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Name : Finandya Fatihasari

Class : English Class C

NIM : 16/396925/BI/09683
ENGLISH TASK
PESTICIDES MAY BE HARMFUL TO ANIMALS EVEN AT SAFE LEVELS

A. Paraphrase First and Second Paragraph


Paracelsus recognised that all thing is actually poison, but dose is the only thing that
restrict them. Some compounds can be helpful at low level but it can be hazardous in high
level ones, even the water can be poisoning, and radiation can be safe in certain dose. Since
then the modern toxicologists job is to find that line, and the governments job to put the
limit on exposure. But for some substances may be banned since the balance safe and
deadly range may not clearly recognised. This case is also believed in one set of pesticides
named neonicotinoids.

B. Short Summary
Paracelsus recognised that all thing is actually poison, but dose is the only thing that
restrict them. Some compounds can be helpful at low level but it can be hazardous in high
level ones, even the water can be poisoning, and radiation can be safe in certain dose. Since
then the modern toxicologists job is to find that line, and the governments job to put the
limit on exposure. But for some substances may be banned since the balance safe and
deadly range may not clearly recognised. This case is also believed in one set of pesticides
named neonicotinoids.
Even so according to Oosthoek, even the pesticide used at a level that is stated
safe, there may have impact to wild life. The accumulation of pesticides may killed some
species, This thing is supported by the amount of wildlife animal that living in the highly
contaminated stream is less than uncontaminated stream area.

(Source: http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/smartnews/2013/06/pesticides-may-be-
harmful-to-animals-even-at-safe-levels/)
Name : Finandya Fatihasari

Class : English Class C

NIM : 16/396925/BI/09683
ENGLISH TASK
VERTEBRATES

A. Answer the following questions:

1. The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial
skeleton. The vertebral column is the defining characteristic of a vertebrate
Protect the spinal nerve
Maintain the shape of body

2. Bone is less flexible than cartilage but stronger. An endoskeleton made of bone
rather than cartilage allows animals to grow larger and heavier. Bone also provides
more protection for soft tissues and internal organs.
3. The nervous system consists of a brain in the head region. It also includes a long
spinal cord that runs from the brain to the tail end of the backbone. Long nerve
fibers extend from the spinal cord

4. What is an adaptive immune system?


Adaptive immune system is the organ system that defends the body from pathogens
and other causes of disease. Being adaptive means that the immune system can
learn to recognize specific pathogens.
5. Ovipary refers to the development of an embryo within an egg outside the mothers
body. This occurs in most amphibians and reptiles and in all birds.
Ovovivipary refers to the development of an embryo inside an egg within the
mothers body until it hatches. The mother provides no nourishment to the
developing embryo inside the egg. This occurs in some species of fish and reptiles.
Vivipary refers to the development and nourishment of an embryo within the
mothers body. Birth may be followed by a period of parental care of the offspring.
This reproductive strategy occurs in almost all mammals.
B. Paraphrase the section Characteristics of Vertebrates.

The spesial feature that all vertebrates have is vertebral column, or backbone. The
backbone is repetation of vertebrae that take part of holding shape of the body and
protects the spinal cord. The backbone runs from head to tail along dorsal. In many spesies
there are shock-absorbing discs between vertebrae that helps to cushion during movement

C. Make a short summary of the above text (max. 150 words). Make sure you include all
important elements and key terms of the subject matter

Vertebrates are chordata that have several special features like they have column or
backbone. The backbone is repetation of vertebrae that take part of holding shape of the
body and protects the spinal cord. Another special feature that vertebrates have is
endoskeleton that made up by bone and cartilage. It helps animal to protect their internal
organs and soft tissues.
Beside the special features that help to distinguish vertebrate, there are also several traits
that helps to helps the vertebrates to life like muscle system that helps vertebrates to
move, closed circulatory system with a heart to transport oxigen, excretory system that
helps to filter waste from blood, endocrine system as hormon secretery to produce hormon.