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Activity 1

1. What does research in the psychometric tradition typically investigate?

- It was applied in early evaluations of L2 instruction, which followed as much as
possible standart educational psychometric procedures, with comparison treatment
group and measurement of outcomes on proficiency test. It investigates the
relationship between classroom activities or behaviors and language achievement.
2. What do you think is meant by:
a. Context-product studies: focus on the learning outcomes
b. Presage-product studies: attempt to identify the psychological characteristics of an
affective teacher by looking at personality or characteristics.
c. Process-product studies: focus on the affects of certain processes on others in
classroom interaction.

3. What has research in interaction analysis focused on, and how will the outcome be
- The reseachers in this tradition have not pursued quantitative analyses, although
measurement of the frequency of specific behaviors implied, a quantitative focus.

4. What is the main feature distinguishing discourse analysis from interaction analysis?

Discourse Interaction analysis

Method of gathering Invented Elicited
data Elicited Naturalistic
Mode Spoken Spoken
Type of analysis Categorical Interpretive
Units of analysis Linguistic Linguistic and Non-

5. Why is the ethnographic tradition said to be strictly qualitative?

- Because it attempts to interpret behaviors from the perspective of the participats
different understanding rather than from the observers analysis.

Activity 2
1. Why is the distinction between qualitative and quantitative approaches to research
considered to be an oversimplification?
- In analyzing actual research studies, it is necessary to take into consideration the
method of data collection (whether the data have been collected experimentally or
non-experimentally); the type of data yielded by the investigation (qualitative or
quantitative); and type of analyzing conducted on the data (whether statistical or
2. Mention the two pure paradigm of research, and distinguish them in term of the methods
used, the type of data to be gathered, and the techniques of data analysis to be adopted
- Exploratory interpretive paradigm on which utilizes a non-experimental method,
yield qualitative data, and provides an interpretive analysis of data.
- Analytical-nomological paradigm, is one in which the data are collected through an
experiment, and yields quantitative data which are subjected to statistical analysis.
3. What kind of research is at one end of interventionist continuum, and what type is at the
- A formal experiment which takes place under laboratory conditions would be placed
at one end of the interventionist continuum.
- A naturalistic study of classroom in action would be placed at the other end of the
4. Explain (with example) the difference between primary and secondary research?
- Primary research :
Case study : centre on a single individual or limited number of individuals,
documenting some aspects of their languange development, usually over an extended
period of time.
Stastitical study : to estimate the probability, that the result did not occur by chance
- Stastitical study :
Survey study : investigate a groups attitudes, opinions, or characteristics, often
through some form of questionnaire.
Experimental study : control the conditions under which the behaviour under
investigation is observed.