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Math 5070 Fall 2012 Homework 4 solutions

1. 38.5 Let X be subseet of a metric space M . We say that a point x in


M is an accumulation point of X there exists a sequence {xn } in X such that
limx xn = x and xn 6= x for all n. Denote by X a the set of all accumulation
points of X.
(a) Prove that X is closed if and only if X a X.
(b) Prove that if X is a bounded infinite subset of R, then X a 6= .
(c) Prove that if X is an uncountable subset of R, then X a 6= .
Solution.
(a) We have defined that X is closed if limn xn X for every sequence
{xn } in X which converges in M .
=: Let x be an accumulation point of X. Then there exists a sequence
{xn } in X such that limx xn = x in M , and because X is closed, x X.
=: Suppose that X a X, {xn } is a sequence in X, and limn xn = x.
We need to show that x X. If xn = x for some n, then x X because xn X.
If xn 6= x for all n, then x X a X.
(b) Because X is infinite, we can choose a sequence {xn } in X with all
xn different. Because X is bounded, the sequence {xn } is bounded, and by
the Weierstrass theorem, there is a convergent subsequence xnk x. We will
show that x X a . If xnk 6= x for all k, we are done. Otherwise, since all
xnk are different, xnk = x for only one k, and by removing this term from the
subsequence we get a subsequence which of numbers from X all different from
x, which also converges to x.
Another solution. Because X is bounded, X (a0 , b0 ) for some real a0 , b0 .
Then X (a0 , b0 ) is infinite. If we already have ak , bk such that X (ak , bk ) is
inifinite, at least one of the sets
   
ak + bk ak + bk
X ak , , X , bk
2 2

is infinite. Choose (ak+1 , bk+1 ) to be one of the intervals ak , ak +b or ak +b


 
2
k
2
k
, bk
such that X (ak , bk ) is infinite. By induction, we get intervals

(a0 , b0 ) (a1 , b1 ) (ak , bk )

of lengths
b0 a0
bk ak = 0, k .
2k
Since ak is increasing and bounded (by b0 ), it has a limit L. Because limk bk
ak = 0, bk has the same limit L. Since the set X (ak , bk ) has at least two
elements (in fact, it is infinite), we can choose xk X (ak , bk ), xk 6= L, and
by the squeeze theorem, limk xk = L.
(c) We first show that if x X but x / X a then

x > 0 : (x x , x + x ) X = {x} . (1)

1
Otherwise
> 0 : (x , x + ) X 6= {x} ,
Because x (x , x + ) X always and choosing = 1/n in turn we get

n Nxn (x 1/n, x + 1/n) X, xn 6= x.

Since xn x, n , and xn = 6 x for all n, it follows that x X a .


Taking the x from (1), we have
[
X (x x /2, x + x /2)
xX

and the sets (x x /2, x + x /2) are disjoint; if

(x x /2, x + x /2) (y y /2, y + y /2) 6=

for some x, y X, x 6= y, then |x y| < x /2+y /2 max {x , y } and so either


y (x x , x + x )X or x (y y , y + y )X, which is a contradiction. By
the density of rationals, there exists a rational number rx (x x /2, x + x /2)
and since the intervals are disjoint, rx is different for different x, and x 7 rx is
a one to one mapping between X and a subset of rationals, which is countable.
Alternative solution. Define Xn = X [n, n + 1].If all Xn were finite, then

[
X = Xn is countable as the countable union of finite sets. Thus there
n=
exists Xn which is infinite. Because Xn is bounded, 6= Xna and because
Xna X a , it holds that X a 6= .
2. 38.7 Let (k) be the sequences

(1) = (1, 0, 0, . . .)
(2) = (0, 1, 0, . . .)
..
.
n o
(k) (k) (k)
that is, for each k, (k) is the sequence n defined by k = 1, n = 0
 n=1
if n 6= k. Prove that the set X = (k) |k N is closed subset of `1 , `2 , c0 , and
` .
Solution. First, X is a subset of all those spaces:

X
(k)
n = 1 = (k) `1
n=1

(k) 2
X
n = 1 = (k) `2
h n=1 i
n N : n(k) 1 = (k) `

lim n(k) = 0 = (k) c0


n

2
(k)
where the last statement follows from the fact that the sequence n = 0 for all
n > k.
Now, if i 6= j, then
 
d`1 (i) , (j) = 1 + 1 = 2
 
d`2 (i) , (j) = 1 + 1 = 2
 
d` (i) , (j) = 1

Since always d (i) , (j) 1 for i 6= j, the only sequences from X that are
convergent are those that are eventually constant, and so X has no accumulation
points. The result follows from problem 1(a).
3. 38.8 Let X and Y be closed subsets of R. Prove that X Y is a closed
subset of R2 . State and prove a generalization to Rn .
Solution. Consider X1 , . . . , Xn R closed. The metric in Rn is given by
v
u n
uX 2
d ((x1 , . . . , xn ) , (y1 , . . . , yn )) = t |xi yi | .
i=1


Suppose x(k) is a sequence in X1 Xn such that limk x(k) = x in
Rn , that is  
lim d x(k) , x = 0.
k

Then for all i = 1, . . . , n,


 
(k)
xi xi d x(k) , x 0 as k ,

(k)
thus limk xi = xi in R. Since Xi are closed, xi Xi for all i = 1, . . . , n,
and, consequently,

x = (x1 , . . . , xn ) X1 Xn .

4. 38.13 Let M be a metric space. Prove the following:


(a) X = X for all X M
(b) X is closed for all X M
(c) For all X, Y M , if X Y M , then X Y
(d) X Y = X Y for all X, Y M
(e) If Y is a closed subset\of M such that X Y , then X Y.
(f) If X M , then X = {Y |X Y M, Y is closed}
Solution.
(a) Since any set is a subset of its closure, we have X X.We need to prove
X X. Let x X. Then there exists a sequence {xn } X, xn x as
n , . Let m N. Since xn x as n , there exists some n such that
d (xn , x) < 1/2m. Since xn X, there exists a sequence {yk } X, yk xn as

3
k , and so there exists k such that d (yk , xn ) < 1/2m.Put zm = yk . Then
zm X and
1 1 1
d (zm , x) d (zm , xn ) + d (xn , x) < + = .
2m 2m m
We have constructed a sequence {zm } X, zm x as m , so x X.
(b) Since X = X by (a), X is closed.
(c) If x X, then x = limn xn for some {xn } X. Since X Y, also
{xn } Y , so x Y .
(d) Since X X Y and Y X Y , we have by (c) X X Y and
Y X Y , so X Y X Y . For the opposite inclusion, let x X Y .
Then x = limn xn , where all xn X Y . Either infinitely many xn X,
in which case x X because the subsequence of xn X convergese to x, or
infinitely many xn Y and then x Y (or both).
(e) Since Y is closed, Y = Y . By (c), X Y gives X Y = Y .
(f) Denote F = {Y |X Y M, Y is closed}, the family of all closed sets
in M which contain X. Since all \ sets in F are closed, and the intersection of a
family of closed sets is closed, F is closed. Since X is subset of any set Y in
\ \
F, it is contained in their intersection, so X F. By (e), X F. But
\
X X and X is closed by (b), so X F, hence F X.