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DESCRIPTION: A J  J is an artificial structure designed for humans to

live and work in outer space for a period of time.

To date, only low earth orbital (LEO) stations have been implemented, otherwise known
JJ. A space station is distinguished from other manned spacecraft by its
lack of major propulsion or landing facilities²instead, other vehicles are used as
transport to and from the station. Current and recent-history space stations are designed
for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years. The only
space station currently in use is the International Space Station. Previous stations include
the Almaz and Salyut series, Skylab and 6 .

Space stations are used to study the effects of long-term space flight on the human body
as well as to provide platforms for greater number and length of scientific studies than
available on other space vehicles. Since the ill-fated flight of Soyuz 11 to Salyut 1, all
manned spaceflight duration records have been set aboard space stations. The duration
record for a single spaceflight is 437.7 days, set by Valeriy Polyakov aboard 6  from
1994 to 1995. As of 2009, three astronauts have completed single missions of over a year,
all aboard 6 .

Space stations have been used for both military and civilian purposes. The last military-
use space station was Salyut 5, which was used by the Almaz program of the Soviet
Union in 1976 and 1977.


Space stations have been envisaged since at least 1869 when Everett {ale wrote about a
'brick moon' in Atlantic monthly magazine.

Space stations were also later envisaged by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and {ermann

In 1929 {ermann Noordung's 9 9  was published. This

remained popular for over 30 years.

In 1951, in Collier's weekly, Wernher von Braun published his design for a wheeled
space station.


Description of a space station in {ermann Noordung's 9 9 

: elevator shaft. : electric cable to an external observatory.

 : condenser pipes. : airlock. 9
: stairwell.
 : boiler pipe).

Broadly speaking, the space stations so far launched have been of two types; the earlier
stations, Salyut and Skylab, have been "monolithic", intended to be constructed and
launched in one piece, and then manned by a crew later. As such, they generally
contained all their supplies and experimental equipment when launched, and were
considered "expended", and then abandoned, when these were used up.


Starting with Salyut 6 and Salyut 7, a change was seen; these were built with two docking
ports, which allowed a second crew to visit, bringing a new spacecraft with them (for
technical reasons, a Soyuz capsule cannot safely spend more than a few months in orbit,
even powered down. This allowed for a crew to man the station continually. Skylab was
also equipped with two docking ports, like second-generation stations, but the extra port
was never utilized. The presence of a second port on the new stations allowed Progress
supply vehicles to be docked to the station, meaning that fresh supplies could be brought
to aid long-duration missions. This concept was expanded on Salyut 7, which "hard
docked" with a TKS tug shortly before it was abandoned; this served as a proof-of-
concept for the use of modular space stations. The later Salyuts may reasonably be seen
as a transition between the two groups.


The second group, Mir and the ISS, have been modular; a core unit was launched, and
additional modules, generally with a specific role, were later added to that. (On Mir they
were usually launched independently, whereas on the ISS most are brought by the Space
Shuttle). This method allows for greater flexibility in operation, as well as removing the
need for a single immensely powerful launch vehicle. These stations are also designed
from the outset to have their supplies provided by logistical support, which allows for a
longer lifetime at the cost of requiring regular support launches.

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19 April
Salyut 1971 18,425 kg
October 175 24 2 0
1 01:40:00 (40,620 lb)
14 May 11 July
77,088 kg
Skyla 1973 1979 2,24
171 3 0 (169,950 l
b 17:30:00 16:37:00 9
25 June
24 18,500 kg
Salyut 1974
January 213 15 1 0 (40,786 lb)
3 22:38:00 ]
Decembe 3
Salyut 18,500 kg
r 1974 February 770 92 2 1
4 (40,786 lb)
04:15:00 1977
22 June
Salyut 1976 8 August 19,000 kg
412 67 2 0
5 18:04:00 1977 (41,888 lb)
Salyut 29 July 1,76 19,000 kg
r 1977 683 16 14
6 1982 4 (41,888 lb)
19 April
Salyut 1982 3,21 19,000 kg
February 816 12 15
7 19:45:00 6 (41,888 lb)

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23 March
February 124,340 kg
2001 5,51
6 1986 4,594 39 68 (274,123 l
05:50:00 1
21:28:23 b)
20 344,378 kg
ISS Novembe 4190 3479 50 41 (759,224 l
in orbit
r 1998 b)


 J  JJ

  J  6JJ


29 July 1972
29 July 18,425 kg
DOS-2 Failed to exit earth 0
1972 (40,620 lb)

28 May 18,425 kg
Salyut 2 4 April 1973 54
1973 (40,620 lb) 

Cosmos 22 May 18,425 kg

11 May 1973 11
557 1973 (40,620 lb) 

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Following the controlled deorbiting of Mir in 2001, the International Space Station is the
only one of these currently in orbit; it has been continuously occupied since October 30,


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The International Space Station will provide astronauts from around the world with an
ideal location from which they will be able to live and work in space. When it is
completed in 2005 the Space Station will be the biggest laboratory ever built in space.
It will be 108,5 metres by 88,4 metres, which is about the size of a Canadian football

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A organisation for combined working on the space ships and space stations for space
exploration is made and named ISS.

•    •  


This section introduces the overall purpose, objectives, organization, and elements of the
International Space Station (ISS). The operational concepts that define crew and
controller roles
and responsibilities are also addressed, in addition to the ³traffic model´ or when Earth-
Vehicles (ETOVs) such as Shuttle, Progress and Soyuz can rendezvous with the Station.
regarding activities which occur during and between ETOV visits are also included.


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After completing this section, you should be able to:
ù List the purpose and objectives of the ISS
ù Describe the purpose of each major ISS element/module
ù Describe the typical operations performed during the major mission activities of ISS.




The purpose of the ISS is to provide an ³Earth orbiting facility that houses experiment
distributes resource utilities, and supports permanent human habitation for conducting
and science experiments in a microgravity environment.´ (ISSA IDR no. 1, Reference
March 29, 1995)
This overall purpose leads directly into the following specific objectives of the ISS
ù Develop a world-class orbiting laboratory for conducting high-value scientific research
ù Provide access to microgravity resources as early as possible in the assembly sequence
ù Develop ability to live and work in space for extended periods
ù Develop effective international cooperation
ù Provide a testbed for developing 21st Century technology.
To accomplish these objectives, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
(NASA) has
joined with four other space agencies and their major contractors. Besides NASA, with
its prime
contractor Boeing, the ISS Program consists of:
ù Russian Space Agency (RSA), with its contractors Rocket Space Corporation-Energia
(RSC-E) and Khrunichev Space Center (KhSC)
ù Canadian Space Agency (CSA), with its contractor Spar Aerospace

.National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), with its contractor Mitsubishi
{eavy Industries

ù European Space Agency (ESA), with its contractor Deutsche Aerospace.

The NASA/Boeing team is further broken down. Besides the Program Office, there are
Product Groups (PGs), each of which has its own responsibilities for specific module or
hardware development. These groups and their responsibilities include:

ù PG 1: McDonnell Douglas - Integrated Truss, Distributed Avionics, Node Integration

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ù PG 2: Rocketdyne - Solar Arrays, Power Management, and Distribution

ù PG 3: Boeing - {abitation ({ab) and Laboratory (Lab) modules, Node structures, Life
Support System

ù PG 4: Italian Space Agency (ASI) and its contractor, Allenia - Mini-Pressurized

Module (MPLM). (Note: ASI is considered a ³contractor´ to NASA due to the
requirements for MPLM development. Basically, NASA is buying the MPLM from
To integrate all these organizations, the following various levels of agreements have been

ù Government-to-Government agreements, called Inter-Government Agreements (IGAs).

These commit the various countries and national space agencies to ISS.
ù Agency and Program-level agreements, usually called Memorandums of Understanding
(MOUs). These define the roles and responsibilities of the various national space
The most important operational MOU is the Concept of Operations and Utilization
This defines how the Station will be operated and used.
ù The COU itself is further developed in the Station Program Implementation Plan
which defines how the program will implement the COU. The SPIP has 10 volumes.




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  ’   JJ

Of most interest to the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) is Vol. IX, which defines
how the


various partner space agency¶s control and payload centers will interface and each
center¶s roles
and responsibilities. Each partner has development and operational responsibilities for the
elements and transportation systems that it provides. NASA is the lead integrator for the
program. The control and payload centers are as follows:

è Mission Control Center-{ouston (MCC-{)
è Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) in {untsville, Alabama
è MPLM Technical Support Center in Turin, Italy

è Mission Control Center-Moscow (MCC-M)

è Space Operations Support Center in St. {ubert, Quebec

è Space Station Integration and Promotion Center in Tsukuba



Veteran Russian spaceman Sergei Krikalev, 46, has set a new record for the longest

time spent in space. Krikalev recorded his 748th day in orbit on August 16. {e will

celebrate his record-breaking achievement by going on a six-hour space walk to do

routine maintenance and upgrades. {is first journey into space was in November 1988

on a visit to the Mir space station. In 1994, he was the first Russian to ride on the

space shuttle. {e was also on the first mission to assemble the International Space

Station in 1998.

Krikalev said his profession was a ³challenge´. {e explained his reasons for choosing to
spend so much time in space: ³Why do people climb mountains? ² It¶s cold, it¶s windy,
it¶s difficult to haul up all of the equipment, but then it¶s exciting. You overcome some
difficulties. You see some new sights. You do things that other people cannot.´ {e said
living in the heavens was the perfect job. {is lengthy periods of time in space have also
provided precious scientific data on the physical and psychological stresses on the body.

The Space Shuttle

The Space Transportation System (STS)²the Space Shuttle²is a partially reusable
vehicle and is the sole U.S. means for launching humans into orbit. It consists of an
Orbiter, with two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) on each side, and a large, cylindrical
Tank (ET) that carries fuel for the Orbiter¶s main engines. The Orbiters and SRBs are
reused; the
ET is not. NASA has three remaining spaceflight-worthy Orbiters: 



The International Space Station (ISS)

NASA launched its first space station, Skylab, in 1973. Three crews were sent to live and
there in 1973-1974. It remained in orbit, unoccupied, until it reentered Earth¶s
atmosphere in July
1979, disintegrating over Australia and the Indian Ocean. Skylab was never intended to
permanently occupied, but the goal of a permanently occupied space station with crews
on a regular basis, employing a reusable space transportation system (the space shuttle)
was high
on NASA¶s list for the post-Apollo years following the moon landings. Budget
constraints forced
NASA to choose to build the space shuttle first. The first launch of the shuttle was in
April 1981.
When NASA declared the shuttle ³operational´ in 1982, it was ready to initiate the space
In his January 25, 1984 State of the Union address, President Reagan directed NASA to
develop a
permanently occupied space station within a decade, and to invite other countries to join.
On July
20, 1989, the 20th anniversary of the first Apollo landing on the Moon, President George
{. W.
Bush voiced his support for the space station as the cornerstone of a long-range civilian
program eventually leading to bases on the Moon and Mars. That ³Moon/Mars´ program,
Space Exploration Initiative, was not greeted with enthusiasm in Congress, primarily due
budget concerns, and ended in FY1993, although the space station program continued.
President Clinton dramatically changed the character of the space station program in
1993 by
adding Russia as a partner to this already international endeavor. That decision made the
station part of the U.S. foreign policy agenda to encourage Russia to abide by agreements
to stop
the proliferation of ballistic missile technology, and to support Russia economically and
politically as it transitioned from the Soviet era. The Clinton Administration strongly
the space station within certain budget limits.

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The International Space Station program thus began in 1993, with Russia joining the
States, Europe, Japan, and Canada. An Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) established
phases of space station cooperation. The IGA is a treaty in all the countries except the
States, where it is an Executive Agreement. It is implemented through Memoranda of
Understanding (MOUs) between NASA and its counterpart agencies.
During Phase I (1995-1998), seven U.S. astronauts remained on Russia¶s space station
6 for
long duration (several month) missions with Russian cosmonauts, Russian cosmonauts
flew on
the U.S. space shuttle seven times, and nine space shuttle missions docked with 6 to
crews and deliver supplies. Repeated system failures and two life-threatening
emergencies on 6 
in 1997 raised questions about whether NASA should leave more astronauts on 6 , but
decided 6 was sufficiently safe to continue the program. (6 was deorbited in 2001.)
Phases II
and III involve construction of the International Space Station itself, and blend into each
Phase II began in 1998 and was completed in July 2001; Phase III is underway.
President George W. Bush, prompted in part by the February 2003 space shuttle
tragedy, made a major space policy address on January 14, 2004, directing NASA to
focus its
activities on returning humans to the Moon and eventually sending them to Mars.
Included in this
³Vision for Space Exploration´ was a decision to retire the space shuttle in 2010. The
said the United States would fulfill its commitments to its space station partners.




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On July 25, 1964, Dr. Abdus Salam arranged a meeting with President Ayub Khan where
SUPARCO was placed under the direct control of the President of Pakistan. On 8 March
1966, President Ayub Khan constituted SUPARCO as a separate organisation under the
administrative control of Dr. Abdus Salam[3]. Dr. Abdus Salam, along with Dr. W. J. M.
Turowicz, led a team of aerospace engineers and rocket scientists to design a Rehbar
sounding Rocket series.Dr. Abdus Salam also established space centers in different cities
of Pakistan, notably in Karachi and Lahore. Abdus Salam also initiated an aerospace
engineering program in SUPARCO. {e was one of the pioneering figures in the 1960s to
lead Pakistan in the space power world.

Abdus Salam knew the importance of space technology as well as the importance of
nuclear technology. Abdus Salam effort was involved in the development and installation
of a high-powered astronomical telescope at the Karachi University. Abdus Salam was
noted for his theories and its relationship to Islam in SUPARCO, his efforts were
involved in inducting applied physics and experimental physics laboratories at Karachi
University. Abdus Salam also established an aerospace engineering course at the Pakistan
Air Force Academy.

With the establishment of SUPARCO, Pakistan was the first South Asian country to start
a space program[4]. {owever, the Pakistani Space Program has been frozen several times.
In 1970s, under the Governments of President of Pakistan, General Yahya Khan and the
Prime Minister of Pakistan, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the space program was frozen for more
than a decade. In 1993, both Pakistan's nuclear and space programs were frozen for four
years due to an economic depression. {owever, the program was unfrozen by then-
President of Pakistan General Pervaiz Musharraf and a satellite development program
was developed rapidly, while its neighbour space agency Indian ISRO progressed very
well and in fact a notable agency like ESA, NASA, ROS COSMOS, JASA, & Chinese
space agency. Furthermore, Suparco faced strict sanctions on the import of several
materials required to launch and manufacture rockets during the early 1990¶s from the
United States and Russia. The delay of the Russian launch vehicle also resulted in a long
delay for the launch of Pakistan¶s second satellite (Badar-B). These events had an
immense impact on Suparco¶s plan to launch and place its own satellite in orbit. Despite
its talented nuclear and space scientists, Pakistan has followed a Policy of deliberate

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ambiguity for many decades. This is why it is still unclear what the plans and operation
as well as capabilities of SUPARCO and its space facilities are.

NASA-SUPARCO Cooperation
In 1961 Pakistan set up the Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
(SUPARCO) with the announced goal, not yet reached, of launching Pakistani satellites
aboard Pakistani rockets. In June 1962, the United States launched the first rocket from
Pakistani soil. The launch used a combination of two U.S. rocket motors the Nike-Cajun.
Fired from Sonmiani Beach, 50 kilometers west of Karachi, the rocket reached an altitude
of almost 130 kilometers. The U.S. space agency NASA hailed the launch as the
beginning of "a program of continuing cooperation in space research of mutual interest."

The NASA-SUPARCO cooperation agreement called for the training of Pakistani

scientists and technicians at NASA space science centers. Before the June 1962 launch,
NASA had begun to train Pakistani scientists at Wallops Island and the Goddard Space
Flight Centers. NASA also set up fellowships and research associate programs at
American universities for "advanced training and experience."

In 1981, SUPARCO also planned a astronautic programme with the co-operation of

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). An agreement between
SUPARCO and NASA was to send Pakistan's first astronaut into the space. {owever,
after the Space Shuttle Challenger incident, the program was put on hold. Later, the
program was cancelled in 1990.

Communication satellites
Pakistan's first satellite, Badr-1, was launched by the Chinese in 1990. At presents,
Pakistan controls 2 satellites in the space.

Badr-1 Digital Communication Satellite

Badr-1 digital communication satellite, Pakistan's domestically built satellite.

SUPARCO started its first digital communication satellite in 1986[12]. According to the
plan, the satellite was launch from the Pakistani Satellite launch Centers, notebaly
Sonmiani Satellite Launch Center. But the programme was changed due to political and
economic reasons. The Government of Pakistan held talks with United States but the U.S
Government did not show any motives in Pakistan's space Program. Instead China offers
Pakistan to launch its satellite from its soil. The satellite was shipped to People's Republic
of China. Pakistan launched its Badr-1, Pakistan's first indigenously developed Digital
Communications Experimental satellite, was launched in 1990 from Xichang Satellite

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Launch Center, People's Republic of China aboard a Long March 2E. The satellite
successfully completed its designed life. The launch of satellite was the key success to
SUPARCO. After badr-1, SUPARCO continued to developed its badr-B satellite after the
successfully developed satellite.

PAKSAT-1 Telecommunication Satellite

Pakistan's J was originally known as Palapa. It was launched by {ughes Space
and Communications Company for Indonesia. Later Indonesia declared the satellite
unusable after an electric power anomaly. The insurance claims were paid and the title
was transferred to {ughes Space and Communications Company. . {GS-3 was then
acquired by Pakistan from M/s {ughes Global Services on "Full Time Leasing " and
relocated to Pakistan's reserved slot at 38 Degree. After a series of orbital maneuvers, the
Satellite was stabilized at the final location on December 20, 2002 with 0-degree
inclination. The satellite is in position at the Pakistani-licensed orbital location, 38° east
longitude. Paksat 1 is operational and is ready to offer services. The PAKSAT Satellite
will be decommissioned from its services in the late of 2012.

PAKSAT-1R Communication Satellite Project

By the end of 2011, Pakistan plans to replace PAKSAT-1 with a new PAKSAT-1R,
which will be manufactured and launched by China. The satellite will support all
conventional and modern Fixed Satellite Service (FSS) applications. The satellite will
have a total of up to 30 transponders: 18 in Ku-band and 12 in C-band. To ensure high
degree of reliability / availability of the system, two (02) fully redundant Satellite Ground
Control Stations (SGCS) would be established in Karachi and Lahore, one to act as the
Main and the other as Backup respectively.

Earth Observational Satellite

Badr-B (Earth Observational Satellite)

In 1992, SUPARCO was given ordered to developed its first Low-Earth observation
satellite. The project manager was dr. Abdul Majid (physicist). According to the program,
the satellite was to launch on June 1996. {owever, when SUPARCO faced severe global
sanctions, the program was put on hold. SUPARCO, however, secretly continued to
develop its satellite. The project was completed in 1996. The satellite was planned to
launch from the Sonmiani Satellite Launch Center. But it was postponded. On December
10, 2001 at 17:19 hours UT, Pakistan launched its second satellite, Badr-B, an Earth
observation satellite from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan aboard a Russian Zenit-2
rocket, Russia. According to the Government of Pakistan, SUPARCO has upgraded the
Badr-B Low Earth Observational Satellite. According to the Interior Ministry of Pakistan,
the Satellite is being using to monitored Pakistan's western border

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Pakistan Remote Sensing Satellite System (PRSSS)

After successful launching and operation of BADR series of experimental Low Earth
Observational satellites (BADR-1 and BADR-B) in the 1990s and early 2000s,
SUPARCO now plans to launch high resolution Pakistan Remote Sensing Satellite
(PRSSS) to meet the national and international user requirements in the field of satellite

A feasibility and system definition study was concluded in January 2007 which
recommended the launch of a constellation of Optical and Synthetic Aperture Radar
(SAR). Satellites to ensure that the domestic and international user requirements are
competitively met. In this respect the RFP for RSSS consultancy services was launched
in July 2007. Launch of RFP for the manufacturing of the satellite is planned in the third
quarter of year 2008.

PRSS is planned to be a progressive and sustainable program. Initially, SUPARCO plans

to launch an optical satellite with payload of 2.5 meter PAN in 700 km sun-synchronous
orbit by the end of year 2011, which will be followed by a series of optical and SAR
satellites in future. Necessary infrastructure for ground control and image reception and
processing is also planned to be setupThe satellite is underdevelopment process and it is
being developed by SUPARCO. {owever, it is unclear whether the satellite will launch
from Pakistan's Satellite launchers or Chinese Satellite Launchers.

{uman Spaceflight Program

In 1981, the United States Government agreed to send Pakistan's first astronaut into space
and astronaur selection began. At first, SUPARCO decided to send its first astronaut in
space would be a Pakistan Air Force general. SUPARCO and NASA also made sure that
the astronaut would have strong experiential background in science and mathematics
while serving in the Pakistan Air Force. {owever, in 1986, after the Space Shuttle
Challenger disaster, the program was put on hold. The program was cancelled in
1990because of strict sanctions on Pakistan.

After the 9/11 attacks and Pakistan's role on war on terror, the United States Government
lifted an embrago on SUPARCO, allowing SUPARCO to buy and manucfactured the
space-related components. Namira Salim, a Paris-based Pakistani artist bought a ride to
go into space in the Virgin Galactic Space Ship in 2008. Salim visited Pakistan where she
met with Tariq Azeem, then-Minister of Science and Technology. The minister said ³we
have a daughter of our country who will take our flag into the space[.´

According to the Media sources, China showed interest in Pakistan's motivation in the
human spaceflight programme and offered Pakistan to send its first astronauts from
Chinese spaceflight aircrafts


Specific programs and missions
G Scientific space research
G Remote sensing of Earth
G Satellite telecommunication systems
G Geographic Information System
G Natural Resource Surveying
G Environmental monitoring
G Acquisition of data for atmospheric/meteorological studies
G Development of the ground-based infrastructure for navigation and special
information system
G Space activities in the interests of national security and defense
G Development of research, test and production base of the space sector

International Cooperation

In August 2006, China committed to work with Pakistan to launch three Earth-resource
satellites over the next five years. In May 2007, China (as a strategic partner) agreed and
signed an accord with Pakistan to enhance cooperation in the areas of space science and
technology. Pakistan-China bilateral cooperation in the space industry could span a broad
spectrum, including climate science, clean energy technologies, atmospheric and earth
sciences, and marine sciences.


In December 2006, Turkey has showned interests to join Pakistan's space

program.Turkish Ambassador to Pakistan signed the Memorandum of understanding
(MOU). Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey and Turkish
Aerospace Industries's representative signed an accord with SUPARCO to enhance the
cooperation in the satellite development program

G SUPARCO and the Department of Space have signed formal

Memorandum of Understanding agreements with a number
of foreign political entities:

G China
G Russia
G Thailand


G Ukraine
G Iran
G Brazil
G Argentina
G Turkey
G France
G South Korea
G United Kingdom
G Italy



The atmospheric conditions we need in a space station are in correspondance with the
conditions we may need in a artificial world.


The air we breathe on Earth is composed of a mix of different gases. Scientists have
conducted experiments that tell us how much of each type of gas is normally found in
pure air. With this information we can create Table #1 and Chart #1: Atmospheric
Components by Percentage





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Instrumentation for the Future
Looking toward future missions, highƒ performance Xƒ ray sensors are being developed
in collaboration with MIT¶s Lincoln Laboratory, including a new process in the
fabrication of photonƒ counting CCD¶s that greatly improve their sensitivity and
resolving power at low energies. Xƒ ray polarimetry is being developed, a potentially
powerful tool for studying neutron stars and quasars. Work continues in the Space
Nanotechnology Laboratory on advanced Xƒ ray optics with applications targeted to
future missions such as Constellation X, Generation X, and the MicroArcsecond Xƒ ray
Imaging Mission. An adaptive optics system for the Magellan telescopes is under
development. {aystack Observatory work continues on the development of a large,
lowƒ frequency radio array. The Advanced LIGO proposal for a second generation of
gravitational detectors to be installed in the LIGO infrastructure is being reviewed by the
NSF. Research continues on techniques to improve the quantum limits to
gravitationalƒ wave detector sensitivity.

Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology

With its discovery of a bright, nearby gammaƒ ray burst (GRB), {ETE and optical
followƒ up observations conclusively established the link between these bursts and
coreƒ collapse supernovae. The longƒ standing ³dark burst´ problem has also been solved
by showing that 90 percent of the {ETEƒ localized GRBs have optical or nearƒ infrared
counterparts. As a result of these discoveries, the satellite¶s results were highlighted by
  6  in December 2003 as being among the 10 most important discoveries
in all fields of science during the year 2003.
The Chandra {ETG Spectrometer is being used to probe the warmƒ hot intergalactic
medium, which is thought to contain a large fraction of the ³missing´ baryons in the
nearby universe. Chandra studies also show quantitatively that substructure in galaxies is
higher at high redshift, consistent with expectations of cluster evolution. Further studies
of the relationship between the Xƒ rays and light emitting by high redshift clusters
indicate the light may not be a reliable tracer of mass at that epoch, with important
implications for our understanding of structure formation. In theoretical cosmological
studies, a new parallel dark matter simulation code has been developed and run on the
newly constructed 48ƒ processor Astrophysics Beowulf Cluster. The effects of dark
energy on the microwave background fluctuations was used to constrain quintessence
models. A study of gravitational lensing by the supermassive black holes at the centers of

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galaxies makes quantitative predictions of the lensing signatures that will be observed by

nextgeneration telescopes.

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RXTE and Chandra investigations into the nature of black holes, neutron stars, and
related objects continue. Studies of fast oscillations from millisecond Xray pulsars, both
in and out of the stellar thermonuclear explosions known as Xray bursts, provide insight
into the physics of neutron stars. In one highlight this year, timing studies of the
pulsations of Xray pulsars have revealed a change in the spin rate of a neutron star. This
may represent the first detection of a sudden change in the structure of an accreting
neutron star. Theoretical exploration of the progenitors of hypernovae demonstrates that
massive binaries provide an ideal environment for the development of rapid rotation in
their cores, a possible site of gammaray burst emission. A new model describing orbiting
clumps in a relativisitic accretion disk has been developed and shows promise for
explaining the quasiperiodic oscillations of black hole binaries.
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Chandra studies of globular clusters have demonstrated that the large number of Xray
binaries in the clusters were formed inside the cluster due to tidal interactions and close
encounters. This was suspected for decades, but it has now been demonstrated in a
quantitative manner. Innovative software is being developed to exploit the exquisite
Xray spectra provided by the Chandra {ETG Spectrometer. These studies are mapping
the dynamics and composition of supernova remnants and providing a detailed
investigation of cosmic ray electrons. Chandra spectra were also used to look for
absorption in the atmospheres of neutron stars in order to determine their surface
redshifts, which provide a strength of the surface gravity and a measure of these stars¶


It has recently been recognized that some Kuiper Belt (transNeptunian) objects exist in
binary systems, allowing new studies of the mass distribution and dynamics of this
important component of the solar system. A survey with the Magellan telescopes has
resulted in the discovery of a new binary system. This system and others previously
known are being studied. Studies of plasma in the solar wind continue from three
spacecraft: IMP 8 and WIND, Near Earth, and Voyager 2. Modeling of the neutral and
plasma environment near Saturn has shown that the recent discovery by the
Cassini{uygens spacecraft that the outer edges Saturn¶s rings are water rich could result
from the deposition of material from near the moon Enceladus. An innovative theory of
complexity in space plasmas in the Earth¶s magnetosphere, the solar corona, and the solar
wind has been developed using the concepts of forced and/or selforganized criticality
and topological phase transitions


CSR is developing virtual reality display devices, restraint systems, and software tools for
the International Space Station (ISS) {uman Research Facility. The system supports

VOILA (Visuomotor and Orientation Investigations in LongDuration Astronauts), a set

of flight experiments planned for 2007. These experiments use virtual reality techniques
to study threedimensional spatial orientation and navigation abilities of astronauts. Other

c *

experiments being developed for the ISS include the Cell Culture Unit for biological
experiments and an astronaut microgravity disturbance experiment.


Today scientists seriously
consider whether they may soon have a sample of an alien biology
to study: life from another world. Some of these scientists are old
enough to remember that when the famous biologist Joshua Lederberg coined the
term   it was ridiculed as µµa science without a subject.¶¶ The scientific tide
has turned, and today there is growing enthusiasm for trying to find out whether
life exists elsewhere in the universe.
Life as we know it is a planetary phenomenon. The Earth has hosted life and
has strongly influenced its evolution for the past 3.8 billion years. Life in its turn
has significantly modified its host planet. At one time, life may have called the surface
of the planet Mars home, and some scientists speculate that Mars may still harbor
life, deep beneath its surface, where liquid water might persist today. Europa
and Callisto, two of the planet-sized moons of Jupiter, may have oceans of liquid
water, and possibly even life, beneath their icy exteriors. With only our single example
of terrestrial biology to guide us, our search for life beyond the Earth must
start with searching for µµhabitable,¶¶ planet-like places. As we learn more about life
on Earth, and as we begin to appreciate how tough and opportunistic it is²living
around the scalding-hot vents of the deep ocean floor, in sulfurous hot springs, in
the radioactive cooling water of nuclear reactors, and within rock miles beneath the
Earth¶s surface²our definition of µµhabitable¶¶ expands.
During the past five years, the number of planets known to be orbiting other
stars like our own sun has grown from 0 to more than 50! The biases imposed by
our instruments have thus far excluded detection of other solar systems like our
own. Before another decade passes, however, we should know whether other
worlds similar to the Earth are common or rare in our Milky Way galaxy. This is a
key piece of information.
The universe is vast and old. {umans are newcomers on the scene. Throughout
our short history,we have looked to the heavens and wondered whether we are
alone. Over the millennia there have been many religious and secular belief systems
whose leaders have offered their own answers to this question. Increasingly
throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first, partial answers of a different
kind have been pieced together. Answers based on observation, experiment,
and rigorous scientific study have emerged in fields as diverse as molecular biology
and high-energy astrophysics. The authors of this text, Donald Goldsmith and
Tobias Owen, introduce you to our current understanding of humankind¶s place in
the cosmos, and provide perspective by showing how our ideas have changed over
time and where they are likely to change again in the future. To do this it is necessary
to consider scales of space and time so vast that they are measured in the billions,
as well as scales so tiny that we measure them with billionths; we must consider
both the universe and the world of viruses.

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Earth vs. Other Worlds

Is Earth the planet in the Solar System best suited for life? Perhaps Earth is the
  planet that harbors life. If so, what is it about Earth that might make it
Earth possesses all the things that life as we know it needs. The atmosphere
provides us protection from the Sun¶s harmful radiation, and ensures that temperatures
don¶t vary too much from night to day. Temperatures found across
most of the Earth allow liquid water to exist, which is necessary for life. {ow
does Earth¶s favorable environment for life compare to the other worlds of the
Solar System?
A) Liquid Water. There are not many other places in the Solar System where
liquid water might exist. Most other places in the Solar System seem either
too hot (e.g., Mercury,Venus) or likely too cold (e.g., the outer planets and
their moons) for liquid water. On Mars, the surface temperature and air
pressure are both too low for liquid water to exist²although conditions on
Mars long ago may have allowed for abundant water. It is possible that liquid
water still exists below Mars¶ surface. Astronauts visiting the Moon
found it devoid of water in the areas they explored.Yet there is growing evidence
that there might be frozen water near the north and south poles of
the Moon.
One place where there
evidence for liquid water is on Jupiter¶s moon
Europa²or rather, Europa, where an ocean may exist under a layer of surface
ice. Even though it is extremely cold at that distance from the Sun,
Jupiter and its other moons create tides in Europa that flex and stretch the
entire moon, warming it on the inside.
B) Energy Source. Life requires a source of energy. The Sun supplies most of the
energy that life uses on Earth, and is responsible for the global climate. Plant
life survives by extracting the energy in sunlight through photosynthesis.

c  -


An Artificial Ecosystem in Space

A new European Space Agency (ESA) project is examining ways of using human
waste to recreate an artificial ecosystem during space flights. The proposed system
would provide oxygen and water and enable astronauts to grow their own food.

The MELISSA project (Micro-ecological life support alternative) aims to provide a

workable system for long-haul space flights which may take years to complete and
during which nothing will be thrown away - including human waste. The project
goes further than other recycling systems used on Mir or the International space
station, which purify water and recycle exhaled carbon dioxide, but do not attempt
to recycle organic waste for food production.


Crystallising Proteins in Space

With the activation of ESA¶s Advanced Protein Crystallisation Facility (APCF) -

launched with Shuttle mission STS-105 on 10 August , the European utilisation of
the International Space Station has formally started.

The APCF, Europe's first experiment facility to arrive at the ISS, will perform a
series of automated experiments that could be a step towards a better understanding
of protein crystallisation. Without the interfering tug of the Earth's gravity, the
quality of the crystals may be improved, which is why the APCF was installed on
the International Space Station.


ESA Low Gravity Research
European involvement in low gravity research began approximately 30 years ago, with
nationally funded programmes (in particular those of France and Germany) and US
collaborations. Later, in January 1982, a European Space Agency (ESA) funded
programme was initiated by the ESA Member States, who agreed to a small programme
to which governments could contribute according to their interests and budgets. The first
phase of this new ESA programme (Microgravity Programme: Phase-1) was established
for the period 1982-1985. This allowed ESA to participate in the German Texus
Sounding Rocket programme (later extended to include Swedish Maser Sounding
Rockets) to perform short duration microgravity experiments. The Phase-1 programme
also covered the development of a first set of multi-user experiment facilities to be flown
on the Space Shuttle Spacelab and Space{ab missions.

Since then, ESA has sponsored more than 2000 experiments, payloads and facilities,
which have been integrated and operated on various types of low gravity platforms,

€ Drop Towers;
€ Parabolic Flights;
€ Sounding Rockets;
€ Retrievable Capsules;
€ Space Shuttle;
€ MIR Space Station;
€ International Space Station.

9he Five Major Low Gravity Platforms

This document mainly covers the research executed on/in the 5 major low gravity
platforms currently supported by ESA, which are:

€ the ZARM (Zentrum für Angewandte Raumfahrt Microgravitation) Drop Tower,

located in Bremen, Germany, which was officially declared an ESA External
Facility on 2 October 2003;
€ the Novespace Airbus A-300 ³Zero-g´ aircraft based at the Bordeaux-Mérignac
airport, which has been used by ESA since 1997;


€ the four ESA supported sounding rockets (miniTexus, Texus, Maser and Maxus),
which are launched from the Esrange base near Kiruna, Sweden;
€ the Russian Foton retrievable capsule, an unmanned Earth-orbiting spacecraft
offering microgravity and space exposure, that ESA has used since the early
€ the most complex platform currently accessible through ESA, the International
Space Station (ISS).



An astronomer can determine much information about a distant
star by recording its spectrum. As the star moves in the
small orbit resulting from the pull of the exoplanet, it will move
towards the Earth and then away as it completes an orbit. The
velocity of the star along the line of sight of an observer on
Earth is its radial velocity. Changes in the radial velocity of the
star cause the lines in the star's spectrum to shift towards redder
wavelengths when the star is moving away from us and
towards bluer wavelengths when the planet is approaching us
(see image). This is the Doppler effect, and is noticeable with
sound waves in everyday life, for example in the change of pitch
of an ambulance siren as it drives past on the street. The periodic changes in the star¶s
radial velocity depend on the
planet¶s mass and the inclination of its orbit to our line of sight.
These tiny changes or ³wobbles´ can be measured by a distant
observer. Astronomers use high precision spectrographs to
study Doppler-shifted spectra, looking for small regular variations
in the radial velocity of a star. As the inclination of the planetary
orbit is unknown, the measurement of this regular variation
gives a minimum value for the mass of the planet.
The radial velocity method has proven to be the most successful
in finding new planets. At present, the most successful lowmass
extrasolar planet hunter is {ARPS ({igh Accuracy Radial
Velocity for Planetary Searcher), which is mounted on the ESO
3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile.


Extrasolar planets are fascinating because they may solve mysteries
about our own Solar System. There is a wealth of data
available to study different types of galaxies and stars, which
have enabled astronomers to develop models and theories on
star and galaxy formation and to place our own galaxy and star
amongst them. The Solar System is 4.6 billion years old, but

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there is no way to measure directly how it formed and it was,
until recently, the only planetary system that we knew of, so
there was nothing to compare it with. We had no idea if it was
one of many, a typical example of a planetary system or a
unique one-off. Studying the formation of other young planetary
systems may give us answers.
Protoplanetary discs are regions of dust and gas orbiting very
young stars, where planets are formed. Current theories of
planetary formation suggest that dust particles start to collapse
under gravity and stick together, forming bigger and bigger
grains. If young protoplanetary discs survive the threat of stellar
radiation and impacts by comets and meteorites, then matter
continues to clump together and eventually planetoids may
form. Planetoids are celestial objects bigger than meteorites
and comets, but smaller than planets. After a few million years,
most of the circumstellar dust will have been swept away as
planetoids accumulate mass and grow into planets.
Most of the planets found so far are large, gaseous and very
close to their star, unlike the situation in our own Solar System.
The concept of orbital migration has been revived to explain the
close proximity of some giant planets to their star: these planets
may have formed undisturbed relatively far from the star and
then slowly spiralled inwards over time.

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Planets Outside Our

Solar System: Is there
life on other worlds?


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These numbers are based on observations of the stars in our
galaxy and of other galaxies we believe to be like our own.
Most scientists believe the number of stars to be 400 billion.
100 billion


Many scientists believe that a star has to be like our Sun. Only

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about 5% of the stars in our galaxy are sun-like stars, though
about 10% are closely related, either slightly warmer or slightly
cooler. About 50% of stars exist in binary or multiple systems,
which many scientists feel make them inappropriate.



Appropriate stars may not have planets circling them. We have
only just begun detecting extra-solar planets, so we don't really
know how common they are.


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Our only example of this term is our own solar system. Could
Earth be the only habitable place in our solar system? Is our
system typical? Remember that if one system has no habitable
planets and another has four, the average would be two per
10% On
average, there is
one habitable
planet in every



{aving a planet that is appropriate for life doesn't necessarily
mean that life will arise. No real data are available to help us
estimate this term. Earth is the only planet on which we know
there is life. {owever, bacterial life existed on Earth shortly
(geologically speaking) after its formation, possibly indicating
that the development of life is easy. Many scientists believe that
whether or not life arises depends on many factors.

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0.000001% Life
is a rare accident
that is unlikely
to happen




On Earth, humans developed intelligence, aparently as an
evolutionary advantage. {owever, this term depends on how
you define intelligence. Are dolphins, gorillas, octopus, and ants
intelligent? Furthermore, single-celled life existed on Earth very
early, and multicellular life took 2.5 billion years to form (a very
long time, geologically speaking). Maybe the development of
complex life, let alone intelligent life, is unusual.
0.0001% or less
Only one in a
million planets
with life will
intelligent life




Communication with intelligent extraterrestrials requires that
we hear from them. Given the vast distances of space, they
would probably send signals that travel at the speed of light,
such as radio waves. On Earth, humans have only just
developed radio technology, so possibly this term should have
a low value. But, we did eventually develop radio technology,
so maybe this is true of all intelligent beings.
0.0001% or less
Only one in
planets with
civilizations will
develop radio

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Will an extraterrestrial's signals overlap with the lifespan of the
receiving civilization? Extraterrestrials that sent signals a
hundred thousand years ago from a world a hundred thousand
light years away would still overlap with us, even if they died
out long ago. So, how long do civilizations with radio
technology last? A high level of technological development
could bring with it conditions that ultimately threaten the
species. Or maybe, once a society has radio technology, it may
survive for a long time. Finally, radio signals may give way to
more advanced, less noisy technologies such as lasers. No one
would hear us then!
0.0001% or less
Only in a
with radio
technology will
develop it in
time to detect
signals from


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{umans have dreamed of leaving the earth and traveling space for many years, and up to

this day they have taken many steps in the right direction. Yet, with every new frontier

they approach, new problems loom over the horizon. All problems involved with space

exploration may not directly involve space itself. Many of those problems surface right

here on Earth. Some of the easier issues have been resolved, such as escaping the forces

of gravity to reach outer space. More of these problems are far more arduous and the

solutions need more time to be worked out properly. In ³The Coming Schism´ by James

E. and Alcestis R. Oberg, humans have already begun colonizing space, yet there are still

new problems arising. Major problems such as financing, communication and culture

conflicts are important in the journey to space, because they all have the potential to

disrupt progress.

When people think of troubles that are related to space, they tend to overlook one of the

most obvious and most important problems, financing. Money may prevent humans from

leaving the very earth we stand on in the first place. Money can easily be the solution to

a problem or the cause of one. In the supporting film, 


, it was

mentioned that in 1992, NASA spent 8 billion dollars without building a single piece of

material. The money was spent on other things such as payroll and international

conferences. The film also brought up the fact that every pound of water needed would

cost up to 10 thousand dollars; therefore, 100 lbs. of water would cost 1 million dollars.

This problem was later solved with the help of Russia in the creation of the closed loop

system. But Russia has not always been so helpful. While Russia was working with

NASA to help build a service module, they purposely delayed their efforts in order to

receive more money from NASA, until NASA had enough and gave them a deadline to

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comply with. There are times when financing may prevent a project from being ventured

into completely without even spending the money. For example, further servicing of the

International Space Station would have cost upwards of 100 billion dollars. That is why

that project is still uncompleted.

Also, in ³TheComing Schism,´ the subject of money is brought up differently.

³It might reach out and, at some point, try to strangle off-world economics and the

pursuit of happiness in space with taxation, quotas, and embargos´ (Oberg and Oberg

24). The ³it´ the authors are referring to is the Earth. The taxation of the people living in

space by the people on Earth may cause some tension between the two groups which

could possibly result in a war, which would become a huge problem.In the end, money is

always needed, but it is not always available, and that is why it is a problem now and why

it will be a major problem, facing space exploration in the future.

Communication is another problem that may disrupt the journey ahead to space.

There are a lot of problems that can come from communication or even a lack of it. The

most recent example is the Columbia tragedy. Lower level engineers tried to relay the

possibility of a problem to the higher officials who would relay it to the astronauts on the

Columbia spacecraft, and warn them of a possible danger. But the letters never made it

that far and because of this communication block, the astronauts were unaware of the

possible danger awaiting them. Communication problems can also arise from language

barriers, such as in 


between the Russians and the Americans. Also

there was one point at which France, Russia, China and other countries would have sent

astronauts up to the space station in other shuttles that would have attached to the space

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station. If this had succeeded, there would have been some confusion amongst them,

because they do not speak the same languages and they probably would not have had a

good way to communicate among them. In ³The Coming Schism,´ it is mentioned briefly

that when trying to communicate among citizens of different planets, there could be a

considerable lag and during an emergency this might cause problems; not being able to

communicate vital information quickly enough (21). In 9    6


  , it is mentioned that it takes years to travel between the planets so human

language would be a far less inferior method to be used. Definitely in the end, not being

able to communicate properly will cause problems in a journey to space.

Different types of culture conflicts cause problems right here on Earth, so they

may cause problems in space. Racism and prejudice would not simply be extinguished

because people have left this planet. ³The Coming Schism´ states that many races may

live in space. There may be problems among all of the different types of races living out

in the same space colony. But as they eventually overcome the differences between them

a new type of prejudice may evolve between the people that are living in space and the

people that are remaining on Earth (24). This can be compared in way to the cultural

differences between the United States and the Taliban. These differences started to

surface in the manner of devastating attacks. The same could happen between the spacers

and the earthlings. Because of their opposing views in culture, a war could break out

between the two groups. ³Some spacers may hate Earth´ (Oberg and Oberg 23).

The authors then go into detail why the spacers may begin to dislike the Earth:

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Imagine a world free of mosquitoes, gnats, and cockroaches, and then

imagine coming back to Earth where these little intrepid little vectors of

disease and filth thrive. If this Moon native travels into any large city, he

or she will see congestion, pollution, and traffic, and will hear noise and

confusion. {otel rooms are cluttered with furniture, and no Earth mattress

can ever be as comfortable as a sleeping bag in weightlessness. (Oberg

and Oberg 23)

Problems like these can cause one¶s opinions to change over time. The longer the people

live away from the Earth the more they will change from the people on Earth. The

differences between them, their beliefs and their culture, and why they choose to hate, are

not problems that can be solved with technology. Each problem is better left for the

people themselves to solve, and by the current looks of things, such psychological and

social problems will continue to affect the Earth now and the space in the future.

In the end, there are a myriad of problems that face space exploration. Some of

them are small and easy to overcome, but others are huge and need more planning. The

recent Columbia tragedy shows us that we have not conquered space yet and that there

are still many things that can go wrong. Some of the problems that occur here on Earth

will also occur in space. To help smooth the problematic path ahead for space

exploration, major problems such as financing, communication, and cultural

differences should, at the very least, receive the most attention if they cannot be solved at

the present time. These problems cannot just be left on the back burner and ignored; they

are very important and should be at the top priority when considering how to further our

journey into space.

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Spreading Life to other planets
A new trend: people send their information to outer space
People all over the world gathered around a project in an aim to spread life to other
planets, and
leave an everlasting mark in the universe. BeInSpace, a non governmental project, aims
preserve and spread life as we know it to outer space. It has opened a portal that allows
users to
send their DNA and upload Digital information that would be sent to outer space in the
spring of
2009. "This is the only thing that would remain of us, and it can sprout life on a new
fertile plant"
says Solomon Byron an excited user that sent his DNA with hopes that it would last
Francis Crick, a Nobel Prize winner for the co-discovery of a double helical structure
published a paper suggesting that life may have arrived on Earth through a process called
'Directed Panspermia. The Panspermia hypothesis suggests that the seeds of life are
common in
the universe and can be spread between worlds. {e also suggested that other civilizations
have sent it to earth. "Why shouldn't we do the same? As an intelligent being we have an
obligation to spread life to other planets! " Says Agmon David CEO of BeInSpace and
"Someday, somehow, life on earth will come to an end, perhaps due to wars, floods,
diseases, or
the expansion of the sun to a red giant. Our role as a civilization should be to help
preserve life
beyond earth."
Intends to collect 1 Tara byte of a variety of digital data such as web pages,
blogs, letters, songs, stories, photos, ideas worth spreading,MP3,EXE Flash and other
that is digital and is uploaded to BeInSpace . Such data, known as Memes, are nun
genetic replicators that define our cultural information and expresses what we are.
BeInSpace also collects DNA (genetic information). participators receive a simple kit for
collecting their own DNA. Once the kit returned to BeInSpace, they will separate the
DNA from
the cell, encapsulate it, and send it to outer space. "By sending our DNA into space, we
will be
protecting the millions of years of evolution that are folded within each of our cells, and
a part of life will float in deep space far into the future" says Agmon.
{ow far? To ship the memes and genes into outer space, BeInSpace has established
contacts with

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Leading providers of space shuttle service and will ship the data out of the atmosphere,
space, leaving the solar system on a permanent celestial journey.
The cost for each file, that is uploaded, is fee based on the type and amount of MBs that
uploaded. Every MB costs $2. Sending a DNA sample is $87.
30 years ago Carl Sagan sent on a voyager a plate with information and said:
| P a g e 2
"A billion years from now, when everything on Earth we've ever made has crumbled into
when the continents are changed beyond recognition and our species is unimaginably
altered or
extinct, the Voyager will still speak for us"
The BeInSpace ambitious project will contain a billion times more information then the
and give hope for the beginning of life in other distant planets.


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Exploring Beyond Earth Orbit while Preparing for the Future

As NASA exists in america so the basic planing for earths future horizons mainly
depends on the budget and planning of america.

On April 15th, 2010 President Obama announced a new American Space Flight Policy:

























The President set forth the why in his speech:













NASA is at severe risk of losing the expertise and talent that will allow America to reach
these goals ± the engineers who will design the rockets and spacecraft, the manufacturing
technicians who will build and assemble the rockets and spacecraft, the engineers who
will perform engineering services and mission operations from training to mission
execution, and last but not least our corps of astronauts who risk their lives every time
they leave our planet to push the boundaries of exploration.

While NASA is a governmental agency, it should at times think like a business. In order
to survive through Presidential churn it is vital to our continued success as a nation to
press forward with exploration at the same time as developing new technologies to reach
the goals President Obama has recently laid out for NASA. Great companies survive
because they execute their portfolio and invest in their future at the same time. While
companies are marketing their current product line they continue to invest in R&D for
their future product line. What NASA has always done is one or the other but never both
due to the structure of the American government and the priorities of the sitting
Administration. It is imperative that NASA continue to execute missions, not just to the
International Space Station but to use the existing capabilities not only within our own
country but within our world and continue to learn about living and working in space and
on foreign bodies such that when it is time to venture to an asteroid in 2025 and to the

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orbit of Mars in the 2030¶s that we are prepared not just from technological
breakthroughs but from a collective expertise of mission success.

The proposal is that we invest in both today and tomorrow. We move forward
internationally pooling the expertise of National Space Agencies and Aerospace
Companies while continuing to invest in the R&D that is vital to our future. If America
is not interested in leading, then an international consortium could be established to
maintain these critical skills and move once again Beyond Earth Orbit (BEO) within this
decade. The following is an example of how collectively as a global entity we can go
Beyond Earth Orbit.

The concept is to utilize the existing capabilities and infrastructure of existing space
agencies and aerospace contractors in order to move BEO during this decade. This is
important to maintain the vital skills of our space faring planet, to develop new skills, and
inspire our next generation of engineers, technicians, and astronauts.

The idea is to assemble the BEO vehicle using the International Space Station (ISS) as
the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Platform thus utilizing existing capabilities to launch the
BEO vehicle modules and the crew. The BEO Crew can launch to ISS using the Soyuz
Launch Vehicle and Soyuz Crew Vehicle (RSA). The Orion Crew Capsule could
continue to be developed by NASA/Lockheed Martin to serve as the BEO Crew Capsule
and be launched unmanned on a Delta IV {eavy to dock at the ISS.

There are a number of Cargo Launch Vehicles; Ariane V (ESA), Atlas V (ULA), Delta
IV (ULA), Proton (RSA), Falcon 9 (SpaceX) that can be utilized to launch the modules
that will make up the BEO vehicle. Each BEO module will have autonomous guidance,
navigation, and control (GN&C) capabilities leveraged off of RSA (ISS Modules) and the
Boeing/Darpa Orbital Express lessons learned. The modules could perform automated
rendezvous and docking at the space station similar to the Progress and ATV Cargo
Vehicles or be berthed like the {TV Cargo Vehicle by the space station¶s robotic arm.

A BEO propulsion module is a necessity to leave LEO and should leverage in-space
refueling capabilities similar to Progress/ISS and incorporate lessons learned from the
Boeing/Darpa Orbital Express so that the BEO propulsion module can be refueled at the
space station or in LEO by a Progress Cargo Vehicle. This new module could be
procured under the Flagship Technology Demonstrator Program to test out refueling

With the integration of the above launch vehicles and BEO modules numerous BEO
destinations within cislunar space are achievable within the next 5-7 years allowing the
engineering, manufacturing, and operational skill base to not be lost. There are numerous
missions that can be flown in cislunar space that can build upon the expertise of Apollo,

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Shuttle, and ISS and take us one step closer for being ready to venture into deep space to
an asteroid by 2025 and Mars in the mid 2030¶s.


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Computer systems are indispensable for the success of all space systems, and will
continue to be a key technology for future space projects. The trend in system design is
toward an increase in functionality and automation of the space systems. This leads to
more complex systems with new types of safety issues concerning both the design and
management of the system. Accidents or fatal failures are commonly traceable to high-
level requirements incompleteness such as task design or system design omissions. In
light of this observation, the formal specification toolset SpecTRM has been studied to
support the design, implementation, and maintenance of safety-critical systems.

SpecTRM is a system and software engineering environment designed to include safety

engineering processes such as safety assessment and hazard analysis (ref. 1). An

 is the system specification methodology used in SpecTRM (ref. 2). This
intent specification includes most of the features needed to structure a critical system
specification including traceability from high-level requirements and safety constraints
(with hazard analysis) to the component specification model, code, and operator tasks.
Our experience has shown that without special mathematical knowledge or extensive
training, engineers in most fields can easily use intent specifications to specify blackbox
behavior by using SpecTRM-RL (SpecTRM Requirements Language)

The structure of the intent specification is described in figure 1. Each level of an intent
specification shows the 

 {owever, the levels of intent are not linked
directly to a specific software development phase. The specification description in each

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intent level contains information about the environment, the operator tasks and the
system description. The system description can be decomposed into components or
subcomponents. Besides the two directions mentioned above, the intent specification is
designed to deal with any abstraction level ( 
), i.e. it can be very
flexible and can be refined iteratively during development.

In SpecTRM, it is possible to start building any part of the intent specification, i.e. any
level of intent, and any refinement of the specification description. The contents of intent
specifications are very carefully designed from a viewpoint of system safety.


The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a particle physics detector designed to

measure charged cosmic rays spectra up to TV region, with high energy photon detection
capability up to few hundred GeV. With the large acceptance, the long duration (3 years)
and the state of the art particle identification techniques, AMS will provide the most
sensitive search for the existence of anti matter nuclei and for the origin of dark matter.
The detector is being constructed with an eight layers Silicon Tracker inside a large
superconducting magnet, providing a ~ 0.8 Tm2 bending power and an acceptance of ~
0.5 m2 sr. A Transition Radiation Detector and a 3D Electromagnetic Calorimeter allow
for electron, positron and photon identification, while indipendent velocity measurements
are performed by a Time of Flight scintillating system and a Ring Image Cerenkov
detector. This contribution will describe the overall detector construction which is due to
be completed by 2005.

The detector has been installed on ISS (International Space Station) in 2007.

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Innovation launches into orbit, thanks to aluminum industry manufacturers who
are supplying extruded aluminum tubing for the truss structures that link together
the International Space Station (ISS). Boeing Company engineers are working
with extruders on a massive scale during construction and assembly of the newest
extruded truss sections: Starboard segments S3, S4, S6, and Portside segments

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P3, P4 and P5, scheduled to begin launching in Spring, 2005. Truss section P6,
launched in November 2000, supports the current ISS configuration. A marvel of
science and aerospace engineering, this vast ISS program is truly flourishing
thanks to aluminum extruders across the globe.
The ISS is the most complex international scientific
venture in history. Its crews are conducting
research to support space exploration, and are
providing a stable environment for scientific, technological
and commercial research. Building the ISS
involves more than 100,000 space agency and
contractor personnel from 16 countries, including
more than 10,000 first to fourth-tier suppliers²truly
an example of international cooperation.

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