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IIW Guideline

INTERNATIONAL WELDING INSPECTION


PERSONNEL
Minimum Requirements for the Education,
Examination and Qualification

IAB-041r3-08
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EDUCATION, TRAINING, EXAMINATION AND


QUALIFICATION OF INSPECTION PERSONNEL

INTERNATIONAL WELDING INSPECTION PERSONNEL

(IWIP)

Guideline of the International Institute of Welding

INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD

Published by: IIW IAB Secretariat


C/o ISQ
Taguspark Apartado 012
P 2780-994 Porto Salvo Oeiras
PORTUGAL

Tel: +351.21.4211351
Fax: +351.21.4228122
E-mail: ewf-iab@isq.pt

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Preface..... 4

SECTION I: Minimum Requirements for the Education and training of International Welding
Inspection Personnel
1. Introduction... 5
2. Levels of Inspection Personnel......... 5
3. Standard Routes to Qualification ..... 6
4. Alternative Route to Qualification........... 10
5. Distance learning programs............ 11
6. Recognition of NDT certification.................................. 11
7. Definitions....... 11
7.1. Education and training......11
7.2. Qualification....11
7.3. Relevant inspection experience...... 11
7.4. Certification.... 12
8. The Inspectors Role ..................................................................................................... 12
8.1. Reports ...................................................................................................................... 13
8.2. Certification system ...................................................................................................... 13
9. Syllabus... 14

Theoretical education: Welding Technology Modules........ 15


1. Module 1. Welding processes and equipment. 15
2. Module 2. Materials and their behaviour during welding... 32
3. Module 3. Construction and design.......51
4. Module 4. Fabrication, applications engineering.... 59

Theoretical education: Welding Inspection Modules... 69


1. General introduction to welding inspection..... 69
2. Mechanical tests on welded joint .....70
3. Weld Imperfections. 71
4. Testing methods......... 72
5. Quality Assurance. Principles and levels.... 80
6. Management of inspection function. 81
7. Practical work...... 82

Theoretical education: Basic technology Module 0..... 83

SECTION II: Minimum requirements for experience, examination and qualification


1. Introduction...... 85
2. Route from IWI-B to IWI-S and from IWI-S to IWI-C. 85
3. Verification of visual acuity.85
4. Approval of courses 85
5. Examination Board ........ 85
6. Examination procedures.............. 85
6.1 Theoretical written examination......... 86
6.2 Practical examination...... 86
7. Re-examination....... 86
8. Diploma of the International Institute of Welding ...... 87
9. Appeals procedure......87
10. Transition arrangements... 87

Appendix I. Equipment ....................... ......... 88


Appendix II. ANB detailed assessment.... ...... 89

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Preface
This document is based upon the European Welding Inspection Personnel Guideline as
developed by the European Federation for Welding, Joining and Cutting (EWF), through an
Agreement first signed in 19 July, 1997, at the Annual Meeting of the International Institute of
Welding in San Francisco, California, USA and which has been renewed and further developed
since then.

Any EWF ANB is permitted to issue EWF diplomas equivalent to IIW ones that have been
issued by the same ANB.

Copies of this document are available from the IIW IAB Secretariat or their designated
distributor.

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Section I: Minimum requirements for the education and training of


International Welding Inspection Personnel

1. Introduction

This guideline for the education of International Welding Inspection Personnel to be employed in
the job function of Inspector has been devised by members of the Working Group A3b of
International Authorisation Board (IAB) of the International Institute of Welding (IIW). It is
designed to provide the core education in welding and inspection technology required by those
responsible for performing inspection tasks at various levels. It is possible that additional
training and/or experience may be required beyond the core education to meet the requirements
of specific applications or job functions.

Section 1 of this guideline covers the minimum requirements for education and training, agreed
upon by all national welding societies within the IIW, in terms of themes, keywords and times
devoted to them. It will be revised periodically by the WG A3b to take into account any changes
that may affect the state of the art. Students having successfully completed this course of
education will be expected to be capable of applying welding inspection technology as covered
by this guideline. Section 2 of this document covers examination and qualification.

2. Levels of Inspection Personnel

This Guideline sets out the education for three levels of personnel, as follow:

COMPREHENSIVE (IWI-C): A candidate completing the Comprehensive level of training


under this programme shall possess an intimate knowledge of welding and inspection theory
and application. This knowledge base will enable the candidate to understand and effectively
apply the knowledge in the areas of:
Non-destructive, mechanical testing and visual welding iInspection techniques
Review and application of welding instructions, welding procedure specifications and
qualified welding procedures.
Material specifications
Consumable specifications
Engineering drawings, joint fit up and workmanship tolerances
Preparation and application of welding procedure specifications,.
Preparation and implementation of inspection procedures and acceptance criteria
Quality Control Programmes
Welding equipment functionality and application/limitations
International and national welder qualification programmes
Identification of weld imperfections associated with pre-production, fabrication and
post fabrication
Inspection requirements based on national specifications or codes

STANDARD (IWI-S): A candidate completing the Standard level of training under this
programme shall possess an advanced knowledge of welding and inspection theory and
application. This knowledge base will enable the candidate to understand and apply the
knowledge in the areas of:

Non-destructive, mechanical testing and visual welding inspection


techniques
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Application of welding instructions, welding procedure specifications and qualified


welding procedures.
Material specifications
Consumable specifications
Engineering drawings, joint fit up and workmanship tolerances
Welding procedure specifications and welding instructions and qualified of
procedures
Inspection procedures and acceptance criteria
Welding equipment functionality and applications/limitations
International and national welder qualification programmes
Identification of weld imperfections associated with pre-production, fabrication
and post fabrication
Inspection requirements based on national specifications or codes

BASIC (IWI-B): A candidate completing the Basic level of training under this program shall
posses a general knowledge of welding and inspection application and theory. This knowledge
base will enable the candidate to effectively understand the following topics:
Non-destructive, mechanical testing and visual inspection techniques
Material specifications
Consumable specifications
Engineering drawings, joint fit up and workmanship tolerances
Welding procedure specifications
Inspection procedures and acceptance criteria
Identification of weld imperfections associated with pre-production, fabrication and
post fabrication

3. Standard Routes to Qualification

This Guideline provides two principal routes to qualification, as follows:

3.1 Route 1 is for those fulfilling the access conditions defined in Fig. 1 at the relevant level.
Candidates may decide, after self-assessment on the basis of prior learning and/or
experience, whether to take the Welding Technology Module first, or proceed directly to
the intermediate examination through the Approved Training Body (ATB) assessment. A
pass in the intermediate examination is required before taken the Welding Inspection
Module examination.
At the description of the ANB, and only for students attending the full stantard courses
training, the Welding Technology Module exam (intermediate examination) can be
performed at the same day of the Welding Inspection Technology Module exam

3.2 Route 2 is for those already holding an existing IIW qualification who may proceed direct
to the Welding Inspection Module at the relevant level.

The routes to qualification are summarised in Fig. 1 Standard Route and in Fig. 2 there
are presented other routes "Routes no. 2, 3 and 4". The figures in brackets are the
recommended minimum number of teaching hours specified for each education module.
A teaching hour will contain at least 50 minutes of direct teaching time.

For IWI-S only the Guideline recognises the current situation in several countries, by
providing entry for inspectors not meeting the full specified access conditions but having
at least 5 years authenticated experience in general engineering inspection (Route 3).
Such inspectors may decide through self-assessment whether to complete the 40 hours
of Basic Technology Module 0 first or to proceed directly to the intermediate examination
following the Module 0. The Welding Technology Module WT II is mandatory for Route 3.
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The Guideline also provides for the experienced IWI-B to progress to IWI-S via Route 4
as shown in Fig. 2. The candidate may decide whether or not to take Module 0 or WT II
on the basis of self-assessment and after ATB assessment. His/her knowledge will be
checked by intermediate examinations and a failure will require that the candidate take a
respective omitted module.

For all routes, if the candidate fails an intermediate examination, having exercised an
option to proceed directly to that examination, he/she must take the omitted training
module before re-sitting the examination failed. Welding Inspection Module examination
can only be taken after passing intermediate examination of Welding Technology
Module (see last sentence for route 1).

The rules for the conduct of final examinations by the Authorised National Body are
prescribed in Section 2 of this Guideline. The intermediate examinations are mandatory
and are the responsibility of the ATB to ensure that those entering the next module have
achieved the required level of knowledge.

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Figure 1. Standard Route no. 1

Education Modules Education Modules IWI


Route No. Access conditions Welding Technology Welding Inspection Diploma

Those satisfying the access Welding Welding


1 conditions for I/EWT or higher Technology Inspection
Module WT III Module WI III IWI-C
(122 h) (97 h)

ATB
Check

Welding
Self Inspection
assessment Module WI III IWI-C
(97 h)

Those satisfying the access Welding Welding


1 conditions for IWS/EWS or higher Technology Inspection
Module WT II Module WI II IWI-S
(94 h) (63 h)

ATB
Check

Welding
Self Inspection
assessment Module WI II IWI-S
(63 h)

Professional workers or persons


having relevant experience in Welding Welding
1 metalworking professions Technology Inspection
Module WT I Module WI I IWI-B
(65 h) (40 h)

ATB
Check

Welding
Self Inspection
assessment Module WI I IWI-B
(40)

ATB
Check
- ATB Assessment

- Intermediate examination
Figure 2. Routes no. 2, 3 and 4
- Final examination

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Route No. Basic Technology Education Modules Education Modules IWI


Access cond. Module Welding Technology Welding Inspection Diploma

2 Holders of IWT/EWT Diploma

Welding Welding
3 2 years Technology Inspection
experience Module WT III Module WI III IWI-C
(122 h) (97 h)

ATB Welding
Check Inspection
Self Module WI III IWI-C
assessment (97 h)
Holders of an IWI-Standard Diploma

2 Holders of IWS/EWS
ATB
Diploma Check

3 5 years
Welding Welding
experience Module 0
Technology Inspection
4 2 years
(40 h)
! Module WT II
(94 h)
Module WI II
(63 h)
IWI-S

experience

ATB ATB
Check Check

Self Welding
assessment Inspection IWI-S
Module WI II
(63 h)
Holders of an IWI-Basic Diploma

Welding
2 Holders of IWP/EWP Diploma Inspection
Module WI I IWI-B
(40 h)

! - A single examination but module WT II is compulsory for Route 3, optional for Route 4.

ATB
Check - ATB Assessment - Intermediate examination

- Final examination

Standard education IWI-S. Route 3: Inspectors with at least 5 years experience in general
engineering inspection.

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4. Alternative route to qualification (Fig. 3)

WT III WI III Final exams IWIP


Standard Route
WT II WI II IWI-C Diploma
(see also Figure 1)
WT I WI I IWI-S
IWI-B
yes
Module 4 of no
Project or Technical
WT III, WT II
Interview (see app. II)
or WT I
yes

no Professional
At the discretion of the ANB assessment interview

no yes
Paper assessment (of the ANB detailed assessment; see appendix II)
yes
no ANB check

Alternative An applicant must submit to the ANB, together with an application form, the information
described in the item 4 of the Section 1 of this guideline depending of the IWIP level
Route sought

Figure 3. Alternative versus Standard Routes for IWIP qualifications

An applicant must submit the following documentation to the ANB with the application form:

IWI-C:
IWT/EWT diploma or evidence of satisfying the access conditions for IWT/EWT.
A curriculum vitae (CV)/ resume containing the following professional information:
- Evidence of at least three years job function in welding and inspection at the technologist
level (in a period of 4 years before application)
- A justification of the candidates experience, training, and education to become IWI-C
(may include other test results)

IWI-S:
IWS/EWS diploma or evidence of satisfying the access conditions for IWS/EWS.
A curriculum vitae (CV)/ resume containing the following professional information
- Evidence of at least two years job function in welding and inspection at the specialist
level (in a period of 3 years before application)
- A justification of the candidates experience, training, and education to become IWI-S
(may include other test results)

IWI-B:
IWP/EWP diploma or evidence of satisfying the access conditions for IWP/EWP.
A curriculum vitae (CV)/ resume containing professional information
- Evidence that the candidate was working in welding and inspection at the practitioner
level during last two years before application.
- A justification of the candidates experience, training, and education to become IWI-B
(may include other test results)

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The ANB shall determine, by paper check, if the application is suitable for further detailed
assessment.

5. Distance Learning Programs

Distance Learning Programs can be implemented in accordance with IAB-195-2004 Guideline


under ANB control.

6. Recognition of NDT certification

Those having certification in NDT in accordance with ISO 9712, EN 473 or equivalent
recognised by the ANB may be granted exemption from the NDT parts of the modules for
Welding Inspection on a method by method basis, but not from the final examination. The
approval of such arrangements is at the discretion of the ANB.

It is recommended that NDT Level 2, 3 Certification should apply to Module Welding


Inspection ll and Welding Inspection lll. NDT Level 1 certification should apply to Module
Welding Inspection ll.

7. Definitions

7.1 Education and training: A process of instruction in relevant theory and practice that
takes the form of courses to an approved syllabus and periods of practical work under
qualified supervision (but shall not include the use of specimens used in the practical
examination). All educational courses leading to the award of qualification covered by this
Guideline shall be approved by the Authorised National Body.

7.2 Qualification: A demonstration, conducted by the Authorised National Body, involving an


examination of the knowledge and skill related to specified criteria. Success in this
examination leads to the issue, by the ANB, of an appropriate diploma.

7.3 Relevant inspection experience: The period during which the candidate performed
welding inspection as his main activity under qualified supervision including personal
application of inspection to materials, parts or structures but not including tests performed
during training courses.

7.4 Certification: The procedure leading to a written testimony of an individual's competence


demonstrated by examination and assessment of experience and subsequent
surveillance to confirm that the competence has been retained. This does not form part
of the Guideline and is normally the subject of an independent certification scheme.

8. The Inspectors role

The inspectors role begins well before welding starts, continues during the welding operation,
involves action after welding is completed, and is finished only when the results are properly
reported. As part of the quality system, inspection activities are defined in an inspection and test
plan, which clearly describes what is required. The inspector is frequently responsible for
producing documents that ensure traceability of the components and related fabricating action.

Prior to welding, the inspector must be assured that the materials are correct and that the shop
has approved welding procedures and appropriately qualified welders. Written procedures and
competent operators are important to the production of a quality-welded product, but the actual
execution of the weld is also a critical point for the inspector. Once the inspector is satisfied that
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all is in order for the welding to proceed, the task becomes one of witnessing and monitoring.
There are two basic interests at this point: ensuring that the written procedures are being
followed; and, of course, watching for any physical signs of non-conformance of the final
product.

The inspectors responsibilities are to verify base metals and welding consumables, observe the
fit-up and preparation for the weld, and watch the welding operation itself. Once the welding is
completed, a new series of inspection tasks begin, which starts with executing an inspection
program according to an approved procedure, keeping track of the status of examination and
testing and selecting specific welds for further NDT or mechanical testing.

Heat treatment (such as preheating, post-heating and post-weld heat treatment) can be a
critical parameter in a welding operation and the inspector is often required to ensure that it has
been done properly. Heat treatment must be carried out following an approved written
procedure. The inspector must know enough about the technique, the equipment and the
reports to have confidence in the results.

8.1 Reports

When preparation, production and inspection are over, the inspector must collate the
observations, checklists, and results into a report that is structured to meet the needs of
the client, a jurisdiction, or a code. This report is the document of reference, which could
allow the tracing of a production parameter that proves after years of service to be
contributing to a failure. It allows the tracing of responsibility to a specific supplier or
contractor.

One or more interim reports might well be necessary to show progress during a long or
complicated construction project. Reports must detail the inspection stages, parameters,
and results, including corrective actions if required. It is important to recognise quality
related problems into a contract as early as possible. Interim reports and observations
are extremely valuable as they provide engineering and production personnel with
information they might not otherwise be aware of. The inspectors observations might
highlight quality problems that could, perhaps, be remedied by design or production
changes if found early enough. The inspector should remember to quantify observations
where possible.

Typical duties of a welding inspector are as follows:


1) Interpretation of drawings and specifications;
2) Verification of procedure (WPS) and welder or welding operator qualifications;
3) Verifying the application of approved welding procedures;
4) Selection of production test samples;
5) Interpretation of test results;
6) Preparation of reports and keeping of records;
7) Preparation of inspectionprocedures;
8) Check the correct application of NDT methods.

The authority to stop work or call for immediate remedial action to resolve a quality
problem is particularly important in defining the responsibility of the inspector.

8.2 Certification system

This Guideline is intended to provide a curriculum for the education of Welding


Inspectors only, and does not imply that the individual is competent to complete the job
functions of a Welding Inspector. Relevant certification programmes for the certification
of Welding Inspectors must be used to verify the competency and detail job functions.
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9. Syllabus

It is not obligatory to follow exactly the order of the modules and topics given in this Guideline, and
choice in the arrangement of the syllabus is permitted.

However, caution must be exercised by the ANB to ensure that any changes in the order of
presentations of the Welding Technology modules and in the Welding Inspection modules do
not alter the points of entry intended in Figs. 1 and 2.

Note:
This guideline is dividided in two main modules they are:
- Welding Technology (WT)
- Welding Inspection (WI)

Each main module is divided in three (3) levels, corresponding the IWIP qualification levels

Main Modules IWIP


Modules Levels Qualification Levels
WT III IWI-C
Welding Technology - WT WT II IWI-S
WT I IWI-B
WI III IWI-C
Welding Inspection
WI II IWI-S
Technology - WI
WI I IWI-B

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Theoretical education: Welding Technology Modules

Number of Course Hours in Modules

WT III WT II WT I

Module 1. Welding processes and equipment 25 13 11

1.1General introduction to welding technology:


Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S: Understand (for IWI-S - gain knowledge to understand in general)
developments in welding processes including accepted terminology, standards and abbreviations.

Objectives for IWI-B: Understand the difference between welding processes, and to get familiarized with
terminology, standards and abbreviations.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


History x
Definitions x x x
Schematic presentation of welding processes x x x
Terminology x x x
Picture and brief description with characteristics x x x
Applicability of the most common welding processes x x x
General applications for welding x x x
Abbreviations used for welding processes x x x
Hints in use for welding processes x x x
Classification of welding processes (IIW, ISO, CEN and national standards) x x x
Expected results for IWI-C
1. List the differences between each major type of welding process, e.g. arc, resistance, flame, forge, etc.
2. Differentiate between processes with reference to standards.
3. Recognise a welding process by the common abbreviation.
4. Explain the historical evolution of welding

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Outline the major differences between each main type of welding process, e.g. fusion arc, resistance,
flame, forge, etc.
2. Differentiate between processes with reference to standards.
3. Recognise a welding process by the common abbreviation.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Identify the differences between each major type of welding process.
2. Designate a welding process by its common abbreviation.

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1.2 Oxy-gas welding and related processes:


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S - gain knowledge to understand in general;
for IWI-B associate) the fundamentals of oxy -gas combustion, characteristics of the different fuel gases,
equipment, safety and typical applications.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Process principles X X X
Range of application X X X
Types of flames X X X
Characteristics of fuel gases, (acetylene, propane, etc.) X X
Combustion reactions X X X
Temperature distribution effects X X
Equipment X X X
Acetylene cylinder component parts X X X
Fuel gas generation X
Handling and storage of gases X X X
Typical joint design for welding X X X
Methods of welding techniques, rightward, leftward X X X
Standards for filler materials X X X
Welding applications, typical problems and imperfections X X
Special techniques and their methods of use (preheating, straightening,
cleaning, etc.) X X X
Health and safety issues specific to the process X X X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. Explain the characteristics of the three flame types and reasons for application of each.
2. Detail the characteristics of flames produced by different fuel gases.
3. Define the potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working
3. Explain the purpose and working principle of each component of the equipment
4. Interpret appropriate standards.
6 Define the range of application for this process and potential problems to overcome.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Outline the characteristics of the three flame types and typical applications for each type.
2. Compare the characteristics of flames produced by different fuel gases.
3. Recognise and define in general the potential hazards and methods of safe handling, storage and
working practices.
4. Outline the purpose and working principle of each component of the equipment.
5. Basic knowledge on how to use appropriate standards.
6. Identify the limitations and the range of application of the process and recognise how to overcome the
potential problems associated with this process.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Interpret the characteristics of the different types of flames and their application.
2. Illustrate potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.
3. Name the working principle of each component of the equipment.
4. Translate appropriate standards

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1.3 Electrotechnics: a review


Objectives for IWI-B: Have an outline working knowledge of electricity and the characteristics of
the most important electrical components used in electrical welding power sources.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 0 0 1


Basics of electricity and electronics (define current, voltage and resistance) X
Ohm's Law X
Parallel and serial circuits X
Direct current (DC), polarity, alternating current (AC) X
Magnetism in welding
Capacity, condenser X
Transformer, and rectifying bridge (half wave and full wave rectification) .. X
Transistor, thyristor, Inductance, inductors
Hazard X
Health and safety X
Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S : Not applicable.

Expected results for IWI-B:


1. General outline of current, voltage and resistance.
2. Recognise and give examples of the functions of the main components of a welding power.source
3. Give examples of the main differences between DC and AC current.
4. Show practical application of knowledge of electricity to welding.

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1.4 The arc


Objective for IWI-C and IWI-S: Understand (for IWI-S - gain knowledge to understand in general) the
fundamentals of an electric arc, its characteristics, limitations and application in welding, including arc
ability problems.

Objective for IWI-B:


Describe what is an electric arc, its characteristics, limitations and application in welding.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Arc physics (producing an electric arc, the main arc areas, stability of the
arc) X X X
Voltage distribution across the arc X X X
Heat generation at the cathode and anode X X X
Polarity and arc characteristics in AC and DC and its control for the key
welding processes X X X
Influence on the welding process X
Temperature distribution in the arc and effects X X X
Influence of the magnetic fields on the arc (why, how to solve) X X X
Limits of application X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain in detail the fundamental physics of an electrical arc, including the main parameters influencing
arc stability.
2. Detail the generation of heat in the arc and the arc voltage distribution.
3. Outline the influence of magnetic fields on the electric arc.
4. Predict how to solve magnetic deflection problems.
5. Explain arc characteristics for DC and AC including control and limitations.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Describe an electrical arc; its main areas and their importance to welding and arc stability.
2. Outline the generation of heat in the arc and the arc voltage distribution.
3. Give examples of the influence of magnetic fields on the electric arc.
4. Outline appropriate solutions to solve magnetic deflection problems.
5. Describe arc characteristics for DC and AC.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Give examples of the main arc areas, and their importance to welding.
2. List the hot arc areas and their influence on the weld pool.
3. Explain the arc characteristics of DC and AC.
4. Outline the influence of magnetic fields on an electric arc.
5. Give examples of solving magnetic deflection problems.

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1.5 Power sources for arc welding


Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S: Understand (for IWI-S gain knowledge to understand in
general) the characteristics and main components of arc welding power
sources.

Objectives for IWI-B: Gain an outline


working knowledge on arc welding power sources characteristics and components.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 1


Power source classification, types and characteristics
(static and generators, and each sub-group) X X X
Power source electrical characteristics (static and dynamic X X X
Relationship between static characteristic and welding process X X X
Control of the electrical static characteristic (flat and drooping) X
Arc stability for the main processes (MMA, TIG, MIG/MAG, SAW, PAW) X X X
The operation working point X X X
Inverter technology X X
Power sources controlled by a CPU X X
Stability of processes in AC and DC X X
AC (sine wave and square wave) and DC power sources X X X
Open circuit voltage, short circuit current, power factor of transformers X X
Duty cycle of a power source and typical values for the most
common arc welding processes X X X
Voltage losses, relationship between welding current value and
cable section X X X
Pulse welding techniques X X X
Arc striking methods and devices, slope up and down, pre- and post-flow X X X
Current and voltage setting (electromagnetic and electronic devices) X
Standards related with welding power sources and their requirements X X X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. Explain each type of arc welding power source for both AC and DC including the most common devices
used.
2. For each type of welding power source detail the static and dynamic electrical characteristics, operation
point and control of arc stability.
3. Explain the meaning of open circuit voltage, arc voltage short circuit current, duty cycle of a power
source, voltage losses, and welding current to cable cross section relationship.
4. Explain the differences of the above characteristics for each type of power source and welding process
for a specific application.
5. Recognise the various functions and switches on different power sources and their effects.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Outline how each type of welding power source works (AC and DC) including the most common devices
used.
2. Describe for each type of arc welding power source the static characteristic, operation point and control
of arc stability.
3. Outline the meaning of open circuit voltage, arc voltage short circuit current, duty cycle of a power
source, voltage losses, and current to cable section relationship.
4. Be able select the appropriate power sources for a given welding process.
5. Recognise the various settings and switches on different power sources and their effects

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 19 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.6 Introduction to Gas-shielded arc welding


Objectives forIWI-C and IWI-S: Understand (for IWI-S gain knowledge to understand in
general) the principles and physical phenomena of gas shielded welding
processes

Objective for IWI-B: Gain an outline working knowledge on the principles of gas shielded welding
processes
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Physical phenomena X X X
Operating principles of TIG, MIG/MAG and flux-cored X X X
Shielding gases (inert, active) and their effect on arc characteristics X X X
Handling and storage of gases X X X
Filler materials X X X
Standards (international and national) for shielding gases and filler materials X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the characteristics and operating principles of TIG, MIG/MAG and Flux-cored welding.
2. Interpret arc characteristics associated with each type of shielding gas used for each process.
3. Detail the methods for safe handling and storage of shielding gases.
4. Interpretation and use of standards for shielding gases and filler materials.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Describe and compare the characteristics and operating principles of TIG, MIG/MAG and Flux-cored
welding.
2. Compare and outline arc characteristics associated with each type of shielding gas used for each
process.
3. Outline the methods for safe handling and storage of shielding gases.
4. Demonstrate the use of standards for shielding gases and filler materials.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Differentiate the operating principles of TIG, MIG/MAG and Flux-cored welding.
2. Outline the arc characteristics associated with each type of shielding gas used for each process.
3. Demonstrate a general knowledge of the basic rules of handling and storing shielding gases.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 20 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.7 Tungsten-inert gas welding


Objective IWI-C and IWI-S: Understand (for IWI-S gain knowledge to understand in
general) TIG welding fundamentals, including equipment, applications, procedures and specific
problems.

Objective IWI-B: Explain TIG welding fundamentals, including equipment, and applications.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 1


Power source characteristics X X X
Methods for arc ignition and necessary equipment X X X
Equipment and accessories: torches, gas lens, control panel, up and
down slope, pulse techniques X X X
Effect of current type and polarity: DC(+), DC(-) and AC X X X
Specific requirements for different materials, e.g. aluminium X X
Consumables: shielding gases, filler materials, electrodes X X X
Welding parameters: current, voltage, travel speed, gas flow rate X X X
Joint preparation: typical joint design for welding, fit-up, cleaning X X X
Welding procedures X X
Special techniques: spot-welding, key-hole, hot-wire, orbital welding, tube
to tube and tube to sheet , and others X X
Standards for filler materials, electrodes, and gases X X X
Welding applications, typical problems and how to solve them X X X
Health and safety issues specific to the process X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain and compare in detail the principles of TIG welding including arc ignition methods and their
applications.
2. Explain the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity, shielding gas and electrode type according
to application.
3. Identify the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome
4. Identify appropriate welding parameters for particular applications.
5. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories.
6. Interpret appropriate standards.
7. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.
8. Recognise the various settings and switches on different TIG power sources and their effects.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Describe and compare the principles of TIG welding including arc ignition methods and their
applications.
2. Explain the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity, shielding gas and electrode type
according to the application.
3. Identify the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be
overcome.
4. Identify an appropriate range of welding parameters for particular applications.
5. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories.
6. Interpret the use of appropriate standards.
7. Describe potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working..

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Outline TIG welding including arc ignition methods and their most common applications.
2. Give examples of the most common applications for each type of current, polarity and electrode. type
3. Give examples of the most important applications and select the appropriate values for welding
parameters.
4. Know how to use and care for the equipment and accessories.
5. Read given standards for consumables
6. Give examples of TIG applications, joint preparation and potential problems to overcome.
7. Outline potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 21 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.8 MIG / MAG and Flux Cored welding

Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand in detail (for IWI-S - gain knowledge to
to understand in genera; for IWI-B - explain) MIG/MAG and Flux Cored Arc welding fundamentals, including
equipment, applications, procedures and common problems

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Power source characteristics for conventional process and CPU controlled X X X
power sources
Effect of current type and polarity X X
Equipment and accessories: torches, wire feeders, hose assembly, control
panel X X X
Metal transfer modes (dip, globular, spray, and pulsed), and their
application X X X
Welding parameters and settings: current, voltage, travel speed, gas flow
rate, etc. X X X
Consumables: shielding gases, filler materials (solid and flux cored wires),
and their combinations X X X
Joint preparation: typical joint design for welding, fit-up, cleaning X X X
Welding procedures X X X
Special techniques: electro -gas welding, high efficiency processes X X
Standards for filler materials, and gases X X X
Welding applications, typical problems and how to solve them X X X
Health and safety specific to the process X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain and compare in detail the principles of MIG/MAG and Flux Cored Arc welding including metal
transfer modes and their applications.
2. Compare the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity and electrode according to application.
3. Identify the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome.
4. Identify appropriate welding parameters for particular applications.
5. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.
6. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories.
7. Interpret appropriate standards
8. Explain selection of consumables.
9. Recognise the various settings and switches on different MIG/MAG and Flux Cored Arc welding power
sources and their effects.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Describe and compare the principles of MIG/MAG and Flux Cored Arc welding including metal transfer
modes and their applications.
2. Identify the most common applications for each type of current, polarity and electrode.
3. Identify the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome.
4. Identify an appropriate range of welding parameters for particular applications.
5. Describe potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.
6. Outline the various functions of the main components of the equipment and accessories.
7. Demonstrate the use of appropriate standards
8. Give examples on how consumables should be selected..

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Outline MIG/MAG and Flux Cored Arc welding, comparing metal transfer modes and their application.
2. Give examples of the most common applications of each type of current, polarity and electrode.
3. Give examples of the most important applications and select appropriate welding parameters.
4. Know how to use and care for the equipment and accessories.
5. Read given standards for consumables.
6. Give examples of MIG/MAG application range, joint preparation and potential problems to overcome.
7. Outline potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 22 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.9 Manual Metal arc welding


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S - gain knowledge
to understand in general; for IWI-B - explain) MMA welding fundamentals, including equipment,
applications, procedures and common problems.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Process principles and arc characteristics X X X
Effect of current type and polarity X X X
Power source characteristics applicable to MMA (open circuit voltage, static
and dynamic characteristics, types of current, arc striking methods) X X X
Equipment and accessories X X
Process application range and typical problems X X X
Covered electrodes (functions of the coating and rod, types of electrodes,
slag-metal and gas-meta covered l reactions) X X X
Production of electrodes (how, typical defects) X
Handling and storage of electrodes (storage environment, redrying X X X
Electrode classification (International and national standards) X X X
Selection of covered electrodes for applications X X
Welding parameters: current, voltage, run out length, etc X X X
Joint preparation: typical joint design for welding, fit-up, cleaning, welding
position X X X
Relationship between electrode diameter and current range, rod material,
electrode length and welding position X X X
Welding procedures X X X
Special techniques (gravity welding, vertical down welding, on-site welding) X
Health and safety specific to this process X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain in detail the principles of MMA welding including with particular emphasis on special techniques, arc
striking methods and their applications.
2. Explain the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity and electrode according to application.
3. Identify the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome.
4. Identify appropriate welding parameters for particular applications
5. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working
6. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories.
7. Explain the handling, control and storage of the various types of electrodes.
8. Interpret appropriate standards.
9. Identify the influence of electrode coating on droplet transfer and weld metal properties..

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Describe the principles of MMA welding
2. Describe how to do the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity and electrode according to
application.
3. Identify the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome.
4. Identify an appropriate range of welding parameters for particular applications
5. Describe potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working
6. Outline the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories.
7. Describe the appropriate methods of handling, control and storage of the various types of electrodes.
8. Demonstrate the use of appropriate standards.
9. Describe the influence of electrode coating on droplet transfer and weld metal properties.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Outline MMA welding working principles, special techniques, arc striking methods and their applications.
2. Outline the handling and storage of each type of consumable.
3. Give examples of the most important applications and select appropriate welding parameters.
4. Know how to use and care for the equipment and accessories.
5. Read given standards for electrodes.
6. Give examples of MMA application range, joint preparation and potential problems to overcome.
7. Outline potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 23 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.10 Submerged-arc welding


Objectives for IWI-C: Understand SAW welding
fundamentals, including equipment, applications, procedures and common problems.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 0 0


SAW process principles and arc characteristics X
Effect of current type and polarity X
Power source characteristics applicable to SAW (open circuit voltage, static
and dynamic characteristics, types of current, arc striking methods) X
Equipment and accessories X
Process application range and typical problems X
Consumables (functions of the flux and wire, types of flux and wire, wire-flux
combination, slag-metal and gas-metal reactions) X
Production of consumables (how, typical defects) X
Handling and storage of consumables (storage environment, redrying) X
Consumable classification (International and national standards) X
Welding parameters: current, voltage, travel speed, type of flux and particle
size, stick-out, etc X
Joint preparation: typical joint design for welding, fit-up, cleaning. X
Relation between the wire flux combination and the characteristics of
deposited material.. X
Welding procedures... X
Single-wire and multi -wire techniques X
Special techniques (strip-cladding, iron-powder addition, cold and hot wire
addition) X
Health and safety specific to SAW process X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the principles of SAW process including arc striking methods, special techniques and their
applications.
2. Explain the selection of appropriate type of current, polarity and consumable according to application.
3. Identify the range of application, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome.
4. Identify appropriate welding parameters for particular applications.
5. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories.
6. Explain slag-metal/gas-metal reactions and their influence on weld metal properties
7. Interpret appropriate standards.
8. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 24 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.11 Resistance welding


Objectives for IWI-C: Understand resistance welding
fundamentals, applications and specifications, including common problems and their solution.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 0 0


Process principles and overview on types of processes (spot, projection, butt,
seam, and flash) X
Joule effect and temperature distribution X
Equipment and accessories X
Process application range and typical problems (welding thin to thick
material, welding of coated/ painted materials, welding dissimilar materials,
mass effect, shunt effect, Peltier effect, resistance brazing) X
Electrodes (functions, types, shapes, material) X
Electrode classification (International and national standards) X
Welding parameters: current, pressure, time, type of current, pulse, etc X
Joint preparation: typical joint design for welding, fit-up, cleaning X
Relation between welding parameters and the characteristics of the weld
nugget X
Monitoring systems, process control, measuring X
Specific testing X
Welding procedures X
Health and safety specific to this process X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the principles of resistance welding and the application of the various sub-processes.
2. Explain the selection of appropriate parameters to give sound welds.
3. Identify the range of application, appropriate material preparation and potential problems to be overcome.
4. Identify appropriate welding parameters for particular applications.
5. Explain the purpose and functions of each component of the equipment and accessories.
6. Interpret appropriate standards.
7. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.
8. Recognise the various settings and switches on different power sources and their effects.
Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B
Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 25 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.12 Other welding processes


Objectives for IWI-C: Understand principles, the filed of application and common
problems of plasma; electron beam; Laser, electro-slag, friction; friction stir, magnetically impelled arc butt
(MIAB); magnetic pulse welding, ultrasonic; explosive; diffusion; aluminothermic; high-frequency; stud,
cold-pressure welding, hybrid processes, etc.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 3 0 0


Basic principles for all mentioned processes X
Heat generation for each type of process X
Equipment and accessories for each type of process X
Typical process applications and problems X
Consumables X
Welding parameters for each process X
Joint preparation: typical joint design for welding, fit-up, cleaning X
Relation between welding parameters and joint configuration X
Comparison between high energy processes X
Health and safety specific to the processes X
Appropriate national and international standards for each process X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. Explain the principles of the processes mentioned in the objective and their application.
2. Determine appropriate applications for each type of process, and the precautions necessary to achieve
a sound weld.
3. Describe the welding parameters, appropriate joint preparations and potential problems to be overcome
for each process for a given application.
4. Explain the purpose and functions of each major component of the equipment and accessories.
5. Interpret appropriate standards.
6. Define potential hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 26 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.13 Cutting and other edge preparation processes


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand for IWI-S and IWI-B
interpret the basic principles and the field of application of the most common cutting and edge preparation
processes used in welded constructions, including equipment, procedures and common problems.

Qualification Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Survey of edge preparation processes X X X
Mechanical cutting X
Principles of flame and flame powder cutting, equipment, applications and
auxiliaries X X X
Flame cutting parameters, edge quality, oxygen purity grades X X X
Materials suitable for flame cutting X X X
Basic principles of the various arc cutting processes (arc-air, carbon and
metal-arc, oxy-arc cutting, gauging with carbon electrode) equipment and
auxiliaries X X X
Materials suitable for arc-cutting, applications, cutting parameters for each
process X X X
Fundamentals of plasma cutting, equipment and auxiliaries X X X
Materials suitable for plasma cutting, applications, cutting parameters, cutting
gases X X X
Plasma cutting special applications (under water cutting, cutting with water
vortex) X
Plasma gouging X X X
Fundamentals of electron beam drilling and Laser cutting, equipment,
parameters, applications X
Fundamentals of water jet cutting, equipment, parameters, applications X X X
Fundamentals of arc gouging and flame gouging, parameters and
applications X X X
Appropriate national and international standards for each process X X X
Health and safety X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the principles of: mechanical, flame, arc, plasma, electron beam, Laser, and water jet cutting.
2. Explain the influence of each parameter for the above mentioned processes on the edge surface quality.
3. Identify the range of applications for: flame, arc, plasma, electron beam, and water jet cutting.
4. Identify potential risks, hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Explain the principles of: mechanical, flame, arc, plasma, electron beam, Laser, and water jet cutting.
2. Identify the characteristic parameters for the above mentioned processes
3. Make a comparison among different edge preparation processes, considering technical and economic
aspects.
4. Evaluate potential risks and hazards related with edge preparation processes.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Explain the principles of flame, arc, plasma, Laser, water jet cutting and gouging.
2. Identify the influence of characteristic parameters on the edge surface quality.
3. Point out the range of applications for flame, arc, plasma and Laser cutting.
4. Outline potential risks, hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 27 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.14 Surfacing
Objectives for IWI-C: Understand the fundamentals and field of application of the
most common surfacing techniques including equipment, procedures and
common problems.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 0 0


Working principles and applications for cladding techniques (rolling,
explosive, strip, plasma-MIG, electroslag, Laser, etc) X
Working principles and applications of the spraying techniques (flame
spraying with powder, flame spraying with wire, arc spraying with powder, arc
spraying with wire, plasma spraying with powder, HVOF spraying X
Equipment and parameters for each technique X
Surface preparation of the base material X
Spraying materials X
Sprayed layer structure, and substrate structure X
"Cold " and "fusion techniques" X
Applications and special problems X
Health and safety X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the principles and characteristics of the most common cladding techniques.
2. Explain the principles o and characteristics f the most common spraying techniques.
3. Evaluate the quality of a surfacing layer with respect to the base material preparation.
4. Predict the different applications between "cold" and "fusion" spraying techniques.
5. Describe the most common spraying techniques and their industrial applications.
6. Define potential risks, hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 28 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.15 Fully Mechanised processes and robotics

Objectives for IWI-C: Understand the principle and industrial applications of welding
Mechanisation and the use of robotics in welding, including applications and systems.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 0 0


Survey of welding mechanisation for higher productivity X
Robotics, mechanisation, and automation: difference, advantages
disadvantages and applications X
Robotics (on line and off line programming, simulation, flexible manufacturing
systems) X
CAD/CAM systems X
Virtual factory (factory simulation) X
Seam tracking, types and typical applications X
Arc sensing, magnetic induction, vision system X
Narrow gap welding (SAW, MIG/MAG, TIG) X
Orbital welding (MIG/MAG, TIG) X
Special problems X
Gases and filler materials (optimisation for mechanised welding).. X
Health and safety X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Predict solutions for higher productivity in welding using robotics, automation and mechanisation.
2. Explain the differences between off line and on line programming.
3. Explain the principle and applications of each type of seam tracking system.
4. Explain the principle, benefits and applications of narrow gap and orbital welding.
5. Define potential risks, hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 29 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.16 Brazing and soldering


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S, IWI-B: Understand (the fundamentals)
and the field of application of brazing and soldering, procedures, equipment, applications, and common
problems
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Fundamentals of brazing and soldering (bonding mechanisms, surface
tension, wetting, capillary) X X X
MIG/ MAG pulsed brazing X X X
Survey of brazing and soldering techniques, equipment, range of applications X X X
Consumables and fluxes for brazing and soldering, types, applications, and
main functions of the fluxes X X X
Brazable materials, brazing requisites X X X
High vacuum brazing, brazing under controlled atmosphere X X X
Braze welding X X X
Survey of soldering techniques (dip, wave flow, vapour phase, soldering) X X X
Brazing and soldering advantages and disadvantages X X X
Applications and special problems X X X
Health and safety X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain in detail each brazing and soldering technique.
2. Compare in detail each type of brazing and soldering technique with fusion welding.
3. Explain the precautions to obtain a sound joint using brazing or soldering techniques.
4. Describe the different applications for each brazing and soldering techniques.
5. Describe the types and characteristics of consumable and flux to used in certain applications.
6. Define potential risks, hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Describe the different techniques for brazing and soldering.
2. Compare each type of brazing and soldering technique with fusion welding.
3. Illustrate the standard operating procedures for brazing or soldering techniques.
4. Describe the most relevant applications for each brazing and soldering techniques.
5. Describe the influence of surface preparation in brazing and soldering techniques.
6. Describe the types and characteristics of consumables and fluxes employed.
7. Define risks, hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 30 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.17 Joining processes for plastics


Objectives for IWI-C: Understand the basic principles involved in joining plastics,
including the common techniques, equipment, applications, procedures and common problems.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 0 0


General information on materials and joining processes X
Study the operating principle for each type of process X
Hot plate welding, butt fusion, hot gas welding, extrusion welding, induction
welding, resistance welding, implant welding, high frequency, friction, electro-
fusion welding, ultrasonic welding, vibration welding, adhesive bonding X
Control of welding parameters, types of equipment, joint design X
Advantages and disadvantages X
Applications and special problems X
Health and safety X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the fundamentals of each joining process.
2. Explain the precautions to obtain a sound joint for each process.
3. Describe the different applications for each joining process.
4. Define potential risks, hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


Not applicable

1.18 Joining processes for advanced materials


Objectives for IWI-C: Understand the general principles of joining ceramics and composites,
including the common techniques, applications, procedures and common problems.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 0 0


General information on ceramics and composites and typical joining X
processes
General study of the operating principles for each process X
Advantages and disadvantages X
Applications and special problems X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the fundamentals of joining ceramics and composites.
2. Identify precautions to produce a sound joint for some advanced materials.
3. Define potential risks, hazards and methods of safe handling and working.

Expected results for IWI-S


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 31 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

WT III WT II WT I

Module 2. Materials and their behaviour during welding 52 41 25

2.1 Manufacture and designation of steels


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B describe) the principles of iron
metallurgy, steel making and designation of steels
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Introduction to metallurgy of steel making X X X
Steel making processes X X X
Special treatments X X X
Deoxidation X X X
Designation of steels X X X
Defects in steels X X X
Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S
1. Explain the various steel making processes.
2. Detail the reasons for and principles of special treatments in steel making.
3. Explain the different methods of deoxidation
4. Explain potential defects, their cause and elimination.
5. Explain the designation of steels
Expected results for IWI-B
1. Interpret the various steel making processes.
2. Name the reasons for and the principles of special treatments in steel making.
3. Describe the different methods of deoxidation.
4. Describe potential defects, their cause and elimination.
5. Describe the designation of steels.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 32 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.2 Testing materials and the weld joint


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B name) the fundamental aspects o
testing materials with particular reference to weldment test pieces
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 11 7 6


Review of destructive testing X X X
Testing welded joints (technological specimen X X X
Destructive testing X X X
Tensile and bend tests X X X
Impact tests (ductile and brittle fracture, transition temperature) X X X
Hardness tests X X X
Special tests (CTOD, etc.) X X
Fatigue tests X X
Creep tests X
Corrosion tests X
Overview on related standards X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Discuss the objectives of each destructive testing and the limitations of the data generated
2. Describe in detail each of the major testing methods and the parameters to be measured
3. Predict when and why special testing should be specified

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Discuss the objectives of each destructive testing and the limitations of the data generated.
2. Describe each of the major testing methods and the parameters to be measured.
3. Predict when and why special testing should be specified

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Discuss the reasons for destructive testing.
2. Describe major testing methods and the parameters to be measured.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 33 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.3. Structure and properties of pure metals


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B describe) the principles of
solidification, deformation and recrystallisation and the characteristics of typical metal structures.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 1


Crystalline structures X X X
Crystal lattice structure types X X X
Micro structures of metals X X X
Solid state transformation X
Elastic/plastic deformation X X X
Recrystallisation X X X
Cold and hot deformation X X X
Work hardening and strain aging X X X
Mechanical properties (influence of temperature, etc.) X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain basic crystalline structures.
2. Explain in detail elastic-plastic deformation and their role in cold and hot deformation.
3. Explain recrystallisation giving examples.
4. Demonstrate understanding of the relationship between mechanical properties and temperature, grain size
and structure

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Describe basic crystalline structures.
2. Explain elastic-plastic deformation and their role in cold and hot deformation.
3. Describe recrystallisation, giving examples.
4. Demonstrate understanding of the relationship between mechanical properties and temperature, grain
size and structure.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 34 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.4 Alloys and phase diagrams


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B - describe the principles of
alloying, the structures of alloys and their representation in phase diagrams.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 4 2 1


Pure metals and alloys X X X
Alloying elements X X X
Solidification X
Solid solution crystals X
Structure of alloys X X X
Type of structures X X X
Strengthening mechanisms (cold working, solid solution, precipitation
hardening, grain size control, solid state transformation) X X X
Intermetallic compounds X
Ageing X X X
Basic types of phase diagrams (non-, fully- and partly soluble components). X X
Fe-C equilibrium diagram X X X
Influence of alloy elements on the Fe-C equilibrium diagram X
Iron-alloys with closed gamma-loop, with broadened gamma-area X
The structure of castings X X X
Segregation and coring X
Mechanical properties X X X
Ternary diagrams X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Describe crystalline lattice distortion due to alloying elements and subsequent structural changes.
2. Explain in detail solidification structure and segregation with relevant examples.
3. Detail mechanisms of precipitation, types of precipitates and their location within the microstructure.
4. Explain in detail the principles of transformation and conditions under which it occurs.
5. Detail the principles of strengthening mechanisms with appropriate examples.
6. Interpret the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties.
7. Explain in detail the principles of phase diagrams, their construction and use.
8. Interpret the relationship between microstructure and phase diagrams.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Describe crystalline lattice distortion due to alloying elements and subsequent structural changes.
2. Describe the principles of strengthening mechanisms with appropriate examples.
3. Interpret the relationship between microstructure and phase diagrams.
4. Outline the significant points(temperatures, weight %) of from the Fe-C diagram.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Point out solidification structure and segregation on relevant examples.
2. Outline the principles of transformation and conditions under which it occurs.
3. Describe the principles of strengthening mechanisms with appropriate examples.
4. Outline the significant points (temperatures, weight %) of the Fe-C diagram.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 35 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.5 Iron-Carbon alloys


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B name) the principles of alloying
iron with carbon, the crystalline structures developed under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions and
their representation in phase and transformation diagrams.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Equilibrium and non equilibrium transformations X X X
Time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams X X
Different types of TTT diagrams (isothermal, continuous cooling, TTT
diagrams for welding) X X
Influence of alloying elements X X X
Carbide forming elements X X X
Control of toughness X X X
T8/5 concept X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Interpret the reasons for different structures under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions.
2. Explain the use of TTT diagrams (isothermal, continuous cooling, TTT diagrams for welding) to show the
development of particular steel microstructures.
3. Predict the changes strengthening structure caused by alloying additions with reference to TTT
diagrams.
4. Detail hardening mechanisms with reference to the microstructure developed.
5. Interpret the relationship between microstructure and toughness.
Expected results for IWI-S
1. Interpret the reasons for different structures under equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions.
2. Explain the use of TTT diagrams (isothermal, continuous cooling, TTT diagrams for welding) to show the
development of particular steel microstructures.
3. Identify the changes strengthening structure caused by alloying additions with reference to TTT
diagrams.
4. Describe hardening mechanisms with reference to the microstructure developed.
5. Interpret the relationship between microstructure and toughness.
Expected results for IWI-B
1. Identify TTT diagrams (isothermal, continuous cooling, TTT diagrams for welding)
2. Compare the changes strengthening structure caused by alloying additions with reference to TTT
diagrams.
3. Desribe hardening mechanisms with reference to the microstructure developed.
4. Draw the relationship between microstructure and toughness

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 36 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.6 Heat treatments of base materials and welded joints


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B name) the metallurgical
transformations of materials during different heat treatment.
Module WT III WT II WT I
Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1
Normalising X X X
Hardening X X X
Quenching and tempering X X X
Solution annealing X X X
Homogenisation X X X
Stress relieving (PWHT X X X
Recrystallisation annealing X X X
Precipitation hardening X X
Heat treatment in practice X X X
Heat treatment equipment X X X
Regulations (codes and technical reports) X X X
Temperature measurement and recording X X X
Expected Results for IWI-C
1. Explain each of the major heat treatments and their objectives.
2. Explain the mechanisms of structural changes, which take place when a material is heat treated.
3. Interpret the effects of temperature and time on transformations including the effect of temperature
change rate.
4. Explain code requirements for heat treatment and why they are stipulated.
5. Predict the necessity to heat treatment after welding depending of the type and thickness of steel, the
application and the code.
6. Deduce appropriate heat treatment equipment for a given application.
7. Detail appropriate temperature measurement and recording methods for typical applications.

Expected Results for IWI-S


1. Explain each of the major heat treatments and their objectives.
2. Explain the mechanisms of structural changes, which take place when a material is heat treated.
3. Describe the effects of temperature and time on transformations including the effect of temperature
change rate.
4. Describe code requirements for heat treatment.
5. Predict the necessity to heat treatment after welding depending of the type and thickness of steel, the
application and the code.
6. Name appropriate heat treatment equipment for a given application.
7. Detail appropriate temperature measurement and recording methods for typical applications.

Expected Results for IWI-B


1. Describe the major heat treatments and their objectives.
2. Associate the effects of temperature and time on transformations of temperature change.
3. Describe code requirements for heat treatment and why they are stipulated.
4. Discuss the necessity to heat treatment after welding depending of the type and thickness of steel, the
application and the code.
5. Name heat treatment equipment for a given application.
6. Describe temperature measurement and recording methods for typical applications.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 37 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.7 Structure of the welded joint


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S get knowledge; for IWI-B get general
understanding) the formation on the different metallurgical structures within a weldment.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Thermal field X X X
Equations for the heat distribution X X X
Heat input and efficiency of heat input X X X
Peak temperature X X X
Cooling rate and thermal cycle X X X
Dilution X X X
Weld metal X X X
Solidification of weld pool X X X
Structure of the weld X X X
Fusion line X X X
Heat-affected zone (HAZ) X X X
Microstructure of HAZ X X X
Grain growth and grain refinement X X X
Relationship grain size toughness (equations from regression) X
Transition temperature X
Weldability (definitions) X
Single and multi -pass welding X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the temperature distribution in welds and the microstructure formed as a result for a single pass
weld versus a multi pass weld.
2. Interpret the effects of heat input, cooling rate and multi -pass operation on weld metal solidification and
the microstructure formed for a single pass weld versus a multi pass weld.
3. Explain the effects of the weld protection, the type of consumables on the microstructure of the weld
metal and on it properties for a single pass weld versus a multi pass weld.
4. Detail areas of HAZ, the reasons for grain size and microstructure changes and their effects on prop-
erties for a single pass weld versus a multi pass weld.
5. Discuss the various aspects of weldability
6. Deduce the micro structural and weldability changes induced by dilution

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Explain the temperature distribution in welds and the microstructure formed as a result for a single pass
weld versus a multi pass weld.
2. Interpret the effects of heat input, cooling rate and multi -pass operation on weld metal solidification and
the microstructure formed for a single pass weld versus a multi pass weld.
3. Explain the effects of the weld protection, the type of consumables on the microstructure of the weld
metal and on it properties for a single pass weld versus a multi pass weld.
4. Draw areas of HAZ, the reasons for grain size and microstructure changes and their effects on
properties for a single pass weld versus a multi pass weld.
5. Discuss the various aspects of weldability.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Associate the temperature distribution in welds and the microstructure formed as a result
2. Describe the effects of heat input, cooling rate and multi -pass operation on weld metal solidification and
the microstructure formed.
3. Draw areas of HAZ, the reasons for grain-size and microstructure changes and their effects.
4. Compare the various aspects of weldability.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 38 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.8 Plain carbon- and carbon-manganese steels


Objectives for I IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S get knowledge: for IWI-B get general
understanding) the metallurgical effects induced by welding C and C-Mn steels.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 2


Application of TTT diagrams X X X
Hardening effects X X X
Carbon equivalent X X X
Weldability X X X
Effects of multi pass welding X X X
Structure of the weld and the HAZ X X X
Factors influencing cracking X X X
Relationship C%max hardness X X X
Relationship Ceq hardenability X X X
Determination of preheat temperature (diagrams) X X X
Weld simulation (Weld thermal cycle simulation) X X
Determination of the optimal heat input X X X
Influence of restraint X X
Standards X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the concept and use of carbon equivalent.
2. Explain the principle and use of TTT diagrams (isothermal, continuous cooling, TTT diagrams for
welding).
3. Predict the structure of welds and HAZ for given thermal cycles and composition.
4. Explain in detail the effects of a multi pass welding on the structure, the mechanical properties.
5. Discuss the factors affecting cold cracking.
6. Predict optimal heat input and appropriate pre-heat for given materials, conditions and applications
utilising Codes and Standards as required.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Explain the concept and use of carbon equivalent.
2. Describe the principle and use of TTT diagrams (isothermal, continuous cooling, TTT diagrams for
welding).
3. Explain in detail the effects of a multi pass welding on the structure, the mechanical properties.
4. Discuss the factors affecting cold cracking.
5. Predict optimal heat input and appropriate preheat for given materials, conditions and applications
utilising Codes and Standards as required.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Describe the concept and use of carbon equivalent.
2. List the structure of welds and HAZ for given thermal cycles.
3. Name the effects of a multi pass welding on the structure, the mechanical properties.
4. Name the factors affecting cold cracking.
5. Predict optimal heat input and appropriate preheat for given materials, conditions and applications.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 39 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.9 Fine-grained steels


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand for IWI-S - get knowledge; for IWI-B get general
understanding) the effects of micro-alloying elements on structure, mechanical properties and weldability
with reference to fine-grained steels.
Module WT III WT II WT I
Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1
Concept of grain refinement (micro-alloying elements, formation and dilution
of particles) X X X
Effect on mechanical properties X X X
Normalised grades X X X
Quenched and tempered grades X X X
T8/5 concept and weldability X X X
Standards X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the different methods to obtain fine-grained steels and effects of micro alloying.
2. Explain thoroughly the relationship between grain refinement and mechanical properties
3. Detail appropriate applications
4. Interpret the relationship between grade and weldability
5. Detail applicable welding processes and potential problems
6. Explain the effects of heat treatment after welding and deduce the conditions (in particular temperature)
of such treatment
Expected results for IWI-S
1. Explain the different methods to obtain fine-grained steels and effects of micro alloying.
2. Explain thoroughly the relationship between grain refinement and mechanical properties.
3. Detail appropriate applications.
4. Interpret the relationship between grade and weldability.
5. Identify applicable welding processes and potential problems.
7. Name the effects of heat treatment after welding and deduce the conditions (in particular temperature) of
such treatment.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. List the different methods to obtain fine-grained steels effects of micro alloying.
2. Explain thoroughly the relationship between grain refinement and mechanical properties.
3. Interpret the relationship between grade and weldability.
4. Identify applicable welding processes and potential problems.
5. Name the effects of heat treatment after welding and deduce the conditions of such treatment.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 40 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.10 Thermomechanically treated steels


Objectives IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S get knowledge; for IWI-B get general
understanding) the principles of thermomechanical treatment and its influence on mechanical properties and
weldability.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 1


Principles of treatment (controlled rolling, accelerated cooling, direct quench, X X X
etc
Chemical composition X X
Mechanical properties X X X
High strength steels X X
Applications X X X
Consequences on weldability X X X
Standards X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the effects of different treatment times and temperatures.
2. Explain the structural modifications of material and control methods.
3. Interpret the relationship between grade and weldability
4. Detail applicable welding processes and potential problems
5. Explain the effects of heat treatment after welding and deduce the conditions of such treatment

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Understand the effects of different treatment times and temperatures.
2. Name the structural modifications of material and control methods.
3. Interpret the relationship between strength and weldability.
4. Identify applicable welding processes grade and potential problems.
5. Name the effects of heat treatment after welding and deduce the conditions of such treatment.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 41 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.11 Cracking phenomena in steels


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B name) the fundamentals of cracking
mechanisms in welded joints and the way in which welding variables affect the incidence of cracking. Understand/name
causes and avoidance.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1

For C-Mn, low alloy, high alloy and stainless steels as appropriate:

Cold cracking:
Cracking mechanisms in weld metal and HAZ , causes and avoidance X X X
Effect of hydrogen, microstructure and stress X X X
Source and diffusion of hydrogen X X
Control of hydrogen X X X
Susceptible microstructure and its control X X
Influence of alloying elements on susceptibility X X X
Testing of cold cracking susceptibility X X
Effect of preheat X X X
Effect of austenitic weld metal X X X

Hot cracking:
Cracking mechanisms in particular in weld metal (solidification cracking, liquation
cracking, etc.); causes and avoidance X X X
Effect of alloy elements, heat input, bead shape, nugget shape X X X
Control of hot cracking X X X
Testing for hot cracking susceptibility X X X

Reheat cracking:
Cracking mechanisms in weld metal and HAZ; causes and avoidance X X X
Type of steels sensitive to reheat cracking X X X
Effect of alloy elements, thermal cycles, stress X X
Cracking during heat treatment and multi -pass welding X X X
Control of reheat cracking X X X
Testing for reheat cracking susceptibility X X X

Lamellar tearing:
Cracking mechanism ; causes and avoidance X X X
Effects of inclusions, joint configuration, stress, and fatigue X X
Control of lamellar tearing by material control and joint configuration X X
Testing for susceptibility, through thickness properties X X X
Steels with increased resistance to lamellar tearing X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Compare the metallurgical mechanisms for each of the major types of cracking.
2. Describe the effects of chemical and physical variables for each of the major types of cracking.
3. Appraise the susceptibility to cracking by reference to the key parameters and suggest appropriate precautions to avoid
cracking.
4. Appraise the type of cracking and the reason for its occurrence from study of fractured material and its history.
5. Choose suitable tests which will assist in finding the solution of cracking problems.
6. Propose alternatives which will reduce or eliminate the occurrence of lamellar tearing in welded construction/fabrication.
7. Appraise the effects of inclusions, joint configuration, stress and fatigue in the control of cracking of welds.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Compare the metallurgical mechanisms for each of the major types of cracking.
2. Describe the effects of chemical and physical variables for each of the major types of cracking.
3. Appraise the susceptibility to cracking and suggest appropriate precautions to avoid cracking.
4. Name the type of cracking and the reason for its occurrence from study of fractured material and its history.
5. Choose suitable tests which will assist in finding the solution of cracking problems.
6. Propose alternatives which will reduce or eliminate the occurrence of lamellar tearing in welded construction/fabrication.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Compare the metallurgical mechanisms for each of the major types of cracking.
2. Appraise the susceptibility to cracking and suggest appropriate precautions to avoid cracking.
3. Name the type of cracking and the reason for its occurrence.
4. List alternatives, which will reduce or eliminate the occurrence of lamellar tearing in welded construction/fabrication

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 42 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.12 Application of structural and high strength steels


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:: Not applicable
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 0 0 0


Bridges,
Cranes,
Pressure vessels,
Automotive equipment,
Low temperature applications,

2.13 Low-alloy steels for very low temperature applications


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S get knowledge about; for IWI-B get general
uderstanding of) solutions to welding applications requiring the use of the relationship between toughness
and temperature, metallurgical structure and the weldability of cryogenic steels.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 1


Survey/list of types of cryogenic steels (including 9% Ni) X X X
Effects of nickel on low temperature properties of low alloy steels X X X
Applicable welding processes X X X
Filler materials X X X
Welding problems and precautions X X X
Properties and application of various types of cryogenic steels X
Controlling the quality of the welded joint X X X
Standards on low temperature steels and consumables X X X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. State the toughness testing and the parameters affecting toughness
2. Identify the effect of nickel on crystallographic structure.
3. Describe the effect of nickel content on weldability.
4. Appraise the range of applications for the various types of cryogenic steels.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Identify the effect of nickel on crystallographic structure.
2. Describe the effect of nickel content on weldability.
3. Name the range of applications for the various types of cryogenic steels.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 43 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.14 Low alloy creep resistant steels

Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Not applicable


Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 0 0 0


Mechanism of creep resistance,
Testing of creep resistance,
Rest life prediction,
Oxidation resistance,
Survey of types of creep/heat resistant steels,
Applicable welding processes
Filler materials,
Welding problems and precautions,
Controlling the quality of a welded joint,
475 -brittleness,
Standards,

2.15 Introduction to Corrosion


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Outline (for IWI-S get knowledge about; for IWI-B get general
understanding of) the fundamentals of the various types of corrosion.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 2


Fundamentals of electrochemistry X X X
Redox potential X X X
Passivation X X X
Overall corrosion X X X
Differential aeration X X X
Cathodic, anodic protection X X X
Types of corrosion (intercrystalline, transcrystalline, knife-line attack
pitting, crevice, and stress-corrosion) X X X
Pickling and passivating X X X
Corrosion testing X X X
Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:
1. Outline the chemical and electrochemical phenomena involved in corrosion.
2. Recognize and describe the most common types of corrosion.
3. Give examples of common protection methods.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 44 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.16 High-alloyed (stainless) steels


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Identify (for IWI-S get a knowledge; for IWI-B describe the
fundamentals of the various types of stainless steel and their weldability including the principles of joining
dissimilar materials and filler material choice.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Effect of alloying elements X X X
Systems Fe-Cr, Fe-Ni, Fe-Cr-Ni X
Austenite and ferrite formers X X X
Influence of nitrogen X X X
Cr- and Ni-equivalent X X
Schaeffler diagram, DeLong and other constitution diagrams X X
t12/8 weldability concept X
Measuring of ferrite content X
Survey on stainless steels (fully austenitic, ferrite-containing steels,
ferritic, martensitic, duplex stainless steels, chemically resistant,
creep resistant, heat resistant steels, cryogenic use) X X X
Knife-line attack X
475 C-embrittlement X
Weld decay (intergranular corrosion) X
Pitting index X
Applicable welding processes X X X
Types of filler materials X X X
Shielding and backing gases X X X
Welding of stainless steels X X X
Details of joint design X X X
Heat treatment X X X
Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) X X X
Passivation X X X
Standards X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Describe the metal structures of the various stainless steels;
2. Identify the results of a given high alloy welding situation
3. State the rules and principles governing embrittlement
4. State the rules and principles governing corrosion
5. Identify the results of a given high alloy welding situation contents.
6. Predict the choice of consumables for each type of stainless steel using different diagrams.
7. Predict the necessity of treatment after welding.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Outline the structures of the various stainless steels and explain their behaviour during welding.
2. State the rules and principles governing corrosion phenomena.
3. Predict the choice of consumables for each type of steel using different diagrams.
4. Describe the different treatment after welding.
5. Predict the necessity of treatment after welding.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Outline the structures of the various stainless steels.
2. State the rules and principles governing corrosion phenomena.
3. Identify consumables for each type of steel.
4. Describe the necessity of treatment after welding.
5. Predict the necessity of treatment after welding.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 45 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.17 Introduction to Wear


Objectives for IWI-C: Identify the fundamentals of wear and its control

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 0 0


Different types of wear (hydrodynamic friction, reaction, layer wear,
adhesive wear, abrasive wear, fatigue wear, fretting, erosion,
cavitation, impact, thermal, dynamic) X
Buttering X
Wear tests X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Describe wear situations that involve the mechanisms of the different types of wear.
2. Distinguish the basis and results of tests to define wear resistance.
3. Describe precautions and procedures designed to avoid excessive wear.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


Not applicable

2.18 Protective layers


Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S: Identify (for IWI-S outline) the fundamentals of protective layers and the
methods and materials used.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 0


Cladding:
Reasons for cladding X X
Processes for cladding (dilution) X X
Joining clad steels X X
Joint design and welding procedures in respect of the access to the joint . X X
Applications X X
Standards X

Linings:
Welding of linings X X
Joint design and welding procedures X X
Surfacing:
Corrosion-resistant layers X X
Wear-resistant layers X X
Coatings:
Surface-coated steels X X
Galvanised steels (Si-content) X X
Painting X X
Problems of joining X X
Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S:
1. Describe in general the various techniques for applying protective layers and the reasons for their
choice.
2. Outline the problems associated to each method and how would you solve them.

Expected results for IWI-B


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 46 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.19 High alloy creep resistant and heat resistant steels


Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S: Identify the relationship between microstructure and creep resistance
including knowledge of different types of creep resistant and heat resistant steels.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 0


Creep resistance of high alloy steels X X
Mechanism of heat resistance X X
Types of creep resistant steels X X
Types of heat resistant steels (austenitic, ferritic) X X
Weldability and selection of consumables X X
Application and special problems X X
Standards X X
Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S
1. Distinguish the effects of alloying elements on creep and heat resistance.
2. Describe the microstructural phenomena occurring in materials at high temperature.
3. List the types of creep resistant and heat resistant steels.
4. Describe the weldability of creep and heat resistant steels.

Expected results for IWI-B


Not applicable

2.20 Cast irons and steels


Objectives for WT III, WT II: Interpret the metallurgy and /outline the different types of cast irons and steels,
their application fields and weldability.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 0


Survey of cast steels X X
Survey of cast irons X X
Applicable welding processes and procedures X X
Weldability X X
Filler materials X X
Application and special welding problems X X
Standards X X
Expected results for IWI-C

1. Explain the Fe - C phase diagram with particular attention to carbon content over 2%.
2. Identify the different types of cast irons and steels, their chemical composition and crystallographic structures.
3. Appraise the weldability problems and applicable welding processes and types of consumable for the welding
of cast irons.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Recognise the different types of cast irons and steels.
2. Describe the weldability problems and applicable welding processes and types of consumable for the welding
of cast irons.

Expected results for IWI-B


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 47 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.21 Copper and copper alloys


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S, IWI-B: Not applicable
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 0 0 0


Survey of types,
Deoxidisation and weldability,
Physical and mechanical properties,
Applicable joining processes (welding, brazing, soldering),
Filler materials,
Shielding and backing gases,
Application and special problems,
Standards,

2.22 Nickel and Nickel alloys


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S: Understand the metallurgy and (for IWI-S) outline the range of application and
weldability of nickel and nickel alloys.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 0


Survey on classification of nickel and nickel alloys X X
Applicable welding processes and filler materials X X
Shielding and backing gases X X
Welding problems (hot cracking) and prevention X X
Quality control of the welded joint X X
Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S:
1. Explain nickel and nickel alloy weldability.
2. List applicable welding processes and types of consumable for nickel and nickel alloys.
3. State examples of nickel and nickel alloys applications.

Expected results for IWI-B:


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 48 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.23 Aluminium and aluminium alloys


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the metallurgy and (for IWI-S and IWI-B) outline the
range of application and weldability of aluminium and aluminium alloys.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 3 3 2


Survey on classification of aluminium and aluminium alloys (pure, cold work
alloys, heat treatable alloys) X X X
Weldability X X X
Joint preparation X X X
Applicable welding processes X X X
Oxide layer cleaning (cathodic cleaning, trailing and trailing shield) X X
Filler materials (choice, storage and handling) X X X
Shielding and backing gases X X X
Welding problems, (HAZ softening, porosity and hot cracking, cracking
Diagrams, distortion) and their avoidance X X X
Design details X X X
Application and special problems (lightweight structures, cryogenic use) X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Describe aluminium and aluminium alloy weldability including dissimilar joints.
2. Explain applicable welding processes and types of consumable for aluminium and aluminium alloys.
3. Explain aluminium and aluminium alloys range of application.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Describe aluminium and aluminium alloy weldability.
2. List applicable welding processes and types of consumable for aluminium and aluminium alloys.
3. State examples of aluminium and aluminium alloy applications.

2.24 Other metals and alloys


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B Not applicable
Module WT III WT II WT I
Scope Teaching hours 0 0 0
Titanium
Magnesium
Tantalum
Zirconium
Applicable welding processes and filler materials
Special problems

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 49 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.25 Joining dissimilar materials


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B outline) the principles of joining
dissimilar materials and the problems involved.
Module WT III WT II WT I
Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1
Fundamentals X X X
Use of the Schaeffler / De Long diagram for welding dissimilar metals X X X
Choice of processes X X X
Effect of dilution X X X
Consumables X X X
Welding problems and measures, (formation of intermetallic
compounds, carbon migration) X
In service failures (thermal fatigue, disbonding) X
Typical applications:
Joining high alloyed steel and mild steel X X X
Joining stainless steel and mild steel X X X
Joining CuNi-alloys with mild steel/stainless steel X X X
Joining Ni-alloys with mild steel X X X
Joining stainless steel and copper alloys X X X
Joining steel and Al / Al alloys X X X
Joining Cu and Al / Al alloys X X X
Joining Ni and Cu X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain metallurgical and weldability
2. Interpret and use Schaeffler / De Long diagram.
4. Deduce welding methods which can solve metallurgical problems.
5. Interpret the correct choice of filler material.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Briefly describe the weldability aspects involved when joining dissimilar materials.
2. Use Schaeffler / De Long diagram and choose the appropriate consumables.
3. List the welding methods for typical applications which decreases metallurgical problems.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 50 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

2.26 Metallographic examination


Objectives for IWI-C: Understand crystallographic structures and the application of metallographic
examination

Objectives IWI-S and IWI-B : Get familiarized with the metallographic examination as a tool for study of the
structures of materials.

Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Specimen preparation for micro and macro examination X X X
Macro and microstructure examination X X X
Micro chemical analysis of crystallographic structure X X X
Reference standards EN 1321, CR 12363 X X X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. Explain and be able to use methods for sample preparation.
2. Explain aspects of macro and micro examination.
3. Interpret microstructure, metallurgical imperfections.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Explain in general and be able to use methods for sample preparation.
2. Describe aspects of macro and micro examination.
3. Interpret macro and microstructure, metallurgical imperfections.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 51 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

WT III WT II WT I

Module 3 Construction and design 21 17 12

3.1 Basic theory of structural systems


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Explain (for IWI-S and IWI-B understand) the effect of external
loads on structures, the types of structural systems and the relationship between external loads and internal
forces.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Structural elements (cables, bars, beams, plates, slabs, shells) X X X
Theory of forces X X X
Combination and resolution of forces X X X
Equilibrium of forces and torques X X X
Bearings, constraints and basic types of connections X X X
Equilibrium of structural systems X
Statically determinate and indeterminate systems X X X
Stress in structural systems resulting from external actions X X X
Relationship between external loads and internal forces X
Calculation and determination of the internal forces and moments of simple
statically determinate systems X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the composition of forces.
2. Explain the resolution of forces.
3. Define the conditions of equilibrium.
4. Explain the equilibrium of structural systems.
5. Explain bearings, constraints and the basic types of connections.
6. Explain the difference between a statically determinate and a statically indeterminate system.
7. Determine the internal forces and moments of simple statically determinate systems.
8. Explain and sketch the shearing force and bending moment diagram of simple statically determinate
systems.
Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B
1. Understand in general the composition of forces.
2. Understand in general the resolution of forces.
3. Name the conditions of equilibrium.
4. Understand in general the equilibrium of structural systems.
5. Name bearings, constraints and the basic types of connections.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 52 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3.2 Fundamentals of the strength of materials


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Explain (for IWI-S and IWI-B understand) the principles governing
the behaviour of metallic structures under loading.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Types of stresses (normal stress, shear stress) X X X
Types of deformation (axial strain, shear strain) X X X
Stress-strain relationship, yielding theories X X X
Elastic and plastic deformation X X X
Youngs modulus, shear modulus, transverse contraction coefficient X X X
Characteristic material properties X X X
Different stresses resulting from internal forces and moments X
Different types of section properties X X X
Calculation of section properties X X X
Calculation of stresses X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the different types of stresses (normal stress, shear stress).
2. Explain the different types of deformation (axial strain, shear strain etc.).
3. Explain the stress-strain relationships.
4. Deduce Youngs modulus; shear modulus and transverse contraction coefficient from the stress-strain
relationships.
5. Explain the determination of characteristic material properties.
6. Explain the stresses resulting from internal forces and moments.
7. Calculate the different types of section properties.
8. Calculate nominal stresses in sections.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Understand in general the different types of stresses (normal stress, shear stresses).
2. Understand in general the different types of deformation (axial strain, shear strain etc.).
3. Understand in general the stress-strain relationships.
4. Understand in general the stresses resulting from internal forces and moments.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 53 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3.3 Welded Joint Design


Objective for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Design and draw (for IWI-B understand) weld details related to a
given material, wall thickness, accessibility, loading, welding process, welding position, NDT, available
equipment, tolerances.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 2


Introduction (importance of welding joint design and grove shapes, influence
on welding stresses and distortion) X X X
Types of welded joints (ISO 9692 series, EN 14324 brazing) X X X
Importance of weld joint design and groove shapes, types of welded
joints, design of welded joints X X X
Classification of groove shapes (by material type, thickness, welding process,
accessibility) X X X
Tolerance requirements (ISO 13920) X X X
Welding symbols on drawings, symbols for groove shapes X X X
Symbolic representation of welded, brazed and soldered joints according
to ISO 2553 X X X
National standards X X X
Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S
1. Classify different types of welded joints.
2. Design a weld according to the given conditions.
3. Detail and use appropriate weld symbols.
4. Explain the symbolic representation of welded, brazed and soldered joints on drawings.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Describe different types of welded joints.
2. Know how to apply each type of joint in function of material, thickness and welding process
3. Explain the symbolic representation of welded, brazed and soldered joints on drawings.

3.4 Basics of Weld Design


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the relationship between external loads on structures,
internal forces and the stresses induced with especially with regard to welds.
Module WT III WT II WT I
Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1
Types of stresses in welded joints (nominal stress, hot spot stress, notch
stress) X X X
Stresses in butt welds, stresses in fillet welds X X X
Calculation of section properties of welded joints X X X
Determination of nominal stresses in single welded joints X X X
Determination of reference values of stresses due to multi-axial stressing X
Determination of design resistance of arc-welded and resistance-welded
joints X
Worked examples of calculation of nominal stresses in welded joints X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the different types of stresses in welded joints (nominal stress, hot spot stress, notch stress)
2. Calculate simple welded joints (internal forces).
3. Calculate the values of cross sections for welded joints.
4. Calculate nominal stresses in welds.
5. Calculate combined stresses in welds (superposition).
Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B
1. Understand in general the different types of stresses in welded joints (nominal stress, hot spot stress,
notch stress).
2. Understand simple welded joints (internal forces).
3. Understand cross sections for welded joints.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 54 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3.5 Behaviour of welded structures under different types of loading


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Explain (for IWI-S and IWI-B understand the different types of
loading and the influence of ambient conditions on structures
Module WT III WT II WT I
Scope Teaching hours 3 2 1
Static strength X X X
Elevated temperature strength X X X
Low-temperature strength X
Creep resistance X
Impact behaviour X
Influence of notches and weld defects X X X
Types of fracture (ductile fracture, fatigue fracture, brittle fracture,
lamellar tearing) X X X
Selection of steel quality groups X
Typical data for common steels X
Use of standards and specifications X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the requirements according to different types of loading and temperatures.
2. Select appropriate materials according to specific applications.
3. Explain different types of fracture (ductile fracture, fatigue fracture, brittle fracture, lamellar tearing).
Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B
1. Understand the requirements for the construction according to different types of loading and
temperatures.
2. Identify globally groups of materials which meet strength / temperature requirements.
3. Identify the various types of facture.

3.6 Design of welded structures with predominantly static loading


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S and IWI-B get knowledge) principles of
design and calculation of joints and relevant details of welded metallic structures.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Steel constructions including lightweight structures X X
Structural details e.g. (stiffeners, knots, columns, base- and cap-plates,
re-inforced structures, supports, frame-corners, frame structures, trusses,
nodal joints, weld connections, braces / bracing, lattice work structures,
etc.) X X
Use of different types of welds related to joint types X X X
Use of standards and specifications X X X
Worked examples X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Understanding principles of design different connection zones.
2. Outline stresses in frames.
3. Nominate the stresses in welds in frames.
4. Explain the advantage and disadvantage of different types of welds.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Identify different connection zones.
2. Read and understand appropriate weld geometry.
3. Outline stresses in structural details.
4. Global knowledge of advantage and disadvantage of different types of welds.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Describe appropriate welded connection zones
2. Demonstrate differences between similar profiles.
3. Identify advantage and disadvantage of different types of welds.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 55 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3.7 Behaviour of welded structures under dynamic loading

Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the development of fatigue, calculation of load cycles,
the influence of notches and their avoidance.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 3 2 1


Types of cyclic loading X X X
Statistical stress analysis on real structures X
S-N diagram X
Stress collective X
Fatigue strength (low cycle, and others X X X
Effect of mean stress X
Effect of stress range X
Stress distribution X X X
Influence of notches X X X
Influence of weld defects X X X
Fatigue improvement technique (needle peening, TIG dressing, burr
grinding, hammering, stress relieving, etc.) X
Standards X X X
Palmgren-Miner rule
Classification of weld joints
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Draw and use an S-N diagram.
2. Detail the influence of notches and weld defects.
3. Describe the methods applied to welds for improved fatigue performance.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Understand an S-N diagram.
2. Name the influence of notches and weld defects.
3. Name possible modifications to welds for improved performance.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Understand in general the influence of notches and weld defects.
2. Define simple recommendations for fatigue improvement in case of welded joints.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 56 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3.8 Design of dynamically loaded welded structures


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the different design details and notch classes in the
range of application.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Range of application: bridges, cranes, machines, ships and offshore
constructions, chimneys, towers and masts, vehicles (cars, trucks, railway
vehicles) etc. X X X
Acceptance criteria X X X
Use of standards and specifications X
Worked examples X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Understand princiles of design of welded joints in accordance with given details.
2. Explain the influence of notch effects on the classification of welded joints.
3. Compare details in different standards and classify them.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Recognise welded joints in accordance with given details.
2. Know the influence of notch effects and stresses on the classification of welded joints.

3.9 Design of welded pressure equipment


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the special requirements of design and construction of
structural elements in this field of application with regard to the calculation of welds.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Construction of boilers, pressure vessels, pipelines, etc X X X
Calculation (formulae) of the welds X
High and low temperatures applications X X X
Details of design (flanges, nozzles, shells, compensating plates etc.) X X X
Use of laws and design rules, standards and specifications X X
Worked examples of construction and design X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Interpret appropriate standards.
2. Calculate circumferential and longitudinal welds.
3. Design given structural details.
4. Explain the advantages of different structural details

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Recognise the advantages of different weld details.
2. Outline the calculation of circumferential and longitudinal welds.
3. Understand design of given structural weld details.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Describe the advantages of different details.
2. Nominate the relevant standards.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 57 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3.10 Design of aluminium alloys structures


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the behaviour of welded aluminium structures with
respect to strength, stresses and design.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Comparison of design between steel and aluminium structures X X X
Lightweight structures X
Standard alloys for practical use and relevant stresses and strains X
Effects of heat-affected zone softening X X X
Special design regarding profiles X
Significance of defects X X X
Range of application (vehicles, rolling stocks, ships, aircraft, vessels and
space) X X X
Use of standards and specifications X X X
Worked examples X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain how to minimize the softening of the heat-affected zone.
2. Give examples of common aluminium weld joints.
3. Discuss how to solve the most common imperfections on aluminium welds.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Recognise typical aluminium joints and preparation.
2. Recognise the common aluminium imperfections and solutions to avoid them.
3. Name some typical applications and the advantages against steel construction.

3.11 Reinforcing-steel welded joints


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the principles of choice of joints and their design.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 1


Reinforcing-steel types, properties X X X
Direct and indirect loading X X X
Types of joints used (lap, cruciform) X X X
Calculation X X X
Weldability with respect to weld joint strength X X X
Preheating in respect to bar diameter X X X
Application of welding processes X X X
Standards and specifications (ISO 17660 series and National Standards) X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the basics of the different joints.
2. Differentiate between load bearing and non-load bearing joints.
3. Detail applicable processes.
4. Determine the length of weld with respect to diameter.
5. Deduce the required preheating temperature.

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Outline the basics of the different joints
2. Recognise between load bearing and non-load bearing joints.
3. Classify applicable welding processes.
4. Outline the length of weld with respect to diameter.
5. Understand the application of preheats.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 58 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3.12 Introduction to fracture mechanics


Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S: Understand the use of fracture mechanics for welded structures.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 3 2 0


Viewpoint of fracture mechanics X X
Application of fracture mechanics X X
Linear elastic fracture mechanics X X
Fundamentals of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics X X
Critical flaw size, KIc-value X X
Fracture mechanics testing (CTOD, etc.)
Sub-critical crack growth
Fatigue testing X X
Standards X X
Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S
1. Name the principles of linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics.
2. Name the influence factors for linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics.
3. Describe the use of fracture mechanics for dynamically loaded structures.

Expected results for IWI-B


Not applicable

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 59 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

WT III WT II WT I

Module 4. Fabrication, applications engineering 24 23 17

4.1Introduction to quality assurance in welded constructions


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:: Understand in detail (for IWI-S - get a complete knowledge; for
IWI-B get knowledge) the principles of quality assurance and quality control and recognise the related
standards and their application to welded fabrication as a special process.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 6 5 3


Concept of quality assurance and quality control (including analysis,
continuous improvement X X X
Weldability X
Quality manual X X X
Quality plan X X X
Audit of plant X X
Personnel and equipment X X X
Maintenance X X X
Inspection X X X
Activities of the welding engineer/technologist/specialist/practitioner in the
different functions in industry X X X
Standards (QMS guidebook, ISO 9000 series, ISO 3834, national and
international standards X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the principles of quality assurance, quality control and inspection systems and their usage for
welded fabrication.
2. Be capable of writing quality control procedures and quality plans for welded fabrication.
3. Explain in detail the purpose of an audit of plant.
4. Be capable of carrying out audits of welding related plant, personnel, equipment and product.
5. Interpret appropriate standards (e.g. ISO 9000, and ISO 3834 series).
6. Explain in detail the main factors related to personnel and equipment, which influence the quality in a
welded fabrication.
7. Explain the role of the Welding Inspector of the Comprehensive level in the fabrication industry.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Explain the main differences between quality assurance, quality control and inspection systems and
their usage for welded fabrication.
2. Be capable of writing quality control procedures.
3. Interpret appropriate standards (e.g. ISO 9000, and ISO 3834 series).
4. Know the basic factors related to personnel and equipment, which influence the quality in a welded
fabrication.
5. Explain the role of the Welding Inspector of the Standard level in the fabrication industry.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. General outline on the goals for quality assurance and quality control.
2. Recognise some factors related to personnel and equipment, which influence the quality of a welded
construction.
3. Explain the role of the Welding Inspector of the Basic level in the fabrication industry.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 60 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.2 Quality control during manufacture


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand in detail for IWI-S - get a complete knowledge; fior IWI-B get
knowledge) the requirements and function of Quality Control during manufacture. Explain the standards related to
welders/operators and welding procedure qualification including traceability, need for calibration and monitoring of
welding parameters. The same objectives to be covered in the scope for brazing.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 6 6 4

Documentation to national, regional and international standards, e.g. WPS X X X


Advantages to the quality of welded constructions X X X
Welding sequence X X
Welding coordination and inspection personnel; qualification tasks and
responsibilities (ISO 14731, ISO 9712, and national standards) X X X
Procedure qualification (as described in ISO 15607) and national standards X X X
Welding procedure specification (WPS) - how to create and develop X X X
Welder qualification (ISO 9606 series, EN 287-1, and national standards X X X
Welding operator qualification (EN 1418, ISO and national standards) X X X
Traceability (materials identification, welder/operator, procedures, certificates) X X
Possible methods of monitoring, control and storage of fabrication data X X
Calibration and validation of measuring equipment X
Practical exercises on welding: Procedure qualification, practical exercises on welder
qualification tests X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the main purpose of a WPS/WPQR/pWPS and the advantages to the quality of welded fabrication.
2. Compile and review WPSs for welded components in accordance with national and international standards.
3. Interpret the standard for the qualification of a WPS, determine the main variables for a particular WPS qualification and its
range of qualification in accordance with National and/or International standards.
4. Explain the main purpose of a welder qualification and the main advantages to the quality of welded fabrication.
5. Interpret the standard for welder qualification, determine the main variables for a particular welder qualification and its
range of qualification.
6. Explain the main purpose of a welding operator qualification and the main advantages to the quality of welded fabrication.
7. Interpret the standard for welding operator qualification, determine the main variables for a particular welding operator
qualification and its range of qualification.
8. Define the traceability requirements for materials procedures and certificates and give examples.
9. Give examples of methods available for the monitoring and storage of fabrication data.
10. Recognise the equipment and instruments needing calibration and explain why.
11. Explain the tasks and responsibilities of the welding coordination personnel.
12. Explain the tasks and responsibilities of the different inspection personnel

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Explain the main purpose of a WPS/WPQR/pWPS and the advantages to the quality of welded fabrication.
2. Compile and review WPSs for welded components in accordance with national and international standards.
3. Interpret the standard for qualification of a WPS, determine the main variables for a particular WPS qualification and its
range of qualification in accordance with National and/or International standards.
4. Explain the main purpose of a welder qualification and the main advantages to the quality of welded fabrication.
5. Interpret the standard for welder qualification, determine the main variables for a particular welder qualification and its
range of qualification.
6. Explain the main purpose of a welding operator qualification and the main advantages to the quality of welded fabrication.
7. Interpret the standard for welding operator qualification, determine the main variables for a particular welding operator
qualification and its range of qualification.
8. Define the traceability requirements for materials procedures and certificates and give examples.
9. Give examples of methods available for the monitoring and storage of fabrication data.
10. Know the equipment and instruments needing calibration
11. Explain the tasks and responsibilities of the different inspection personnel.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Outline the purpose of a WPS, and the advantages to the quality of the welded construction.
2. Recognise the main variables for a certain WPS qualification and its range of approval.
3. Outline the purpose of welder qualification and the advantages to the quality of the welded construction.
4. Recognise the EN and ISO standards for welder qualification and outline the main variables for a specific welder
qualification and its range of approval.
5. Outline the meaning of traceability when related to the welded constructions.
6. Identify the equipment, and instruments needing calibration.
7. Explain the tasks and responsibilities of the different inspection personnel.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 61 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.3 Welding stresses and distortion


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S . get a knowledge; for IWI-B get a general
knowledge) the main factors affecting welding stress and distortion in welded fabrications and how these
effects can be measured and minimised.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 2


Influencing factors X X X
Thermal data of the materials X X X
Origin of the residual stresses and deformation X X X
Magnitude of longitudinal and transverse shrinkage stresses X X X
Relationship between heat input, shrinkage stresses and distortion X X X
Methods of residual stress measurement X
Welding sequence techniques X X X
Effects of residual stresses on the behaviour of the structure in service X X X
Methods of reducing residual stresses or distortion X X X
Correction and removal of welding deformation (pressing, rolling, local
heating, etc.) X X X
Examples of control of distortion X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the origin, influencing factors and magnitude of residual stress and distortion in welded
fabrications.
2. Predict quantitatively contraction and distortion in joints and structures.
3. Develop procedures to minimise distortion and stress.
4. Explain how residual stresses may affect the behaviour of a structure in service.

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Explain in general terms the origin, influencing factors and magnitude of residual stress and distortion in
welded fabrications.
2. Predict qualitatively contraction and distortion in joints and structures.
3. Develop procedures to minimise distortion and stress.
4. Describe how residual stresses may affect the behaviour of a structure in service.

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Outline in general terms he origin, influencing factors and magnitude of residual stress and distortion in
welded fabrications.
2. Predict qualitatively contraction and distortion in joints and structures.
3. Name procedures to minimise distortion and stress.
4. Interpret how residual stresses may affect the behaviour of a structure in service.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 62 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.4 Plant facilities. Welding jigs and fixtures


Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S: Understand the need for, and function of, auxiliary
equipment, jigs and fixtures from the viewpoint of quality, economics and the environment.

Objectives for IWI-B: Acquire knowledge about the main plant facilities used during welded construction
and auxiliary equipment, to be able to recognise technical solutions for a certain welded construction
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Layout of production line X X X
Jigs, fixtures and positioners (types, applications, advantages, special
precautions) X X X
Roller beds, manipulators X X X
Cables, electrical connections, and special precaution X X X
Operational environment X X X
Auxiliary equipment (for fit up, movement, backing gas devices, flow meters,
etc X X X
Fume extraction (type of equipment, air flow) X X X
Joint fit up X X X
Tack welding and their removal X X X
Storage, distribution and handling of consumables (gases and filler material,
baking and drying ovens) X X X
Equipment for preheat, postheat, and other heat treatments, as well as
temperature control including furnace and local heat treatment X X X
Maintenance X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Detail workshop layout principles for improved productivity, safety and comfort.
2. Explain the advantages of using fixtures, jigs and positioners.
3. Select the type of fixture, jig or positioner to be used for a particular welded fabrication.
4. Select the type of auxiliary equipment to be used in a particular welded fabrication, including fume
extraction, and cables, heat treatment and temperature control equipment.
5. Identify the special requirements of facilities for handling and storing welding consumables.
6. Deduce the special requirements related to joint fit up and tack welding.

Expected results for IWI-S:


1. Describe layout principles for improved productivity, safety and comfort.
2. Describe the advantages of using fixtures, jigs and positioners.
3. Select the type of fixture, jig or positioner to be used for a particular welded fabrication.
4. Select the type of auxiliary equipment to be used in a particular welded fabrication, including fume
extraction, and cables, heat treatment and temperature control equipment.
5. Identify the special requirements of facilities for handling and storing welding consumables.
6. Deduce the special requirements related to joint fit up and tack welding.

Expected results for IWI-B:


1. Outline the layout importance to achieve a higher and easier production.
2. Recognise the advantages of using fixtures, jigs and positioners.
3. Recognise the type of fixture, jig and positioner to be used in a certain welded construction.
4. Recognise the necessary characteristics for the auxiliary equipment to be used in a certain welded
construction, including fume extraction, cables, heat treatment equipment and temperature control.
5. Outline the general precautions related with the handling, and storage of welding consumables,
6. Outline the general precautions related with joint fit up and tack welding.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 63 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.5 Health and safety


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S - get a complete knowledge; for IWI-B
describe) the health and safety hazards associated with welding and fabrication processes, including
techniques to minimise them.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 2


Introduction to health and safety requirements X X X
Survey of safety and environmental aspects, risk assessment X X X
Hazards of electric power X X X
Electro-magnetic fields X X X
Connecting of equipment X X X
Problems with shielding gases X X X
Radiation and eye protection X X X
Welding fume emission X X X
Exposure limits MAC and OEL values X
Ventilation and fume extraction X X X
Ergonomics X X X
Determination of acceptable emissions X
Tests for measuring emissions X
Noise levels and ear protection X X X
Special risks for automated processes X X
Standards and regulations X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the risk factors associated with welding from electricity, gases, fumes, fire, radiation and noise.
2. Interpret health and safety regulations with respect to the above hazards.
3. Select the appropriate methods to reduce each type of welding risk factors.
4. Produce safe working procedures to ensure the requirements are met.
5. Perform measurements of welding hazards.

Expected results for IWI-S:


1. Explain the risk factors associated with welding from electricity, gases, fumes, fire, radiation and noise.
2. Interpret health and safety regulations with respect to the above hazards.
3. Select the appropriate methods to reduce each type of welding risk factors.
4. Describe safe working procedures to ensure the requirements are met.
5. Know how to measure welding hazards.

Expected results for IWI-B:


1. Describe the risks associated with welding from electricity, gases, fumes, fire, radiation and noise.
2. Interpret health and safety regulations with respect to the above hazards.
3. Name the risks associated with welding operations.
4. Describe safe working procedures to ensure the requirements are met.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 64 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.6 Measurement, control and recording in welding


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:: Understand (for IWI-S know; for IWI-B name)
the requirements for measurement, control and recording during welding and allied operations.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Methods of measurement (electrical parameters, gas flow rate, temperature,
velocity) X X X
Instruments (types, measuring applications) X X X
Temperatures (ISO 13916), humidity, wind X X X
Cooling time e.g. t 8/5 X X X
Welding parameters (voltage, current, speed, gas flow rate, etc X X X
Control in heat treatment (heating and cooling rate, CR ISO 17663) X X X
Calibration and validation of equipment (ISO 17662) X
Laboratory exercises. X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the methods of measurement used in the control of welding and allied operations.
2. Detail working procedures for the measurement of welding parameters.
3. Detail working procedures for the measurement and control of heat treatment operations.
4. Detail procedures for the calibration, validation and monitoring of welding operations.

Expected results for IWI-S:


1. Describe the methods of measurement used in the control of welding and allied operations.
2. Explain working procedures for the measurement of welding parameters.
3. Explain working procedures for the measurement and control of heat treatment operations.
4. Explain procedures for the calibration, validation and monitoring of welding operations.

Expected results for IWI-B:


1. Repeat the methods of measurement used in the control of welding.
2. Name working procedures for the measurement of welding parameters.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 65 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.7Non-destructive testing (introduction to WI module)


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand in detail (for IWI-S understand; for IWI-B describe)
the use of Non Destructive Testing as applied to welding fabrications.
Module WT III WT II WT I
Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1
Types of weld imperfections (IIW-designations classification according to ISO
standards) X X X
Acceptance criteria (e.g. ISO 5817, ISO10042, and EN 12062) X X X
Fundamentals of NDT methods (visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle,
eddy current, acoustic emission, radiography, ultrasonics, etc.) X X X
Field of application and limitations X X X
Design in respect of NDT X X X
Calibration X X X
Interpretation (IIW Reference radiographs) X X X
Recording of data X X X
Correct selection of the NDT methods versus application (e.g. CEN/TR
15135) X X X
Qualification and certification of NDT personnel X X X
NDT procedures X X X
Automation of NDT (computer aid evaluation, etc.) X
Use of standards and specifications X
Health and safety aspects X X X
Laboratory exercises X X X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Explain the modes of operation of the principal NDT methods, their advantages and disadvantages
when applied to welded fabrications.
2. Identify weld imperfections, their causes and avoidance and methods of detection.
3. Interpret acceptance standards for weld imperfections.
4. Identify the principles of NDT interpretation.
5. Select weld configurations and design to allow adequate application of NDT methods.
6. Interpret the qualification of NDT personnel.
7. Recognise safety aspects

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Know the modes of operation of the principal NDT methods, their advantages and disadvantages when
applied to welded fabrications.
2. Identify weld imperfections, their causes and avoidance and methods of detection.
3. Interpret acceptance standards for weld imperfections.
4. Identify the principles of NDT interpretation.
5. Select weld configurations and design to allow adequate application of NDT methods.
6. Identify the qualification of NDT personnel.
7. Recognise safety aspects

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Interpret the modes of operation of the principal NDT methods, their advantages and disadvantages
when applied to welded fabrications.
2. Name weld imperfections, their causes and methods of detection.
3. Interpret acceptance standards for weld imperfections.
4. Select weld configurations and design to allow adequate application of NDT methods.
5. Recognise safety aspects

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 66 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.8 Economics
Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Not applicable
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 0 0 0


Introduction,
Analysis of welding costs,
Deposition rate,
Costs of labour,
Costs of consumables,
Costs of equipment,
Return on investment,
Costs of energy,
Welders duty cycle,
Calculation of welding costs,
The application of software, calculation programmes,
Measures for decreasing welding costs,
Mechanisation,
Automation,
Robotics,

4.9 Repair-welding
Objectives IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand (for IWI-S explain; for IWI-B - understand/ name) the
problems of repair welding both for in-manufacture and in-service situations.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 2


Welding repair procedure specification X X X
Welding repair plan X X X
Welding repair procedure qualification X X X
NDT of the weld repair X X X
Special precautions X X X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. Explain the problems and implications of making repair welds.
2. Predict the possible hazards likely to occur in making repair welds particularly for in-service repairs.
3. Understand in details procedures to be applied to weld repairs.
4. Specify the procedural and operator qualifications to be applied to repair welds.

Expected results for IWI-S:


1. Explain the problems and implications of making repair welds.
2. Predict the possible hazards likely to occur in making repair welds particularly for in-service repairs.
3. Understand procedures to be applied to weld repairs.
4. Specify the procedural and operator qualifications to be applied to repair welds.

Expected results for IWI-B:


1. Describe the problems of making repair welds.
2. Predict the possible hazards likely to occur in making repair welds particularly for in-service repairs.
3. Understand procedures to be applied to weld repairs.
4. Name the procedural and operator qualifications to be applied to repair welds.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 67 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.10 Fitness for purpose


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:: To gain an understanding of the need for and use of engineering
critical assessment techniques.
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Introduction to IIW SST 1093-8 and ISO/TR 15235 X X X
Significance of defects X X X
Engineering critical assessment techniques X X X
Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B
1. Describe the principles of fitness for purpose.
2. Describe in detail the effect of imperfection size, morphology and position on structural integrity.
3. Explain typical methods on conducting an engineering critical assessment of a welded structure.

4.11 Case Studies


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Not applicable
Module WT III WT II WT I

Scope Teaching hours 0 0 0


Subjects:
Steel and lightweight structures, boilers and pressure vessels, chemical
plants and pipelines, shipbuilding and offshore applications, Transportation
automobiles, railways), aerospace applications.

Common items to be covered:


Standards and specifications,
Design,
Choice of materials,
Welding processes,
Site welding (transport and final assembly),
Consumables,
Welding procedures,
Tolerances on weld preparation and fit-up,
Post-weld heat treatment,
NDT and quality control,

TOTAL: 122 94 65
Note: The above syllabus follows the content of that adopted for the core Guideline Personnel with
Responsibility for Welding Coordination. Items which do not apply to welding inspection personnel are
allocated 0 hrs.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 68 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

Theoretical education: Welding Inspection Modules

1. General introduction to welding inspection WI III WI II WI I


Number of Course Hours: 3 3 2

1.1 Scope of activity


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:Understand the role and responsibilities of the welding inspector
and the inspector's relationship with other welding and inspection personnel. Understand the purpose of
destructive and non destructive testing.
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 1


Objectives of inspection in welded construction X X X
Construction and quality standards X X X
Role of inspection personnel in the assurance of product quality; concept of
fitness for purpose X X X
Inspection before, during and after welding X X X
Levels of personnel and their qualification X X X
Responsibilities of inspector; liability for actions X X X
Relationship to welding co-ordination and other welding tasks X X X
Concepts of destructive and non-destructive testing X X X
Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S
1. Understand the role and responsibilities of welding inspectors in construction codes and quality standards
2. Understand welding inspectors authority levels in relation to contract and regulatory requirements
3. Understand the levels of personnel qualification and the associated job tasks and responsibilities in weldin
ordination (ISO 3834) and inspection and testing
4. Understand the role of the welding inspector and the relationship with the welder, welding co-ordinator and
destructive testing staff
5. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of destructive and non destructive testing
6. Explain the role of inspection in assuring product quality

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Understand the role and responsibilities of welding inspectors in construction codes and quality standards
2. Understand welding inspectors authority levels in relation to contract and regulatory requirements
3. Understand the levels of personnel qualification and the associated job tasks and responsibilities in weldin
ordination (ISO 3834) and inspection and testing
4. Understand the role of the welding inspector and the relationship with the welder, welding co-ordinator and
destructive testing staff
5. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of destructive and non destructive testing

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 69 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

1.2 Terms and definitions


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B Understand inspection and NDT terminology
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Common Inspection and NDT terms X X X
Reference standards for terminology X X X
IIW collections of terms X X X

Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B


Ability to understand and use Inspection and NDT terms included in National and International standards
and IIW collection of terms

2. Mechanical tests on welded joints WI III WI II WI I


Number of Course Hours: 1 1 1

Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the purpose and value of welding procedure and
welder performance testing. Understand the requirements for material used for procedure and performance
testing
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Objectives in relation to welder and procedure qualification, and to service
performance X X X
Test welds; sources of test pieces X X X
Material certificates: essential features and data X X X

Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S


1. Understand the objectives of welding procedure and welder performance testing
2. Understand material certification content and data
3. Be capable of selecting appropriate material for test purposes
4. Explain the purpose and value of testing in relation to service performance

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Understand the objectives of welding procedure and welder performance testing
2. Understand material certification content and data
3. Be capable of selecting appropriate material for test purposes

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 70 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3. Weld Imperfections WI III WI II WI I


Number of Course Hours: 7 5 3

3.1Types of imperfections
Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Clarify the characteristics of the fundamental types of weld
imperfection. Explain their possible position with reference with the welded joint. Verify their visibility with the
current NDT techniques

Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 5 4 3


Review of weld imperfections, their cause and characteristics, in particular X X X
Porosity and cavities X X X
Imperfect and profile shape X X X
Arc strikes X X X
Cracks X X X
Inclusions X X X
Lack of fusion X X X
Lack of penetration X X X
Lamellar tearing X X X
Overlap X X X
Poor surface condition X X X
Seams and laminations X X X
Spatter X X X
Undercut X X X
Classification (EN-ISO 6520) X X
Others X X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. Get the capability of manage the different types of weld imperfection
2. Identify the causes of weld imperfections, with reference to the different welding processes and welded
materials
3. Predict the possibility of detection for each type of imperfection with the current NDT techniques

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Get the capability of manage the different types of weld imperfection
2. Predict the possibility of detection for each type of imperfection with the current NDT techniques

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Get the capability of manage the different types of weld imperfection

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 71 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

3.2 Evaluation of imperfections


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Fully understand the morphology of the imperfections. Predict
possible influence of each type of imperfection. Manage the application of international / national standards
codes for acceptance/rejections of weld imperfections
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 0


Features of weld imperfections:
volumetric form X
nature of surface X
size X
location X
orientation X
Significance of defects in relation to service performance X
Compliance with specifications X X
Acceptance/rejection criteria X
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Get the knowledge of the most common codes and standards regarding weld imperfections
2. Manage the application of acceptance / rejection weld imperfections criteria
3. Approach the inspection of the welded joints in relationship with their service conditions

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Get the knowledge of the most common codes and standards regarding weld imperfections
2. Manage the application of acceptance / rejection weld imperfections criteria

Expected results for IWI-B


Not applicable

4. Testing methods WI III WI II WI I


Number of Course Hours: 31 25 18

4.1 Review of testing methods

Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand the different methods of NDT and their range of
application.
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


Role of visual and non-destructive testing methods X X X
Application ranges of availabel methods. X X X
Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:
1. Detail the objectives of testing methods.
2. (see item 1.1. of the Welding Inspection Modules)
3. (see item 1.1. of the Welding Inspection Modules)
4. Detail different types of testing (including destructive ones) and their ranges of applciation.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 72 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.2 Visual inspection


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand in detail, visual inspection fundamentals, applications
and specifications, including interpretation of specific imperfections in weldments
Qualification Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 5 5 5


4.2.1 Inspection tools:
Special weld measuring instruments X X X
Internal (bore) viewing systems X X X
Optical magnifying devices X X X

4.2.2 Checking before welding:


Material and consumable type X X X
Joint preparation (ISO 9692) X X X
Storage and condition of consumables X X X
Condition of welding equipment X X X
Equipment setting and calibration X X X
Alignment of component parts X X X
Use of jigs, positioners X X X
Welding procedure and status X X X
Witnessing approval tests X X X
Evaluation of test results X X
Application of welding procedure X X X

4.2.3 Inspection during welding:


Preheat and its control X X X
Inter-run cleaning and temperature(s) control X X X
Back gouging X X X
Weld metal appearance and profile X X X
Distortion X X X
Weld penetration X X X
Monitoring of welding parameters X X X

4.2.4 Testing (see EN 473 or ISO 9712) after welding:


Weld dimensions X X X
Penetration X X X
Profile X X X
Surface appearance X X X
Distortion X X X
Sputter, arc strikes X X X
Evidence of surface breaking defects - porosity, cracking X X X

4.2.5 Reporting results: visual testing report X X X

Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:


1. Detail different types of tools used in visual inspection
2. Explain interest of inspection before, during and after welding
3. Detail different items of inspection before welding,
4. Detail different items of inspection during welding
5. Detail different items of inspection after welding
6. Detail standards of reference for evaluation of test results
7. Detail different method for monitoring welding parameters
8. Detail presentation of visual testing reports
9. Explain system of visual testing personnel certification

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 73 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.3 Liquid penetrant testing


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand in detail liquid penetrant testing fundamentals,
applications and specifications, including interpretation of specific imperfections in weldments
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 2


4.3.1 Principles:
Liquid penetration of surface breaking imperfections; capillary flow X X X
Penetrant liquids; dye and fluorescent; nature and characteristics X X X
Testing procedure X X X
Developing the image X X X
Sensitivity X X X
Scope; type of defect and materials X X X
Limitations of method X X X

4.3.2 Technique :
Choice of penetrant X X X
Testing procedure; pre-cleaning, application of penetrant, penetration
time, washing, developing X X X
Safe working X X X

4.3.3 Interpretation:
Viewing conditions X X X
Locating imperfections; spurious indications X X X
Identifying imperfections type and size X X X

4.3.4 Application:
Types of equipment X X X
Typical components X X X

4.3.5 Standards X X X

4.3.6 Personnel competence X X X

Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:


1. Explain principles of liquid penetrant testing.
2. Explain range of validity of the method for in fabrication testing, in service testing.
3. Detail imperfections expected to be found with this process.
4. Detail standards of reference for evaluation of test results.
5. Detail presentation of liquid penetrant testing reports.
6. Explain certification system for liquid penetrant testing personnel certification.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 74 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.4 Magnetic particle testing


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand in detail, magnetic particle testing fundamentals,
applications and specifications, including interpretation of specific imperfections in weldments.
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 4 4 4


4.4.1 Principles:
Magnets and magnetic fields (magnetic fluxes) X X X
Field strength (flux density) X X X
Inducing fields in metal components X X X
Uniform fields X X X
Effect of discontinuities in distorting the field X X X
Field distortion due to component geometry, surface finish or imperfections X X X
Using magnetic particles to locate field distortion X X X
Limitations of method X X X

4.4.2 Technique:
Magnetisation methods X X X
Application to different component geometries X X X
Field strength requirements; calculations X
Testing procedure; component preparation; surface preparation of welds;
particle application; dry and wet methods; preparation for interpretation X X X

4.4.3 Interpretation:
Factors affecting imperfections recognition X X
Locating imperfections; irrelevant magnetic disturbances X X
Identifying imperfections type and size X X

4.4.4 Application:
Types of equipment X X
Typical components X X

4.4.5 Standards X X

4.4.6 Personnel competence X X


Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:
1. Explain principles of magnetic particle testing
2. Explain range of validity of the method for in fabrication testing, in service testing
3. Detail imperfections expected to be found with this process
4. Detail standards of reference for evaluation of test results
5. Detail presentation of magnetic particle testing reports
6. Explain system of magnetic particle testing of personnel certification.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 75 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.5 Radiographic testing


Objectives for I IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand in detail, radiographic testing fundamentals,
applications and specifications, including interpretation of specific imperfections in weldments
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 5 3 2


4.5.1 Principles:
Simple concepts of electromagnetic radiation and of radioactive
emissions from isotopes X X X
Characteristics and properties of x- and y-rays X X X
Generation of x-rays; the x-ray tube X X X
Penetration and absorption; effects of tube voltage and current X X X
Isotope disintegration and production of y-rays; concept of half-life X X X
Penetration and absorption; effect of type of isotope X X X
Radiographic procedure and film type; film density; concept of image
unsharpness, sensitivity X X X
Defect orientation and dimensions versus detectability X X
Effect of materials, thickness and component geometry X X
Limitation of method; materials, thickness, geometry X X X
Health hazards and their control X X X

4.5.2 Techniques:
Review of component; selection of radiation source and film type X X
Film handling and storage X X
Establishment of radiographic procedure and conditions;
single and double exposure X X
Image quality; selection and use of IQIs X X
Film processing; effect of variables on image quality X X
Safe working practice; personnel monitoring X X X

4.5.3 Interpretation:
Review of component, welding procedure and radiographic techniques;
expected location of imperfections X X
Viewing conditions X X
Assessment of image quality X X
Recognition of imperfections types and their locations use of reference
radiographs X X

4.5.4 Specialised radiographic facilities:


High voltage radiography, fluoroscopy; X

4.5.5 Legislation and standards X X X

4.5.6 Personnel competence X X

Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:


1. Explain principles of radiographic testing, film processing methods
2. Explain different methods of radiographic testing, selection of radiation type
3. Detail imperfections expected to be found with this process and their location
4. Detail standards of reference for evaluation of test results
5. Detail presentation of radiographic testing reports
6. Detail conditions of handling and storage of films
7. Detail legislation rules for handling of radiographic sources
8. Explain system of radiographic testing personnel certification.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 76 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

4.6 Ultrasonic testing


Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand in detail, ultrasonic testing fundamentals, applications
and specifications, including interpretation of specific imperfections in weldments
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 7 5 2


4.6.1 Principles :
Sound propagation X X X
Shear, compression and surface waves; velocity X X X
Properties of ultrasound; frequency and wavelength; ultrasonic beam;
beam spread; refraction, reflection, diffraction; defects as reflectors;
transmission and reception; probes, probe angle; coupling to component X X X
Near field, far field, dead zone X X X
Pulse echo system; pulse shape and rate
Generation of pulses; receiving echo signals, amplification and display; X X X
display modes: A, B and C X X X
Defect range; time of pulse flight, time base X X X
Reflection characteristics of defects X X X
Scanning for defects; scanning zone X X
Limitations; materials, thickness, geometry, structure

4.6.2 Equipment:
The ultrasonic set; probe construction; controls X X X

4.6.3 Thickness testing:


Use of longitudinal wave probes for thickness measurement and corrosion
assessment X X X

4.6.4 Preparation for manual testing:


Pre-welding action; reference marking for key weld preparation features X X
Component review; identification of scanning zone; welding procedure;
expected imperfections X X
Scanning procedures for imperfections location; probe type and angle;
single or double probes X X
Calibration; calibration blocks; range, probe angle, sensitivity X X

4.6.5 Imperfections location:


Component preparation; surface finish X X
Coupling X X
Scanning pattern; marking limits on component X X
Recording of echo signals and location of reflectors X X
Accuracy of location of reflectors; root zone problems X X
Use of special flaw location slides X X

4.6.6 Nature and size of reflectors:


Detailed examination of located reflectors X X
Technique to evaluate nature of reflector X X
Techniques for size estimation; reference reflectors; DGS system; use
of beam boundary; calibration; tolerances; effect of component on
accuracy X

4.6.7 The ultrasonic test report X X

4.6.8 Interpretation:
Review of component, and assessment of calibration and testing technique X X
Assessment of findings in test report; relationship with pre-weld features of
component X X
Conclusions X X
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4.6.9 Mechanised systems:


Multi-probe scanner with data logging; tank testing; production line system
wrought products X

4.6.10 P Scan system X

4.6.11 Standards X X

4.6.12 Personnel competency X X

Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B:


1. Explain principles of ultrasonic testing,
2. Explain different methods of ultrasonic testing,
3. Detail imperfections expected to be found with this process and their location
4. Detail standards of reference for evaluation of test results
5. Detail presentation of ultrasonic testing reports
6. Explain system for of ultrasonic testing personnel certification.

4.7 Other NDT methods


Objectives for IWI-C: Understand in eddy current testing principles, applications and specifications,
including interpretation of weldments specific imperfections
Objectives for IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand leak testing principles, applications and specifications.
Understand strain gauges measurement principles, applications and interpretation of results
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 0


4.7.1 Eddy current testing:
Principles; induction into component of eddy currents by ac magnetic field;
equipment; test coil; presentation of test results X
Influence of materials, thickness, component geometry X
Interpretation of results X
Personnel competence X
4.7.2 Leak testing:
Principles and methods; vacuum box; tracer gases; instrumentation;
detection of leak source X X
4.7.3 Strain gauges:
Types of gauge; application; instrumentation X X
Interpretation of results X X
Expected results for IWI-C for Eddy current
1. Explain principles of eddy current testing
2. Range of use of the eddy current testing
3. Explain interpretation of results
4. Explain system of NDT personnel certification.

Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S for leak testing


1. Detail different methods of leak detection
2. Explain advantages and disadvantages of different methods
3. Explain choose of a method related to welding construction
4. Explain system of NDT personnel certification

Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S for strain gauges


1. Explain use of strain gauges
2. Detail different types of gauges
3. Explain expected results from measurements

Expected results for IWI-B


Not applicable

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4.8 Critical review of selection of NDT methods


Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S: Understand in detail the economics of testing operations applied to
welded fabrications, choice of testing method regarding type of base material and expected imperfections,
sensitivity of detection
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 2 2 0


4.8.1 NDT methods versus :
Cost, operator competence X X
Surface-sub/surface detection X X
Type of imperfection detected X X
Imperfection measurement achieved X X
Reliability of detection X X
Limitations of materials, component size and geometry X X
Accuracy, validity of information or data obtained X X

4.8.2 Logical route to selection X X

4.8.3 Exercises to select optimum method for specific cases X X

Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S


1. Explain costs of NDT related to method and operators competence
2. Explain choice related to location of imperfections expected (on or sub surface)
3. Explain choice related to sensitivity required
4. Explain accuracy of detection related to NDT process, type of materials, size of construction

Expected results for IWI-B


Not applicable

4.9 Other test methods


Objectives for IWI-C : Understand pressure test principles, applications and specifications
Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B: Understand dimensional testing fundamentals, applications and
specifications
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 2 1 1


4.9.1 Pressure test:
Component pressurisation; equipment and instrumentation; proof testing X
4.9.2 Dimensional tests:
Size, tolerances; measuring instruments and devices X X X
Expected results for IWI-C, for pressure test
1. Explain fundamentals of the tests
2. Calculate test pressure related to appropriate standard or specification
3. Details to be taken care of for realisation of the test
4. Detail verification for test measurement tools

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B for pressure test


Not applicable
Expected results for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B for dimensional testing
1. Explain fundamentals of the dimensional tests
2. Detail verification for test measurement tools
3. Explain method for reporting of test results????

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4.10 Reporting
Objectives for IWI-C, IWI-S and IWI-B
Understand what shall be included in a testing report and their ???? (its) maintenance rules
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 1 1 1


4.10.1 Preparation of inspection and test reports;
Essential information and data; standard forms X X X

4.10.2 Procedure for report assessment X X

4.10.3 Essential records and their maintenance;


Computer software X X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. Explain different information and data needed before inspection can be performed.
2. Detail standards needed before inspection can be performed.
3. Explain different procedures that are required to establish forms of test reports
4. Explain mandatory obligations for maintenance of test reports

Expected results for IWI-S and IWI-B


1. Explain different information and data needed before inspection can be performed
2. Detail standards needed before inspection can be performed.

5. Quality Assurance. Principles and levels

Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S: Get the basic knowledge of QA principles. Understand the risks related
with a collapse or a failure of the joints for people, products and environment. Fully understand the role of
QA during fabrication.

Objectives for IWI-B: Get the basic knowledge of QA principles. Fully understand the role of QA during
fabrication.
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 3 3 1


Level of QA required versus product specification X X X
Risk and consequences of failure X X X
Product liability X X X
Role of quality control and inspection in QA X X X
Implementation of standards in a fabrication environment X X
Vendor auditing X X

Expected results for IWI-C and IWI-S


1. Be capable of interpreting the inspectors role during fabrication activities
2. Manage and interpret the standard connected with QA application
3. Be capable of interfacing with Welding Coordinators and QA personnel

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Be capable of interpreting the inspectors role during fabrication activities
2. Be capable of interfacing with Welding Coordinators and QA personnel

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6. Management of inspection function

Objectives for IWI-C: Understand the responsibilities associated with inspection activities as they relate to
staff, company organization and record generation and retention. Recognize the importance of accurate
records and monitoring of activities with respect to the inspection process.

Objectives for IWI-S: Recognize the importance of accurate records and monitoring of activities with
respect to the inspection process
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 3 3 0


Responsibilities; organisation; personnel; personnel management;
discipline; motivation of subordinates; staff development; planning and
scheduling of key activities records and record keeping X X

Expected results for IWI-C


1. Be familiar with typical inspection company procedures relating to staffing and inspection task implementa
2. Understand basic project planning techniques and how they are applied to inspection activities
3. Identify the basic elements of an inspection report and the items to be listed???? in report
4. Be familiar with other inspection reports and how they link to the final inspection documentation
5. Acquire basic writing and communication skills

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Identify the basic elements of an inspection report and the items to be listed???? in report
2. Be familiar with other inspection reports and how they link to the final inspection documentation
3. Acquire basic writing and communication skills

Expected results for IWI-B


Not applicable

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7. Practical work

Objectives for IWI-C and IWI-S Acquire the basic operating principles of both mechanical and non
destructive testing methods.

Objectives for IWI-B: Become familiar with basic practial skill of main mechanical and non destructive
testing methods.
Module WI III WI II WI I

Scope Teaching hours 49 23 15


Radiographs interpretation 18 7
Mechanical testing 3 2 2
Visual inspection 6 6 6
Metallographic 4 1
Liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing 4 2 7
Ultrasonic testing 14 5
Expected results for IWI-C
1. Understand the basic operating principles of radiography
2. Understand the defects detectable with radiography and its limitations
3. Be familiar with mechanical testing equipment
4. Understand and be able to apply visual inspection techniques for welds and fabrications
5. Be able to prepare and examine a metallographic sample
6. Understand the application of liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing
7. Be able to interpret results of liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing
8. Understand the principles of ultrasonic testing
9. Understand the defects that can be detected with ultrasonic testing
10. Be familiar with the calibration and the maintenance of the equipment used in ultrasonic testing

Expected results for IWI-S


1. Understand the basic operating principles of radiography
2. Understand the defects detectable with radiography and its limitations
3. Be familiar with mechanical testing equipment
4. Understand and be able to apply visual inspection techniques for welds and fabrications
5. Be able to examine a metallographic sample
6. Understand the application of liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing
7. Be able to interpret results of liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing
8. Understand the principles of ultrasonic testing
11. Understand the defects that can be detected with ultrasonics

Expected results for IWI-B


1. Be familiar with mechanical testing equipment
8 Understand and be able to apply visual inspection techniques for welds and fabrications
9 Understand the application of liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing
10 Be able to interpret results of liquid penetrant and magnetic particle testing

Welding Inspection Modules : Total hours 97 63 40

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Theoretical education: Basic technology Module 0

1. Introduction 2
Survey on the contents of this module
Repeat of basic knowledge
Information on education and training system
Job functions of welding inspection personnel

2. Units 2
Units for length and area
Time and time dependent units

3. Technical calculation 7
Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division
Percentage calculation, rule of three
Use of pocket calculators
Equations and solving of equations
Solving of equations
Calculation of length, area, and volume
Angular units
Trigonometric functions

4. Technical drawing 12
Formats, lines, fonts, scales, drawing aids
Sketch of flat pieces
Drawings
Projections, cross sections
Planar development of shapes
Pieces with hidden lines, hatching
Symbols, size lines
Drawing of diagrams

5. Basics of electrotechnology 2
Direct current
Alternating current
Simple circuits

6. Basics of chemistry 2
Chemical elements
Simple reactions

7. Basics of materials 5
Types and properties of materials
Basics of metals, especially iron
Effect of impurities
Basics of non-iron metals

8. Metal products 2
Plates, profiles, bars
Castings, forgings, extrusions

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9. Machining of materials 2
Sawing, cutting, stamping, drilling, shaping
Milling, thermal cutting

10. Technical mechanics 2


Basics of static loads, forces and stresses
Calculation of forces and stresses
Concept of fatigue and fracture

11. Calculation of strength 2


Working stresses, deflections
Behaviour of structural shapes
Stability of constructions

total hours : 40

Note: This 40 hour course follows the syllabus of Module IWS-0, but only insofar as engineering
knowledge required by International Welding Inspection Personnel level is concerned.

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Section II: Minimum requirements for experience, examination


and qualification
1. Introduction

This Guideline seeks to achieve harmonisation and a common standard in the


examination and qualification of personnel engaged in welding inspection. The national
welding organisations, being members of the IIW, mutually acknowledge the Diploma
awarded in any Member State to International Welding Inspection Personnel, following
education, experience and examination conducted in accordance with this Guideline.

Before examination, education must have been followed that is prescribed in this
Guideline, and the Authorised National Body must have conducted the final examination.

2. Route from IWI-B to IWI-S and from IWI-S to IWI-C

In the case of the bridging route from IWI-B to IWI-S (Route 4), and from IWI-S to IWI-C
(Route 3), the candidate shall have had a minimum of 24 months experience before ATB
assessment (see Fig. 2).

3. Verification of visual acuity

All candidates shall provide evidence of a satisfactory vision test.


Note: Certification may require additional vision test.

4. Approval of courses

Any training course leading to the IIW examination must be approved by the ANB. The
number of teachers required to give the course shall be sufficient to ensure that the essential
specialist knowledge and industrial experience required to cover the syllabus are adequately
represented in the team of teachers and visiting lecturers.

5. Examination Board

An Examination Board, acting on behalf of the ANB, supervises examinations. In this way,
the independence, integrity and fairness of the examination system is maintained.

6. Examination procedures

The examination procedures described below are designed to simulate different situations
from production sphere which might be handled by a welding inspector.

The examination will be in two parts, the first of which will be a written examination
covering the subject of the course. The second part there will be a practical examination
to test the candidate's ability to apply inspection technology. The following are the
minimum requirements for the duration of examinations:

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IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B

Time (hrs) Time (hrs) Time (hrs)


Part 1:
Theoretical written
examination Only
WI module 3 2,5 1,5
Part2:
Practical examination 2,5 2,5 2,5

In order to pass the examination, candidates must achieve at least 60% of the maximum
possible mark in each part.

6.1 Theoretical written examination

This part will examine the candidate's knowledge only regarding the welding Inspection
Technology Module.

At the discretion of the ANB it shall consist of:

a) A series of essay questions covering the whole field of the subject


or
b) A series of multiple choice questions covering the whole field of the subject
or
c) A combination of a) and b) with equal marks allocated to each type.

6.2 Practical examination

The objective of this examination is to assess the candidate's competence in undertaking


a range of inspection tasks and it will include both an oral examination to assess the
candidate's comprehension of the tasks involved and written reporting of results.

Oral examination will cover to test the candidate's understanding of and ability to interpret
international quality standards and the quality aspects of welding application standards,
and quality related documentation such as control manuals. The candidate may select
specific standards and codes from among those offered by the ANB.

7. Re-examination

Failure in a final examination shall require re-examination only in the part failed. Final
examinations must be re-taken within 2 weeks to 15 months of the initial examination and,
in the case of a second failure, one further attempt is permitted within 1 to 15 months from
the date of the second examination. If a candidate fails three times in any of the 4
Technology Modules, he/she has to retake the classes of the module failed and the
exams of the 4 Technology Modules, independently if he/she has passed the exams of
the other modules. If a candidate fails three times the Inspection Module, he/she has to
retake only the classes and exam of this module. (irrespective of whether he/she has
passed the exams for the other modules.

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In the case of intermediate and end-of-module examinations conducted by the approved


training organisations, one re-examination is allowed within a period of three months.

A second failure will require the candidate to take (or retake) the preceding welding
technology or welding inspection module.

8. Diploma of the International Institute of Welding

After successful examination an International Institute Welding Diploma, corresponding


to the examined level, is awarded to the candidate by the Authorised National Body.

9. Appeals procedure

Candidates who feel they have been unfairly treated during the examination procedure
have the right to appeal to the Authorised National Body

10.Transition arrangements

All National Transition Arrangements are published on the IAB Transition Arrangements
Directory, doc. IAB-021-2000.

Each countrys specific Transition Arrangements are approved by the IAB Group B and may be
obtained from each Authorised National Body.

An ANB can offer Transitional Arrangements for a period of up to 3,5 years from the
date of approval by the IAB Group B.

Practising welding inspection personnel will be eligible for the award of an appropriate
International Welding Inspection Personnel Diploma if they can demonstrate to the ANB
that their combination of education, training and experience has provided a level of
knowledge equivalent to one of the categories prescribed in this Guideline and if they fulfil
the ANB requirements defined in the Transition Arrangement Directory.

Two additional general rules must be observed when applying the transition arrangements :

1 Applicants must possess the basic engineering / technical access qualification as


outlined for the country concerned, in the guideline relevant to the level sought.

2 Diplomas may be awarded under the transitional arrangements, in the following cases:

i) by the ANB in the country in which the applicant received his welding qualification
or

ii) by the ANB in the country in which the applicant is currently practising in contact with
the ANB of the country that issued the original qualification.

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Appendix I

1. Equipment

The equipment used for the courses must be in good working order and fit for its purpose:

1.1 Welding equipment: Equipment for the following processes must be available for
demonstration:
Manual metal arc welding - 111
MIG welding - 131
MAG welding 135/136
TIG welding - 141
Gas welding - 311

Further processes covered by the syllabus may be shown by means of demonstrations


or video presentations.

1.2 NDT equipment: Equipment for the following methods must be available for
demonstration and/or practical work. The minimum number of pieces of equipment
is shown in brackets.
Ultrasonic flaw detectors (Two persons per set)
X-ray equipment (One set, only for demonstration)
Y-ray equipment (One set, only for demonstration)
Radiographic film viewers (Two persons per viewer)
Magnetic particle testing bench (One bench)
Liquid penetrant testing bench (One bench)

1.3 Measuring instruments


Weld size gauges, magnifying glasses, rules, angle protractors and other
appropriate equipment must be available for visual inspection exercises.

2. Specimens:

A range of weld specimens containing appropriate defects for practical NDT exercises
must reflect the range of joint types found in practice, such as butt joints in plate, Tee
joints, nozzles, pipes and branches. The defects must be fully recorded in control
diagrams.

A range of weld specimens for visual inspection must also be available containing surface
and surface breaking defects.

Weld cross sections containing defects, polished and etched, should be available to
demonstrate the types of defect found in welds made by the processes listed in item 1.1
above.

3. Radiography:

A collection of radiographs covering a range of applications must be available for practical


work on radiographic interpretation.

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Appendix II

ANB detailed assessment

After the candidate has fulfilled the requirements of the ANB check, he will be admitted to the
ANB detailed assessment.

At the discretion of the ANB Module 4


(see the Alternative Route diagram, p. 7) of the WT III, WT II or WT I

no no
no
Project or
Final Exam
Detailed paper A minimum of 50% yes Professional technical yes IWI-C
assessment of per module is required to assessment interview IWI-S
knowledge proceed further interview yes IWI-B

Figure 4: ANB detailed assessment

The full ANB detailed assessment shall contain:


a detailed paper assessment of knowledge (checklist with points)
a professional assessment interview designed to test understanding and ability to reason in
the field of welding and the syllabus of the standard course and
a project or a technical interview to test logical application of knowledge
The sequence of this assessment shall be determined by the ANB. It is at the discretion of the
ANB to terminate the assessment and send the candidate back or into the standard route.

If he/she has a diploma of IIW ( IWE, IWT, IWS, or IWP) and valid certificates of ISO 9712 cover
the syllabus of the Welding Inspection Modules of the present guideline he/she can proceed to
professional assessment interview for equivalent level of qualification without detailed paper
assessment.

a) The detailed paper assessment of knowledge shall be done with the following point
system:

For Welding Technology modules:


Frames of requirements:
Max. No. of points
IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B
Module 1: Welding processes 10 8 8
Module 2: Materials and their. 13 12 10
Module 3: Construction and design 10 9 8
Module 4: Fabrication, applications engineering 8 8 8
Sum 41 37 34

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The detailed points are distributed as following:

Module 1: Welding processes

111 - MMA 2 points 2 points 2 points


141 - TIG and 15 - Plasma 2 points 2 points 2 points
131 MIG 135 MAG 2 points 2 points 2 points
114, 136 and 137 - Flux-cored methods 1 point 1 point 1 point
91, 93 and 97 - Brazing methods 1 point 0,5 point 0 point
81, 82 and 83 - Thermal cutting 0,5 point 0,5 point 1 point
12 - SAW 1 point 0 points 0 points
Other methods 0,5 point 0 points 0 points
= 10 points 8 points 8 points

Module 2: Materials (acc. to CR ISO/TR 15608) and their behaviour during welding

Steel alloys - groups 1 3 and 11 3 points 3 points 3 points


Cr-Mo- and vanadium steels: groups 4 - 6 2 points 2 points 2 points
Ferritic and martensitic steels group 7 3 points 2 points 2 points
Austenitic and aust./fer. steels groups 8 and 10 1 point 1 point 1 point
Steel-Ni- alloys, max 10% Ni group 9 1 point 1 point 1 point
Aluminium and alloys groups 21 - 26 1 point 1 point 1 point
Nickel and alloys groups 41 - 48 1 point 1 point 0 point
Cast iron groups 71 - 76 1 point 1 point 0 point
= 13 points 12 points 10 points

Module 3: Construction and design

Stresses and strains 3 points 3 points 2 points


Design of welded structures - static loading 1 point 1 point 2 points
Design of welded structures - dynamic loading 1 point 1 point 1 points
Joint design & design principles of welded structures 3 points 2 points 2 points
Design of structures of aluminium and its alloys 2 points 2 points 1 point
= 10 points 9 points 8 points

Module 4: Fabrication, applications engineering

Quality assurance in welded fabrication 1 point 1 points 1 points


Quality control during manufacture 2 point 2 points 2 points
Welding stresses and distortion 1 point 1 point 1 point
Plant facilities, welding jigs and fixtures 1 point 1 point 1 point
NDT 1 point 1 point 1 point
Repair welding 1 point 1 point 1 point
Health and safety 1 point 1 point 1 point
= 8 points 8 points 8 points

As a minimum, each applicant must achieve 50% in each module for IWI-C, S and B, to be
admitted to the professional interview.

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For Welding Inspector modules:

The detailed points are distributed as following:


IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B
1. General introduction to welding inspection 1 points 1 points 1 point
2. Testing 2 points 2 points 2 points
3. Weld Imperfections 3 points 2 points 2 points
4. Testing methods 10 points 8 points 8 points
5. Quality Assurance 2 points 2 points 1 point
6. Managements of inspection function 2 points 2 points 0 point
7. Practical work 8 points 6 points 6 points
= 28 points 23 points 20 points

As a minimum, each applicant must achieve 50% in Modules 1 to 7 for IWI-C, S and B, to be
admitted to the professional interview

b) Professional assessment interview

The professional interview is designed to test understanding and ability to reason in the field of
welding regarding the IIW relevant guideline syllabus:

The Professional interview duration must be at least:


IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B
45 minutes 30 minutes 30 minutes

For a candidate reaching > 75% of the mximum possible points in the paper assessment, he or
she may be exempted from the professional assessment interview in that module. However the
minimun total time shall be not less than half of the time stipulate for the relevant guideline.

If the ANB decides that the candidate should leave the detailed assessment after the
professional assessment interview but before the project or the technical interview, the
candidate, as a minimum, has to go through Module 4 of the WT III, WT II or WT I of the
standard route. After the candidate has attended Module 4, he/she is allowed to perform the
final exams.

c) Project or technical interview

The ANB offers each candidate the option of a project with a project final report including an
oral review of the project report and a practical part or to be assessed via a technical interview.
Each of the assessment routes are explained below.

c.1) Project

In the project, a case study (designed for 60 hours for IWI-C, 40 hours for IWI-S and 20 hours
for IWI-B) with a duration of a maximum of four, three and two weeks respectively, must be
done alone. Where a project has a wide scope of application, the candidate shall be tested on
the logical application of his/her knowledge.

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The ANB offers a choice of construction/fabrication, to be in accordance with an approved


national or international code and/or product standard. One of the following constructions shall
be selected:

Pressure vessel
Construction - static loading
Construction - dynamic loading
Other construction

When a model of the project work has been detailed, the ANB shall decide in each case, the
specific items to be covered by the candidate

SUBJECTS IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B


Drawings 2 2 1
Establish that the manufacturer / repairer is working to approved X X X
drawings
Verification that the design of all parts of the fabrication, repairs and X
modifications are in accordance with the requirements of the
applicable approved code
Quality plans 6 2 1
Verify that the quality plan is approved by manufacturer or repairer, X X X
client and inspection authority.
Sign and complete the inspection stage requirements of the X X X
inspection authority.
Verification that an agreed quality plan is to be implemented. X
Incorporation of inspection requirements for witness, hold and
surveillance points.
Materials 12 6 5
Correlation of material certificates with materials of construction and X X X
checking conformity of material specification
Identification of material and witnessing of transfer identification X X X
Visual examination of material, cut edges and heat affected zones. X X X
Welding procedures 6 4 2
Approval of welding procedures. X
Verify that applicable approved welding procedures are being used X X X
and followed.
Witnesses the production procedure test plates, the mechanical X X X
testing of test pieces prepared from the plates, evaluates the results
and validates applicable reports.
Welder approvals 8 6 4
Approval of welders and operators X X X
Examine fit-up of joint for welding. X X X
Verify second results of dimensional checks. Examine weld X X X
preparations and tack welds
Inspect the back side of the weld after the face side is completed and X X X
root cleaned

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IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

SUBJECTS IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B


Testing 16 4 5
Examine and accept non-destructive test reports. X X
Verify compliance with agreed procedure and acceptability of any X X
defects
Evaluate radiographs and accept or reject components on such X X
evaluation.
Verify NDT personnel qualifications. X X
Verify defects reported by NDT personnel as to their capability X X
against a code.
Examine NDT procedures, techniques, sheets and/or reports for X X
compliance as having being signed / authorised by the recognised
competent personnel.
Witness and evaluate mechanical testing of production test welds X X
Examine heat treatment records and verify compliance with X X
procedure.
Witness that pre-and post heat treatments are performed in X X X
accordance with approved procedures if this requirement is included
in the quality plan.
Witness the pressure test if required and verify code requirements. X X X
If required, record the amount of permanent set. X X X
Visually examine the completed fabrication or the repair / X X X
modification area, as relevant, internally and externally
Witness dimensional checks made by the manufacturer or repairer. X X X
Controlled against drawing requirements.
Verify if required marking of nameplate details and attachment of X X
plate to fabrication.
Heat treatment 2 2
Examine heat treatment records and verify compliance with X X
procedures
Documentation 8 4 2
Collation of documentation X X
Verify collation of documentation for data book or repair report. X X X
Sign construction and test certificate or record of continuance. X X
Verify certification details and co-sign certification with the X X X
manufacturer or repairer

c.2) Technical Interview

Technical interview duration is at least:


IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B
4 hours 3 hours 2 hours

The technical interview will be divided into 2 parts, these are:

Part 1: Discussion wIth the applicant regarding evaluation of the applicants knowledge of the
project construction/fabrication (See table below)

Part 2: Discussion with the applicant regarding evaluation of the applicants practical
knowledge (See table below)

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 93 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

Before the technical interview, the candidate is given at least 1 hour to become familiar with the
documentation that will be used during the interview.

The ANB will supply the applicant with a set of documents (construction drawings - part of a
construction, list of materials, material certificates, NDT reports, destructive testing reports,
WPQRs, WPSs, Welder approvals).

or

The applicant presents a set of documents (construction drawings - part of a construction, list of
materials, material certificates, NDT reports, destructive testing reports, WPQRs, WPSs, Welder
approvals). These documents should be from the company where the applicant is currently
employed. These documents must be initially evaluated by the ANB before being accepted as
documentation to be used in the applicant technical interview.

The technical interview shall address as a minimum, the subjects mentioned in the tables below.

Part 1 Evaluation of the applicants knowledge of the project construction/fabrication


Subjects IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B
Evaluation of drawings and technical specifications. X
Read and understand drawings and technical X X
specifications.
Evaluation of and comments to the choice of base X
materials. Discuss the weldability of the materials.
Any needs for pre- and post weld heating.
Knowledge about the choice of base materials. X X
Discuss the weldability of the materials. Any needs
for pre- and post weld heating.
Evaluation and discussion of the construction based X X X
on the choice of:
- Joining method(s) for the base material(s); X X X
- Cutting method(s) for preparation of base X X X
material parts
- Joint preparation and weld calculation X X
- Joint preparation X
- Welding consumables; X X X
- Need of surface treatment before welding; X X X
- Surface treatment of finished construction - X
method(s) to be used.
Preparation of necessary WPSs and testing X X
methods.
Interpretation of necessary WPSs. X
Evaluation of necessary welding qualification(s) for X X
welder(s).

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 94 of 95
IAB INTERNATIONAL AUTHORISATION BOARD
IAB-041r3-08

Subjects IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B


Interpretation of necessary welding qualification X
test(s) for welder(s).
Present NDT methods to be used during and after X X
welding.
Discuss possible NDT methods that can be used X
during and after welding, including special tests to
check the entire quality of the construction.
Discussion of the construction in terms of:
- Welding plan including welding sequence X X
and tack welding
- Standards needed for the project; X
Discussion on the construction
- Quality plan for the production based on X X
relevant part of ISO 3834 or equivalent.
Type of workshop for this kind of production
shall be discussed.
- Jigs, fixtures, welding equipment X X X

Part 2 Practical discussion


Subjects IWI-C IWI-S IWI-B
Checking:
- Certificate(s) on base material(s); X X X
- Welder(s) qualification test certificate(s); X X X
- Qualification of personnel for destructive X X
testing, NDT and inspection
- Welding Procedure Qualification Record - X X
WPQR;
- Welding Procedure Specification - WPSs; X X X
Evaluation of test results and discussion of the X X
reports.
Proposal for a plan for inspection before, during and X X
after welding and discussion.
Discussion of inspection reports. X
Evaluation of the welding and test results based on X X
inspection and NDT reports.
Welds needing repair, plan(s) for repair welding and X X
eventually, WPSs for repair welding to be made.

After fulfilling all of the requirements for a and b and c.1 or c.2 of the ANB detailed
assessment, the candidate will be admitted to the final examination.

International Welding Inspection Personnel


Approved July 2008 95 of 95