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Earthquake load

Base Shear (V), is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of a structure. It is an
estimate of the maximum expected lateral force that will occur due to seismic ground motion
at the base of a structure. [*] Section 208.2 Definitions, Earthquake Loads NSCP 2010

Seismic parameters used for the computation of the earthquake load are based from the
structural material, seismic zone, occupancy, and distance from fault line, soil type, and
structural system.

Calculations of shear depend on the soil conditions on the site, proximity to potential sources of
seismic activity, probability of significant seismic ground motion, fundamental period of
structure and soil at the site, structural configuration and total weight of the structure.

Computations for the seismic parameters:

a. Seismic Zone Factor, Z


The Philippine archipelago is divided into two seismic zones only; Zone 2 covers the
provinces of Palawan, Sulu, and Tawi-Tawi while the rest of the country is under Zone 4.
Each structure shall be assigned a seismic zone factor Z, in accordance with [*] Table
208-3 Section 208.4.4.1

Zone 2 4
Z 0.20 0.40

Since the structure is located at Tagaytay, it is under Seismic Zone 4

Seismic Zone Factor, Z = 0.4

b. Occupancy Category, I
For purposes of earthquake-resistant design, each structure shall be placed in one of the
occupancy categories. Table 208-1 assigns importance factors, I and Ip and structural
observation requirements for each category. [*] Section 208.4.2 Occupancy Categories
NSCP 2010
Occupancy Category Seismic Importance Seismic Importance Factor,
Factor, I Ip
I. Essential Facilities 1.50 1.50
II. Hazardous Facilities 1.25 1.50
III. Special Occupancy 1.00 1.00
Structures
IV. Standard Occupancy 1.00 1.00
Structures
V. Miscellaneous Structures 1.00 1.00

Since the structure is a Standard Occupancy Structure

Seismic Importance Factor, I = 1.0

c. Seismic Source Types, Sc


Each site shall be assigned a soil profile type based on properly substantiated
geotechnical data using the site categorization procedure set forth in Section 208.10
and Table 208-2. [*] Section 208.4.3 Site Geology and Soil Characteristics

Note: For this project the soil profile is Type Sc Very dense soil and Soft Rock

d. Seismic Zone 4 Near-Source Factor, Na, Nv


In Seismic Zone 4, each site shall be assigned near-source factors in accordance with
Tables 208-5 and 208-6 based on the Seismic Source Type as set forth in [*] Section
208.4.4.2 NSCP 2010

Seismic Source Type Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source


<5km >10km
A 1.2 1.0
B 1.0 1.0
C 1.0 1.0

Since the structure is located more than 10km from a known seismic source:

Na = 1

Seismic Source Type Closest Distance to Known Seismic Source


<5km 10km >15km
A 1.6 1.2 1.0
B 1.2 1.0 1.0
C 1.0 1.0 1.0
Since the structure is located more than 15km from a known seismic source:

Nv = 1

e. Seismic Response Coefficients, Ca, Cv


Each Structure shall be assigned a seismic coefficient, Ca, in accordance with Table 208-
7 and a seismic coefficient, Cv, in accordance with Table 208-8.

Soil Profile Type Seismic Zone Z


Z = 0.2 Z = 0.4
Sa 0.16 0.32Na
Sb 0.20 0.40Na
Sc 0.24 0.40Na
Sd 0.28 0.44Na
Se 0.34 0.44Na

Since the Soil Type is Sc and the Seismic Zone is 0.4


Ca=0.40Na = 0.40(1) = 0.40, Seismic Coefficient Ca = 0.40

Soil Profile Type Seismic Zone Z


Z = 0.2 Z = 0.4
Sa 0.16 0.32Nv
Sb 0.20 0.40Nv
Sc 0.32 0.56Nv
Sd 0.40 0.64Nv
Se 0.64 0.96Nv

Since the Soil Type is Sc and the Seismic Zone is 0.4


Cv=0.56Nv = 0.56(1) = 0.56, Seismic Coefficient Cv = 0.56

f. Ductility Capacity Coefficient, R


R is used for computing the design base shear. It is a numerical coefficient
representative of the inherent over strength and global ductility capacity of lateral-
force-resisting system, as set forth in Table 208-11 or 208-13 [*] Section 208.3 Symbol
and Notation
In this project the group used, Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls
R = 5.6

g. Structural Period, T
T is the elastic fundamental period of vibration of the structure in the direction under
consideration, [*] Section 208.3 Symbol and Notation NSCP 2010

Using method A:
For all buildings, the value T may be approximated from the following equation:

3
= ()4
Where:
Ct = 0.0853 for steel moment resisting frames.
Ct = 0.0731 for reinforced concrete moment-resisting frames.
Ct = 0.0488 for all other buildings.

Since the structure uses Ordinary reinforced concrete shear walls and its not in the two
options therefore the value for Ct is 0.0488 for all other buildings.

Ct = 0.0488

Since the structure is 8m tall, the value for hn is:

hn = 8m

Computing for T:

= 0.0488(8)3/4 = 0.2321332288

*note: Since T < 0.70 seconds, Ft need not to be computed.

h. Total Seismic Dead load, W


The effective seismic weight, W, that needs to be used in the determination of the
seismic base shear is the total weight of the building and that part of the other gravity
loads that might reasonably be expected to be acting on the building at the time it is
subjected to the design earthquake.

= 2 +

2 = 2 + +

0.300m thick reinforced concrete slab


0.300m x 23.6kN/m^3 = 7.08kPa
0.020m thick ceramic tile on 25mm mortar bed
= 1.10kPa
Partition wall loads on floor = 0.50kPa

= 8.6kPa x (floor area = 96m^2) = 825kN


2

Number of beam x (area ) x length x 23.6kN/m^3


4pcs x (.2m x .4m) x 8m x 23.6kN/m^3 = 60kN
3pcs x (.2m x .4m) x 12m x 23.6kN/m^3 = 67kN
= 127kN

Number of column x (area ) x length x 23.6kN/m^3


12pcs x (.3m x .3m) x 3m x 23.6kN/m^3 = 76kN
= 76kN

2 =

= + +

0.300m thick reinforced concrete slab


0.300m x 23.6kN/m^3 = 7.08kPa
0.020m thick ceramic tile on 25mm mortar bed
= 1.10kPa
= 8.1kPa x (floor area = 96m^2) = 785kN

Number of beam x (area ) x length x 23.6kN/m^3


4pcs x (.2m x .4m) x 8m x 23.6kN/m^3 = 60kN
3pcs x (.2m x .4m) x 12m x 23.6kN/m^3 = 67kN
= 127kN

Number of column x (area ) x length x 23.6kN/m^3


12pcs x (.3m x .3m) x 1m x 23.6kN/m^3 = 25kN
= 25kN

=
= 1028 + 937 =

As stated in the [*] Section 208.5.2.1 NSCP 2010, the total base shear caused by an earthquake
shall be determined from the following equations:


=

The total base shear must not exceed the following:

2.5
=

The total base shear shall not be less than the following:

1 = 0.11

In addition, for seismic zone 4, the total base shear shall also be not less than the following:

0.8
2 =

For Design Base Shear:


0.56(1)
= (1965) = 846.50
(5.6)(0.2321332288)
For Design Base Shear Minimum 1:

1 = 0.11(0.4)(1)(1965) = 86.46

For Design Base Shear Minimum 2:


0.8(0.4)(1)(1)
2 = (1965) = 112.28
5.6

For Design Base Shear Max:

2.5(0.4)(1)
= (1965) = 350.88
5.6

Since > , use

V = 350.88kN
APPLICATION OF EARTHQUAKE LOAD

The effective Shear caused by the Total Base Shear shall be distributed at each
floor and shall be applied as a concentrated load for each floor. V = 356.82kN

Use the distribution factor:

Where:

wi = seismic design load for each floor

h = height of each floor with reference to the ground

Distribution Factor for 2nd floor:

(1028)(4 )
1 = = 0.39
(1028)(4 ) + (937)(7)

Distribution Factor for Roof Deck:

(937)(7)
2 = = 0.61
(1028)(4 ) + (937)(7)

Therefore:

1 = 0.39 350.88 = .

2 = 0.61 350.88 = .