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IWE Course Modul:2, Item: 2.

10

Materials and their behavior during welding

2.10 High strength steels

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E-mail: krittee.eed@gmail.com

Assist. Prof. Dr. Krittee EIDHED 1


Objective for IWE:
Understand in detail the effects of micro-alloying elements on structure,
mechanical properties and weldability with reference to fine-grained and high
strength steels.

Learning Outcomes for IWE


1. Explain fully the different methods to obtain fine-grained steels and effects of
micro alloying.
2. Explain fully the relationship between grain refinement and mechanical
properties.
3. Detail appropriate applications.
4. Interpret the relationship between grade and weldability.
5. Detail applicable welding processes and potential problems.
6. Explain fully the effects of heat treatment after welding and deduce the
conditions (in particular temperature) of such treatment.
7. Deduce the appropriate fillerAssist.
metalProf. for a given
Dr. Krittee EIDHEDapplication 2
High strength steels
1) Steels group 2 and 3 according to ISO/TR 15608
2) Concept of grain refinement (micro-alloying elements, formation and
dilution of particles)
3) Principles of treatment (controlled rolling, accelerated cooling, direct
quench, thermomechanical treatment etc.)
4) Normalised grades (Chemical composition, properties)
5) Quenched and tempered grades (Chemical composition, properties)
6) High strength steels (Chemical composition, Mechanical properties)
7) Weldability, t 8/5 concept, preheat and interpass temperature, CE
8) Influence of welding process on HAZ (microstructure, properties)
9) Steels for automotive industries (TRIP, TWIP, dual phase, etc.)
10) Applications
11) Standards global (ISO), regional (CEN) and National
12) Choice of filler metal (mismatching, etc.)
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2.10 High strength steels
High-strength fine-grained, yield point over 355N/mm
They replace especially in constructional, vessel, pipe line, crane
and vehicle construction unalloyed structural
Partly due to their significant higher strength properties (at fine
grain steels currently to Rp0.2 = 1,300 N/mm )
In accordance with DIN CEN ISO/TR 15608 (group management of
metallic material for welding purposes)

Material Grouping for both Procedures and Welder Approval

ISO 15608 this standard has no current EN equivalent

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Note: Steels with yield point or yield strength values of Re over 355
N/mm2 are designated as high strength steels. In the European
regulations, terms such as higher strength, highest strength, ultra
high-strength, mega high-strength or the like are not defined.
However, these can be found in the literature at times and are based only
on individual classifications or originate from US publications.
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Standard for approval of welding procedures

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ISO/TR 15608
Group Sub-Group Type of steel
1 Steels with a specified minimum yield strength ReH 460 N/mm a and
with analysis in (wt%) :
0.25%C, 0.60%Si, 1.70%Mn, 0.70%Mob, 0.045%S, 0.005%P, 0.40%Cub ,
0.5%Ni b, 0.3%Cr (0.4%Cr for castings) b 0.05%Nb 0.12%V , 0.05%Ti
1.1 Steels with a specified minimum specified yield strength ReH 275
N/mm
1.2 Steels with a specified minimum yield strength 275 N/mm ReH 360
N/mm
1.3 Normalized fine grain steels with a specified minimum yield strength
ReH > 360 N/mm
1.4 Steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance whose analysis
may exceed the requirements for the single elements as indicated
under 1
a In accordance with the specification of the steel product standards, ReH may be replaced by
Rp0,2 or Rt0,5.
b A higher value is accepted provided that Cr + Mo + Ni + Cu + V 0,75 %.
c "Free of vanadium" means not deliberately added to the material.
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d A higher value is accepted provided that 7
Cr + Mo + Ni + Cu + V 1 %.
ISO/TR 15608
Group Sub- Type of steel
Group

2 Thermomechanically treated fine grain steels and cast steels with a


specified minimum yield strength ReH > 360 N/mm
2.1 Thermomechanically treated fine grain steels and cast steels with a
specified minimum yield strength 360 N/mm < ReH 460 N/mm
2.2 Thermomechanically treated fine grain steels and cast steels with a
specified minimum yield strength ReH > 460 N/mm

3 Quenched and tempered steels and precipitation hardened steels except


stainless steels with a specified minimum yield strength ReH > 360
N/mm
3.1 Quenched and tempered steels with a specified minimum yield strength
360 N/mm < ReH 690 N/mm
3.2 Quenched and tempered steels with a specified minimum yield strength
ReH > 690 N/mm
3.3 Precipitation hardened steels except stainless steels
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How to enhance the strength of metals?
Key: Strength of metal is controlled by the number and
motion of the dislocation.

How to move the dislocation?


Key: Dislocation is moved by the stress
Dislocation & Tensile test
when it was applied.

Why dislocation is easily to move in the pure metal


compared with alloys?
Key1: Solid solution in matrix.
Key2: Grain size, Transformation phase, Precipitate particle and
Intermetallic compound.
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2. Material mechanisms of strengthening
Strengthening / hardening are involved to the
mobility of dislocations
1) Solid solution hardening (alloy formation),
2) Grain refinement (formation of grain boundaries).
3) Cold strain hardening
4) Precipitation hardening
5) Hardening by lattice transformation (formation of Bainite or
martensite)
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2.1 Strengthening by solid solution hardening

The different atomic volumes in a substitutional/


interstitial solid solutions generate a permanent elastic
stress field which is able to strongly influence the
movements of the dislocations.
Thus, strength increases strongly in non-alloyed
structural steels with increasing carbon content. 13
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2.1 Strengthening by solid solution
hardening
1.1 Substitutional solid solution ()
1.2 Interstitial solid solution ()

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2.1.1 Substitutional solid solution


Melting (liquid) Solid
Diffusion (solid)
Solvent atoms: Matrix atom; ()

Solute atoms: Impurity; ()

1) 15 %
2)
3) Electronegativity
Electronegativity
Electronegativity (Intermetallic compound)
4) Valence Electron
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Electronegativity

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2.1.2 Interstitial solid solution

H, N, O, C
: (ferrite phase)
0.008%C 912-1394oC 1148oC
2.08 %C


FCC space lattice 0.053 nm
BCC space lattice 0.036 nmAssist. Prof. Dr. Krittee EIDHED
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2.2 Strengthening by grain boundaries

Hall-Petch k
equation: ys 0
d
Where: ys is yield stress
0 and k are constant values
d is average grain size

The grain size is one of the few influencing factors that both
Effect of Grain increases the strength and advantageously improve plasticity
boundaries Assist. Prof. Dr. Krittee EIDHED 18
and toughness.
Effect of grain size on lower yield point
of mild steel

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Effect of grain size on lower yield point

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The influence of the grain size on the
transition temperature

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The Hall-Petch

Where:
ReL: Lower yield point
R: Friction stress, which must be exerted, in order to initiate the
dislocation movement in the grain
W: Resistance, which the grain boundaries exert against the
propagation of the plastic deformation,is a measure of the influence
of the grain boundaries on the dislocation movement
LK: linear average grain size
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The stress-strain curve

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2.3 Strengthening by precipitation-hardening
Strength values can be increased significantly by precipitating the
smallest particles from a solid solution with decreasing solubility
of a second component as the temperature falls.
This depends on the size and number of precipitates that inhibit
the movement of dislocations in the base lattice.

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2.3 Strengthening by precipitation-hardening
Coherent strain hardening: strain field
Chemical hardening: cut/ shear a coherent particle
Dispersion hardening: by-pass a incoherent particle

introduction

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2.3 Strengthening by precipitation-hardening
Cut/ shear a coherent
particle

Coherent particles

Chemical hardening

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2.3 Strengthening by precipitation-hardening
Dispersion hardening

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Precipitation mechanism

Solution treatment Aging hardening


Quenching
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Precipitated particles in Al-Cu alloy
q
GP zones

q q

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High-strength fine-grain structural steels are alloyed in a targeted
fashion with small amounts of titanium, niobium and/or
vanadium, in order to achieve strengthening through the
formation of finely dispersed precipitates (nitrides and
carbonitrides) in combination with an adapted heat treatment.

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2.4 Strengthening by cold strain hardening

Cold strain hardening increases strength levels


by means of plastic deformation below the
recrystallisation temperature TR
During plastic deformation the additionally
formed dislocations pile up at obstacles (e.g.
at grain boundaries)

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2. Strain hardening (work-hardening)

0Gb

Where: Shear flow stress depends on the


Shear flow stress dislocation density
0 Original flow stress
G = Shear modulus
b = Bergers vector
= Constant value, ~0.3-0.5
= dislocation density

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Dislocation motion

Example and types of


What is the pile-up of
dislocation motion.
dislocation?
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Cold working

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Deformation and
Annealing

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Effect of size of dispersiod on the dislocation density

Strain field
F

Heating

F Low degree of
recrystallization
Dispersiod act as the Coarse grains
Small, spherical dispersiod.
nucleation sites for
recrystallization
Extra
dislocation F Rod-like
particles
become
Heating fragmented

F
High degree of
Coarse, rod-like dispersiod. recrystallization
Non-deformed dispersiod. Fine grains
Larger strain field.
Higher driving force for
Deformation state the recrystallization Normal annealing state
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Hot working

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Heat treatment

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2.5 Strengthening by lattice transformation
In this process, cooling rates greater than vcrit increasingly
suppress the diffusion of carbon.
The supersaturation of this element leads, due to the
martensitic transformation (microstructure shearing), to a
considerable increase in the dislocation density and thus to
micro and macro internal stresses, which bring about an
increase in the strength properties.
Depending on the carbon content and the cooling rate, the
toughness properties generally deteriorate significantly.

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CCT Diagram (Continuous Cooling Transformation Diagram)

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Source: W.D. Callister, Materials Science and Engineering: an Introduction, McGraw-Hill, USA, 2003.
Martensite
-Body-Centered Tetragonal (BCT) structure
-It is transformed by diffusionless transformation.

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Source: W. Bleck, Materials Science of Steels: Textbook for RWTH Students, Aachen, Germany, 2007.
Fine-grain structural steels
fine-grain structural steels with yield points Re to 355 N/mm,
which are all fully killed with aluminum

The fine-grain structural steels are classified according to the


respective manufacturing process used and the associated principal
strengthening mechanisms

Normalised rolled fine structural steels (N)


Thermomechanically rolled fine-grain structural steels
(M)
Quenched and tempered fine-grain structural steels (Q)
Precipitation-hardening steels (A)
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