STAAD PRINTS A SINGULARITY NOTICE. THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR
IS 1.000E-09
THE ABOVE CONDITIONS COULD ALSO BE CAUSED BY VERY STIFF OR VERY WEAK
ELEMENTS AS WELL AS TRUE SINGULARITIES.

STAAD SPACE -- PAGE NO. 3


**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 7 DIRECTION = FY
PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
K-MATRIX DIAG= 3.7204753E+12 L-MATRIX DIAG= 8.1625132E+03 EQN NO 14
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 7 DIRECTION = FZ
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 3.7717512E+11 L-MATRIX DIAG= 6.9449280E+01 EQN NO 15
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 7 DIRECTION = MX
PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
Page 84 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

K-MATRIX DIAG= 1.3679023E+14 L-MATRIX DIAG= 4.5783027E+05 EQN NO 16


**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 7 DIRECTION = MY
PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
K-MATRIX DIAG= 5.6494873E+13 L-MATRIX DIAG= 3.7803318E+05 EQN NO 17
**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 7 DIRECTION = MZ
PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
K-MATRIX DIAG= 5.5341489E+14 L-MATRIX DIAG= 4.8779121E+06 EQN NO 18
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = FX
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 9.9134905E+11 L-MATRIX DIAG= 4.8857324E+02 EQN NO 19
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = FY
PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
K-MATRIX DIAG= 3.7204753E+12 L-MATRIX DIAG= 8.1300679E+03 EQN NO 20
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = FZ
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 3.7717512E+11 L-MATRIX DIAG= 6.0517456E+01 EQN NO 21
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = MX
PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
K-MATRIX DIAG= 1.3679023E+14 L-MATRIX DIAG= 4.3902155E+05 EQN NO 22
**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = MY PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
K-MATRIX DIAG= 5.6494873E+13 L-MATRIX DIAG= 3.3535532E+05 EQN NO 23
**NOTE - NEAR INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = MZ
PROBABLE CAUSE - NEAR SINGULAR K-MATRIX
K-MATRIX DIAG= 5.5341489E+14 L-MATRIX DIAG= 4.2073266E+06 EQN NO 24

Consider the Space Frame Shown in Figure 9. The Perform Analysis would results in following Error Messages
Page 85 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 6 DIRECTION = MY


PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 4.2638473E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 20
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
**NOTE** STAAD DETECTS INSTABILITIES AS EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
DURING DECOMPOSITION. WHEN A DECOMPOSED DIAGONAL IS LESS THAN THE
BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR TIMES THE ORIGINAL STIFFNESS MATRIX DIAGONAL,
STAAD PRINTS A SINGULARITY NOTICE. THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR
IS 1.000E-09
THE ABOVE CONDITIONS COULD ALSO BE CAUSED BY VERY STIFF OR VERY WEAK
ELEMENTS AS WELL AS TRUE SINGULARITIES.
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 7 DIRECTION = MY
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 4.2638473E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 26
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = MX
Page 86 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING


K-MATRIX DIAG= 2.7275058E+04 L-MATRIX DIAG= -8.5856300E-10 EQN NO 31
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = MY
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 4.2638473E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 32
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = MZ
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 2.7275058E+04 L-MATRIX DIAG= -8.5856300E-10 EQN NO 33
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
The Joint 5 which has fixed base at 1, is able to take both MX and MZ. In Joint 6 and 7, MX and MZ is
being catered by Joint 5 (Via Fixed base at Joint 1). But joint 8 is Not able to take all three d.o.f MX, MY,
MZ.
Consider the Figure Below.

It will give following Errors


***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 8 DIRECTION = MZ
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 1.9802713E+07 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 36
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
**NOTE** STAAD DETECTS INSTABILITIES AS EXCESSIVE LOSS OF SIGNIFICANT DIGITS
DURING DECOMPOSITION. WHEN A DECOMPOSED DIAGONAL IS LESS THAN THE
BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR TIMES THE ORIGINAL STIFFNESS MATRIX DIAGONAL,
STAAD PRINTS A SINGULARITY NOTICE. THE BUILT-IN REDUCTION FACTOR
IS 1.000E-09
THE ABOVE CONDITIONS COULD ALSO BE CAUSED BY VERY STIFF OR VERY WEAK
ELEMENTS AS WELL AS TRUE SINGULARITIES
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 10 DIRECTION = FX
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 3.0792032E+00 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 43
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 10 DIRECTION = FY
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
Page 87 of 87 by SAROJ BISWAS

K-MATRIX DIAG= 3.0792032E+00 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 44


***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 10 DIRECTION = FZ
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 1.2401584E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 45
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 10 DIRECTION = MX
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 2.5498595E+04 L-MATRIX DIAG= 1.4551915E-11 EQN NO 46
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 10 DIRECTION = MY
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 2.5498595E+04 L-MATRIX DIAG= 1.4551915E-11 EQN NO 47
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY
***WARNING - INSTABILITY AT JOINT 10 DIRECTION = MZ
PROBABLE CAUSE SINGULAR-ADDING WEAK SPRING
K-MATRIX DIAG= 4.6276367E+03 L-MATRIX DIAG= 0.0000000E+00 EQN NO 48
***NOTE - VERY WEAK SPRING ADDED FOR STABILITY

Making it as shown below, remove Problem with a degree of Freedom at joint 9 and 10 but not 8. This is because plates out
considered pined at both top and Bottom. Adding Two Beams at Top connecting the loaded beam will solve the problem. The
Beam may be defined as E having 1/100 of Actual and Density=0. However ,a warning will still persist as

** WARNING ** A SOFT MATERIAL WITH (1.0 / 1.000E+02) TIMES THE STIFFNESS OF CONCRETE ENTERED. PLEASE CHECK.

This is just to inform the user.