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# Control Systems (CE379) Prepared By: E.

Effah, 2017

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 3
1.1 Definitions ..................................................................................................................................... 3
1.1.1 Control System Representation ............................................................................................. 3
1.2 Classification of Control Systems .................................................................................................. 3
1.2.1 open loop and closed loop CS. ............................................................................................... 4
1.3 Input and Output System .............................................................................................................. 7
1.4 Classes of Control Systems............................................................................................................ 7
1.5 Static System and Dynamic System .............................................................................................. 8
1.6 Stable and Unstable System ......................................................................................................... 9
1.7 Linear vs Non-linear System.......................................................................................................... 9
1.8 Analysis of Control System ............................................................................................................ 9
1.9 Output Response of Control System ........................................................................................... 10
1.10 Stability ..................................................................................................................................... 10
1.11 Control System Design Process ................................................................................................. 10
1.12 Mathematical Modeling............................................................................................................ 11
CHAPTER TWO: ..................................................................................................................................... 13
SYSTEM MODELING: MECHANICAL SYSTEMS ....................................................................................... 13
2.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 13
2.2 Mechanical System ..................................................................................................................... 13
2.3 Modeling Methods & Steps ........................................................................................................ 14
2.4 Rotational Systems and Rotational Motion ................................................................................ 15
2.5 Modeling Electrical Systems ....................................................................................................... 18
2.6 Modeling Operational amplifiers or Op-amps ............................................................................ 20
CHAPTER THREE:TIME AND FREQUENCY RESPONSES .......................................................................... 27
2.1 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 27
2.2 Time Response ............................................................................................................................ 27
2.2.1 How to Choose an Input Signals .......................................................................................... 27
2.3. Types of Input ............................................................................................................................ 27
3.4 Behaviour of System at t=0 and t= .......................................................................................... 29
3.5 Response of 1st and 2nd order system ......................................................................................... 30
3.6 First Order Transient Response .................................................................................................. 32
3.7 Critical Examination: Poles & Damping Ratio ............................................................................. 37
3.8 Other Salient Parameters............................................................................................................ 38
3.8 Review: Trigonometry ................................................................................................................. 39

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## 3.9 Frequency Response ................................................................................................................... 39

3.9.1 Polar & Bode Plot ..................................................................................................................... 40
CHAPTER FOUR: BLOCK DIAGRAMS: REPRESENTATION AND SIMPLIFICATION ................................... 43
4.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 43
4.2 Block Diagram Components ........................................................................................................ 43
4.3 Representation in Block Diagram................................................................................................ 43
4.4 Unity Feedback System ............................................................................................................... 45
4.5 Basic Operation: Moving Blocks.................................................................................................. 46
4.7 Feedback System ........................................................................................................................ 49
4.8 Stable System .............................................................................................................................. 49
4.9 Bounded Solution........................................................................................................................ 51
4.10 Conditions for Stability.............................................................................................................. 51
CHAPTER FIVE: STATE SPACE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN........................................................................... 53
5.1 Review: Eigenvalues .................................................................................................................... 53
5.1.1 Classical vs Modern Control ................................................................................................. 53
5.2 SS Analysis ................................................................................................................................... 53
5.2.1 State Variables ..................................................................................................................... 53

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## CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Definitions
System: it is a collection of objects or components connected together to serve and objective.
Control system (CS): is a device or set of devices used to manage, command, direct or regulate
the behaviour of other devices or systems using any quantity of interest. This field is wide. It
is also applied in economy, finance, political science, physics, mathematics and biological
sciences. There are three things that define control systems: input, systems and output.

## 1.1.1 Control System Representation

We can represent a control system in block diagrams, in terms of input, system and output.

## Figure 1.0 Representation of CS

The output may or may not be equal to the specified response by the input. Thus, the purpose
of control system is to regulate the system to produce the desired output.

## 1.2 Classification of Control Systems

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## 1.2.1 open loop and closed loop CS.

Open loop or feed-forward: systems that
utilizes a device to control the process
without using feedback.

## Characteristics: Simplest (and cheap too!)

type of control Contains no feedback. The
output is not affected by the input
Application examples: Simple electric
switch Kettle or water heating devices
Mobile phone Word processor Alarm
clock

## We can generally design or draw a block

diagram for any system provided that we
know the input and the output. OL contains
no feedback. Sometimes, the input is also
called the desired input or the reference
input and the output is sometimes called
the actual output or actual response.

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Closed loop or feedback system: systems that uses a measurement of the output (usually a
sensor) and compares it with the desired input. The system uses the measurement of the actual
output to compare with the input, hence producing a very effective output.
The block diagram representation is given as follows:

## Example Application of Closed-Loop System: - Washing machine, Oven, Air Conditioner

Control, Driving an automobile, Law and order. Why are the above example falls in the
category of closed-loop system?
It is a self-regulating machine performing the operation with and without the need of the
human. This machine will keep the surrounding temperature to that of the preset value. Sensor
is used to maintain the temperature in which the air conditioner is placed.

## Examples: Law & Order

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## Figure 1.4 Examples

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## 1.3 Input and Output System

Sometimes, we might have one input and one output, but there are cases where we might have
multiple input and multiple output. The one (single) input and one (single) output is sometimes
called the SISO system.
On the other hand, the multiple input and multiple output is sometimes called the MIMO
system.
The following example illustrates the application in telecommunication engineering.

## 1.4 Classes of Control Systems

We can also categorize a control system in two (2) classes: servomechanism and regulators.
Servomechanism is a power amplifying feedback device in which the controlled variable is a
mechanical position or time derivative of position such as velocity or acceleration.

## Servomechanism: Usually, we use servo motors for servomechanism applications.

Characteristics: Closed loop system. The control action is dependent on the desired result.
Automatic (intelligent) control. Measures position (displacement), velocity and/or
acceleration.
Application example: (speed) cruise control of cars. Water level system.

Purpose of servomechanism:
1. Accurate control of motion without the need for human attendants (automatic control);
2. Maintenance of accuracy with mechanical load variations, changes in the environment,
power supply fluctuations, and aging and deterioration of components (regulation and
self-calibration);
3. Control of a high-power load from a low-power command signal (power amplification);
4. Control of an output from a remotely located input, without the use of mechanical

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## Figure 1.5 Constant Speed Control System of DC Motor

The constant speed control system of a DC motor is a servomechanism that monitors any
variations in the motor's speed so that it can quickly and automatically return the speed to its
correct value. Servomechanisms are also used for the control systems of guided missiles,
aircraft, and manufacturing machinery.

Regulator
A regulator is a system where the reference input is constant for a long period of time.
Characteristics: closed loop system and the input (setpoint) is held constant.
Application example: Car (power) window, Human body temperature, Automatic temperature
regulated over, Human perspiration system.

## 1.5 Static System and Dynamic System

Static System
A static system is a deterministic system. The effects of inertia are ignored. Statics is branch
of mechanics dealing with analysis of behaviour (usually in terms of displacements, strains,
stresses and forces) of bodies (mechanical systems, structures) while neglecting inertia effects.
It is based on equilibrium conditions and the quantity time plays no role in the analysis.
For a static system, the output response to an input that does not change with time i.e. the input
is held constant. Mathematically: y = f(u)
The output signal, y(t), at time t, depends on the value of input at time t.

Dynamic System
Dynamics is a branch of mechanics where due emphasis is paid to inertial effects as opposed
to statics where such effects are ignored. A dynamic system may or may not be a deterministic
and predictable system. It is a system that evolve or change with respect to time. Generally,
this particular system is described by differential equations. Mathematically:

The output signal y(t), at time t, depends on past values of the input.
It is evidently clear that a capacitor is a dynamic system the output of a capacitor depends on
all past inputs.

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## 1.6 Stable and Unstable System

If a system is brought to any particular initial condition (or state) and its response decays
continuously to zero state, the system is said to be stable of a particular kind called
asymptotically stable.
If a system grows out of bound without any limit, then the system is an unstable system.

## 1.7 Linear vs Non-linear System

Linear system is a type of system that satisfies the principle of superposition and homogeneity.

## A non-linear system is not a linear system. Mathematically, it is a set of non-linear equations

where the variables to be solved cannot be written as a linear combination of independent
components.

## 1.8 Analysis of Control System

The main objective of a control system is to produce a desired system, reducing errors and
achieving systems stability.
What do we analyze in control system?
1. Transient (temporary) response,
3. Stability.
Transient Response or natural response (remember differential equations?) it is the
homogeneous solution.
Example: consider an elevator going from the first floor to the fourth floor. If a transient
response is: Too slow passenger would be angry or Too fast you would be scared.
Steady State Response: An approximation to the desired response. It is also the response that
exist for a long time following the given input signal. In the previous lift example, the steady
state response is when the lift is about to reach the fourth floor. We will also examine the steady
state error, which is how accurately the system performs.

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## 1.9 Output Response of Control System

Consider an example of an elevator going from the first floor to the fourth floor. The output of
the elevator can be represented as follows:

## Figure 1.6 Output Response

1.10 Stability
It is a performance measure of a system. If a system is stable, then it should operate properly.
An unstable system would lead to self-destruction or chaos. For example, in flight control
system, if it is unstable, it would crash. The total response of the system is given by:

For a particular control system to be useful, we want the natural response to either approach to
zero or oscillate. Sometimes, the natural response will go out of bound, hence the system would
be unstable. We can use mathematical techniques to analyze and control the stability of a
particular control system.

## 1.11 Control System Design Process

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## 1.12 Mathematical Modeling

It uses mathematical language to describe a particular system. Why? Important to gain
understanding and further insight to the system, hence enabling us to perform analysis. Useful
for prediction, formulation and simulation. Useful for estimation and prediction of
unforeseeable event that could somehow affect the system. Type of mathematical model
studied in control engineering:
1. Classical form: representation of nth order differential equations
2. Transfer functions: the ratio between the output to the input, found after taking the
Laplace transform of differential equations.
3. State space: A representation of a set of nth order simultaneous first-order differential
equations.

## How to Start Modeling

Uses conservation laws a set of principles describing certain quantities within an isolated
system that does not change with time.
It is a preserved (conserved) quantity. Among the aspects conserved: mass, momentums,
energy, charges etc. Example: Kirchoffs Voltage and Current Laws.

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## Figure 1.9 Functional Block Diagram

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CHAPTER TWO:
SYSTEM MODELING: MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

2.1 Introduction
The main areas captured here are:
Mechanical Systems, Electrical systems and Electromechanically systems and their respective
models.

## 2.2 Mechanical System

Basic Law Newtons Law of Motion under Time derivative motion, thus displacement,
velocity & acceleration
Mass, Spring and Damper are key components of mechanical systems or Equivalent System.

## A mechanical system is basically a system of elements that interact based on fundamental

mechanical principles. There are two types of mechanical system viz: Translational system
whose motion is generally linear and Rotational system which also makes rotational
(revolution) motion. Torque and moments of inertia are considered under this system.
Time Derivative Motion: Time derivative is the rate of change of a function with respect to
time.
Displacement A vector quantity representing the length of separation between two objects or
bodies, Velocity The rate of change of displacement and Acceleration The rate of change
of velocity.

The translational elements and the corresponding equations of motion are listed below:

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## 2.3 Modeling Methods & Steps

Step I: Sketch Free Body Diagram & Define Important Parameters
Draw (sketch) a suitable free body diagram and define important parameters.
Be careful and consistent with signs: if you define your motion to the right to be
positive, then use that convention throughout your calculation.
It doesnt really matter what convention you use for as long as your are consistent, you
will get the right equation.
Step II: Obtain a Set of Differential Equation
Start your modeling by using Newtons Law and conserve all forces i.e. Fin=Fout.
From there, obtain a set of differential equation describing your system.
Step III: Represent Your DE in Transfer Function or State Space
Next, you may represent your differential equation in state space format or in transfer
function, depending on the requirements i.e. the question.
If you wish to represent your equation in transfer function, then take the forward
Laplace transform and assume zero initial conditions.
If you wish to represent your equation in state space, then generate the state space
matrix.

Example1

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## 2.4 Rotational Systems and Rotational Motion

Torque can be defined as the tendency to produce a change in rotational motion. The defining
equation is:
The distance d, is measured perpendicular to the line of action of the force F.
Angular Displacement of a rigid body describes the amount of rotation. Usually denoted by the
symbol . A more applicable way of measuring the angular displacement is the radian. It is
defined by the following equation:

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Angular Velocity is the time rate of change in angular displacement. Usually denoted by the
symbol (omega). It is defined by the following equation:

Angular acceleration is the rate of the angular velocity. It is usually denoted by the symbol

Mass Moment of Inertia: It is a measure of an object's resistance to changes to its rotation. And
it is also the inertia of a rotating body with respect to its axis of rotation. The symbol I or J are
usually used to refer to the moment of inertia or polar moment of inertia.
A rotational system can be analyzed similar to the translational system. A rotation will
generally occur around a fixed axis. Torques will occur around the axis rotation and it
corresponds to forces. Inertia however, resists the angular acceleration.

## Modeling Rotational Damper

Modeling Rotational Mass: A rotational mass is subjected to the mass moment of inertia
related to mass.

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## Newtons Law for Rotational System

Systems with Gears: Gears provide mechanical advantage to rotational systems. Some
applications include in systems using a motor as its actuator.
Consider the following gear: r = radius T = torques = displacement N = no. of teeth:

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## 2.5 Modeling Electrical Systems

Resistor, Inductor and capacitor are the 3 basic elements of electrical circuits of which the last
two store energy while the first one (resistor) dissipate energy.
There are many techniques that can be used to analyze electrical circuits. Two famous
techniques are discussed in this lecture: Kirchoffs Current Law and Kirchoffs Voltage Law
Other techniques include Voltage divider and Current divider rules. The defining equations
for such electrical systems are shown below.

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## 2.6 Modeling Operational amplifiers or Op-amps

This subsection will address the following areas: Opamps, Types of op-amp (Inverting and
non-inverting) and Modeling od operational amplifiers using of KCL/KVL or Transfer
function.
Operational Amplifiers: It is a DC differential amplifier incorporating many solid-state
elements in a compact package. Op-amp operates from DC to some upper frequency limit of
the order 1MHz.

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## Figure 2.1 Opamp

Figure 2.2 op-amp IC. A DIP pin-out for a typical 741-type operational amplifier

The positive (+) input is called the non-inverting input because the output from this
source is in phase with the input.
The inverting input (negative input) has the opposite behaviour, that is, the output
resulting from this source is 180 out of phase with the input.
Op-amp using NPN transistor will have input impedance greater than 1M. Because
of this high impedance, the input current for op-amp is essentially zero.
The output impedance of op-amps is very low, typically less than 1, and the open-
loop gain is very high, and can be up to the order of 106.
We usually make the following assumption when dealing with op-amp:
Because the op-amp gain is so high, when the output voltage is within its normal
operating range, the voltage between the input terminals is so small that it can
be assumed to be zero.
The current drawn by an op-amp input is zero because its input resistance is
very, very large.
The characteristics of an op-amp are:
Differential input V2(t)=v1(t)
High input impedance Zi= (ideal)
Low output impedance zo=0 (ideal)
High constant gain amplification A= (ideal)
The output of an op-amp is measured in terms of gain.

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The circuit shown below is used for finding the difference of two voltages each multiplied by
some constant (determined by the resistors).

The name "differential amplifier" should not be confused with the "differentiator.
The following are some of the possible configurations of the op-amp: Sign changer, Amplifier,
Bandwidth limited differentiator, etc.

## Examples of Op-amps configurations

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CHAPTER THREE:
TIME AND FREQUENCY RESPONSES

2.1 Overview
This chapter will address the following areas as applied to time and frequency responses:
Test input signals, Initial and final value theorem, Time response (First order system response
and Second order system response) Frequency response and techniques, Bode plot and Gain
and phase margins.

## 2.2 Time Response

A time response is the response (output) of a system with respect to time, given certain type of
inputs. There are generally four (4) types of input: Step input, Ramp input, Parabolic input and
Impulse input.

## 2.2.1 How to Choose an Input Signals

We always choose the typical signal as the input when analyzing the transient response of a
system because of the following advantages:
1. It simplifies mathematical calculations. The performance indices under the given
typical signal are convenient for system analysis and synthesis.
2. The response to a typical input can often be used as the basis for analyzing the
performance of a system under very complex inputs.
3. It is easier to determine the transfer function of an unknown system.

## 2.3. Types of Input

Step Input
The most common type of input. Also known as Heaviside unit-step function.

## Unit Step Function Delayed unit-step:

Example of step input: Turning on a switch in a circuit, actuating a valve in a fluid system,
Driving over a curb.

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Ramp Input

Examples: Machine tool cutting metal Robot lifting a box Telescope tracking a star across
the sky

Parabolic Input or quadratic input: The input changes (proportional) with time.

Impulse Function
This function is also called Dirac, needle, , or pulse function. The
impulse function consists of a brief pulse, i. e., at the time t = t0
the input value rises to a high value A for a short time (impulse
duration t) and then immediately drops back to its original value.
The impulse function is the derivative of unit step function.

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## 3.4 Behaviour of System at t=0 and t=

We can predict the behaviour of a system at two different time, namely the initial time ti, and
also the final time tf. The initial time, sometimes written t(0), is the time t=0 at which the
system receives the excitation input. The final time, sometimes written t() is the time when
the system have reached the steady state. We can determine the behaviour of a system at these
two times by using the initial and final value theorems.

## Initial Value Theorem

The initial value theorem predicts or describes the initial behaviour of a particular system.

## Final Value Theorem

The final value theorem predicts or describe the behaviour of the system at steady state.

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## 3.5 Response of 1st and 2nd order system

We can also determine and observe the output of a first and second order systems. Recall that
the first and second order system is described by a first and second order differential equations,
respectively. To find the output response of these systems, we simply solve the differential
equations either by using the classical method or Laplace transform. Once we are able to solve
the differential equations, we will plot the output response.

## Response of 1st Order Systems

Recall that R(s) is the input of the system. We can actually give many type of input to our
system be it impulse, step, ramp or even parabolic inputs. We can perform the analysis of a
1st order system by using the initial and final value theorems or by using the Laplace transform
method.

Example 1
Given the following system. Find the response of the system subjected to step, ramp and
parabolic input by using the initial and final value theorems:

Solution to Example 1

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Example 2
Find the system response of a first order system in example given that a=1 and the input is of
the step, ramp and parabolic nature.
Solution to Example 2

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## 3.6 First Order Transient Response

Transient response is the temporary response of the system, just before it settles down to a
value. In 1st order systems, we usually analyze Time constant (), Rise time(tr) and Settling
time (ts).
Time constant (from differential equation)
Every first order differential equation can be represented in the following general form:

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## Plugging it in the given equation, we obtain:

This simply means that this the time constant, , is the time taken for the step response to rise
to 63% of its final value.

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## Figure 3Step Response of 1st Order System

Rise Time, Tr
The time for the response (graph) to go from 0.1 to 0.9 of its final value.

Settling Time, Ts
The time for the system to settle-down and stay within 2% of its final value. (some books use
5%, but for our case, well stick to 2%). If we assume that the final value of our system is
100%, then a 2% would constitute 98% or simply 0.98. Hence, for a first-order system to settle
down:

## Response of 2nd Order System

General block diagram:

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## General transfer function:

There are two very important parameters in a second order system namely: Natural frequency,
n and Damping ratio, (zeta).
By definition, natural frequency is the frequency at which a system naturally vibrates once it
has been set into motion. In other words, natural frequency is the number of times a system
will oscillate (move back and forth) between its original position and its displaced position, if
there is no outside interference. Sometimes, the natural frequency is also known as the
undamped natural frequency.
Damping Ratio, is a dimensionless measure of how a body in oscillation decays.
If there are dampers or frictional losses, then there will be more damping. There are generally
four (4) types of damping: Overdamped system, Underdamped system, Critically damped
system, Undamped system.

## Figure 3 Damping in 2nd Order System

Overdamped System

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In general, for overdamped case, we have two real and distinct poles > 1

Underdamped System

In general, for an underdamped system, we have two complex conjugate poles 0 < < 1.
Critically Damped System

In general, a critically damped system has two real and repeated poles = 1

Undamped
In an undamped system, there exists no first order terms in a second order differential equation
of motion, meaning to say, there is no dampers or dashpot present in the system. Hence, the
system will continue to oscillate.

In general, for undamped case : We have two pure imaginary and complex conjugate. = 0

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## 3.7 Critical Examination: Poles & Damping Ratio

Pole location is a function of damping ratio. A change in damping ratio means that the pole
location has changed. The pole location is important for predicting responses to all kinds of
inputs. Consider the following second order transfer function:

The pole can be computed by letting the denominator equal zero, and then solving the quadratic
equation.

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## 3.8 Other Salient Parameters

As with the same case for a 1st order system, we are also looking at the following parameters
(besides the n and ): Peak time, Rise time, Percent overshoot and Settling time.

## figure 3 Typical Second Order Response Graph

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## 3.9 Frequency Response

Engineers are often interested in how a circuit will respond to a sinusoidal input (i.e. current,
voltage). Suppose that we have a linear system represented by the following diagram:

If a sinusoidal input is given, then the output signal is also sinusoidal signal of the same
frequency, but with different amplitude and phase.

Frequency response of a control system is defined as the steady-state response of the system
when the sinusoidal input is applied at the input terminals. The sinusoidal input signal when
applied to a linear system results in an output signal, which is sinusoidal in SteadyState and
differs from the input waveform only in amplitude and phase angle.

## Frequency response method determines experimentally the properties of complicated control

systems without any difficulty as the sinusoidal test signals for various ranges of frequencies
and amplitudes are easily available. Frequency response function describing the sinusoidal
steady-state behaviour of the system can be obtained by replacing s=j in the transfer function
G(s) of the system. The function G(j) representing the sinusoidal steady-state behaviour of
the system is a function of complex variable having magnitude and phase angle. The magnitude
and phase angle of function G(j) for various frequencies are represented by various graphical
plots in different coordinates which give better insight for the analysis and design of control
systems.

We take note that any curve giving information regarding the amplitude (gain) or phase shift
of the frequency function is known as the frequency response of the system.Typical examples
of frequency response graph are the Polar plot (a.k.a. Nyquist plot) and Bode plot.

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## 3.9.1 Polar & Bode Plot

A polar plot is a plot of the magnitude and phase angle in polar coordinates for various values
of frequencies ranging from zero to infinity.
Bode plot on the other hand is a plot of magnitude and phase angle versus the frequencies in
rectangular coordinates.
In practice, the frequency function of the system is so complex and long that the characteristic
of the system cannot be determined at the desired frequency just only by inspection of the
system frequency function. Hence, the frequency function of systems is plotted in these
graphical forms which indicate the system characteristics.

Bode Plot
NB: In this lecture, I shall be focusing only the Bode plot. The polar plot is omitted and if you
are interested, you can learn on your own.
The Bode plot is generally:
Plots of frequency response.
Gain and phase are displayed in separate plots.
Logarithmic plots.
The horizontal axis is frequency - plotted on a log scale. It can be either f or .
The vertical axis is gain, expressed in decibels - a logarithmic measure of gain.
Sometimes, the vertical axis is simply a gain on a logarithmic scale.
And in general, a Bode plot consists of two components (subplot): The ratio of the amplitudes
of the output signal and the input signal is plotted against frequency.
The phase shift between the input and output signal is plotted against the frequency.
The Bode plot allows us to experimentally determine the transfer function without the tedious
process of detailed modeling.

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A bit on decibel
A decibel (dB) is a ratio between two numbers on a logarithmic scale. A decibel is not itself a
number, and cannot be treated as such in normal calculations. Widely used when dealing with
sinusoidal function and waves. It confers a number of advantages, such as: the ability to
conveniently represent very large or small numbers, a logarithmic scaling that roughly
corresponds to the human perception of sound and light; and the ability to carry out
multiplication of ratios by simple addition and subtraction.
The phase shift is given as:

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Note that a positive angle is known as phase lead and a negative angle is known as phase
lag.
Sketching Bode Plot
There are two ways of sketching the Bode plot. The first method is the tabulation method
where the table of values is generated. This is the easiest method. The second method is the
analytical method. This is by far, the challenging method. Use of any method is acceptable.

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CHAPTER FOUR:
BLOCK DIAGRAMS: REPRESENTATION AND SIMPLIFICATION

4.1 Introduction
A control system consists of a number of components connected to perform a desired function.
Once components (system or subsystem) is reduced to a mathematical model, it can be
represented as a block with the component operation described by the mathematical function.
It is convenient and useful to represent the element of a control system by blocks. The
properties of the block are contained in the transfer function, represented by a Laplace
transform. Thus, a block diagram is a representation of an entire control system in terms of all
the elements and their transfer function.

## 4.2 Block Diagram Components

As mentioned, a system is represented by input, output and transfer function. Many systems
are composed of multiple subsystems. When multiple subsystems are interconnected, then, a
few more schematic elements must be added to the block diagram. The elements are summing
and pick-off points. The characteristics of summing point is that the input point is the algebraic
sum of the many input signals. A pick-off point distributed the input signal to several output
points.

## 4.3 Representation in Block Diagram

There are generally three structures of block diagram: Cascade form, Parallel form and
Feedback form.

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## Block Diagram: Parallel Form

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## Feedback System: Transfer Function

Deriving the transfer function for feedback system:

## 4.4 Unity Feedback System

A unity feedback system is one in which the primary feedback is identically equal to the
controlled output.
The advantage of a unity feedback system is that the reference input and the system output
represent the same quantity and it can be compared directly.

## Figure 4.1 Unity Feedback system

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## 4.5 Basic Operation: Moving Blocks

Moving the block to the left past a summing junction:

## Moving the block to the right past a summing junction:

Block diagram algebra for pickoff points equivalent forms for moving a block:
a. to the left past a pickoff point;
b. to the right past a pickoff point

Example
Reduce the following block diagram to a single transfer function.

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Solution:

Example 2
Reduce the following block diagram to a single transfer function:

Solution:

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Assignment
Find the peak time, percent overshoot and settling time for the following systems:
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## 4.7 Feedback System

Usually, the feedback to a control system is a sensor. By having feedbacks to your system:
1. There is an increase in system components and complexity.
2. There is a possibility of the system being unstable.
Despite the fact that feedback system has its own disadvantages, however, its advantages far
outweighs the disadvantages, thus it is much more desirable to have a feedback system.

## 4.8 Stable System

Definitions
Poles Poles are the roots of D(s) (the denominator of the transfer function), obtained by
setting D(s) = 0 and solving for s.
Zeros The roots of the numerator of the transfer function obtained by setting N(s) = 0 and
solving for s.
Pole-Zero Map A plot of poles and zeros.

A stable system has a closed-loop transfer functions with poles only in the left half plane.
An unstable system has a closed-loop transfer functions with at least one pole in the right half
plane and/or poles of multiplicity greater than one on the imaginary axis.
A marginally stable system has closed-loop transfer functions with only imaginary axis poles
of multiplicity 1 and poles in the left half plane.

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Example 1
Test the stability for the following system:

Example 2
Test the stability for the following system:

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## 4.9 Bounded Solution

A system is said to be stable if every bounded input produced a bounded output. The following
system shows a stable system:

## 4.10 Conditions for Stability

There are two conditions in order for a system to be stable. The first condition is the sufficient
condition and the second condition is the necessary condition. The sufficient condition is
the minimum requirement in order for a system to be stable. The necessary condition is a
must condition in order for a system to be stable.
Consider the following characteristic equation:

The stability of this system may be determined by solving this characteristic equation. Solving
this equation will yield roots of the characteristic equation. The necessary but insufficient
condition for the stability of a system is that all coefficients of the above characteristic equation
be real and have the same signs. Furthermore, none of the coefficients should be zero.
We also take note of the following results:
1. If all the roots of the characteristic equation have negative real parts, then the system is
stable.
2. If any root of the characteristic equation has a positive real part or if there is a repeated
root on the jw-axis, then the system is unstable (because it lies on the right-half plane).
3. If some of the coefficients are zero or negative, then it can be concluded that the system
is unstable.
4. If all the coefficients of the characteristic equation have the same signs, then the
possibility of the stability exists and one should proceed further to examine the
sufficient condition of stability.
Theorem:
1. The positive-ness of the coefficients of characteristic equation is necessary as well as
sufficient condition for stability of system of a first and second order.
2. The positive-ness of the coefficients of the characteristic equation ensures that the
negative-ness of real roots, but it does not ensure the negative-ness of the real parts of
the complex roots for third and higher order systems.
In sum, a necessary and sufficient condition for a feedback system to be stable is that all of the
poles of the system transfer function must have negative real parts.

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Project Assignment:
1. Steady state error, System type, Static error constants and Sensitivity
2. Root Locus
3. Open loop and closed loop system representation, Controller and observer design via
pole placement method and Ackermanns formula for computing the gain, K

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CHAPTER FIVE:
STATE SPACE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

## 5.1 Review: Eigenvalues

Every square matrix has its eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors. The eigenvalues,
usually denoted by the symbol , is found by forming the characteristic equation:

Eigenvalues can tell us about the stability of a system. A system is stable if and only if the
eigenvalues of A have negative real parts.

## 5.1.1 Classical vs Modern Control

Classical control system Analysis is performed in frequency/s-domain Example: root locus,
bode diagram, Nyquist plot

Modern control system is introduced due to arrival of space exploration. Thus, Modeling using
LTI system becomes inadequate. The effect of time must be taken into account. SS is applicable
for all type of system: linear, non-linear, digital system and MIMO system.
SS uses the matrix approach.

5.2 SS Analysis
In state space analysis, the dynamic of a control system is described by a set of first order
differential equations. The general format is written as follows:

## 5.2.1 State Variables

A state variable is one of the set of variables that describe the "state" of a dynamical system.
Intuitively, the state of a system describes enough about the system to determine its future
behaviour. Models that consist of coupled first-order differential equations are said to be in

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state-variable form. A state variable is a time-related quantity. For example, voltage and current
is a state variable, but not resistance or inductance.

## Type 2 : Converting from TF to SS.

Example: Convert the following transfer function to state space.

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Type 3: SS to TF
Consider the following equation:

Our main task is to convert the above state space equation to transfer function. To do so, take
the forward Laplace transform and assume zero initial conditions.

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## Various Representation of Transfer Functions in State Space

We can represent a transfer function in various state space format. There are essentially four
state space formats that will be of our main concern:
o Controllable canonical form
o Observable canonical form
o Diagonal canonical form
o Jordan canonical form

Let us look and study all of this form in the next slide. Now, the general format of transfer
function is:

## Controllable Canonical Form

The controllable canonical form (in state space, that is) is given as follows:

Note: You can also use the signal flow graph to obtain the above model.

## Controllable Canonical Form

The output equation is given as:

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## Observable Canonical Form

The observable canonical form (in state space, that is) is given as follows:

## Diagonal Canonical Form

A diagonal canonical form is a little different. To represent your transfer function in diagonal
canonical form, you must first sort your transfer function in the following form (factor the
denominator):

## Diagonal Canonical Form

The state space representation for diagonal canonical form is given as:

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## Jordan Canonical Form

Now, a Jordan canonical form can only be used to represent a transfer function having multiple
poles, given as follows:

The state space matrix for Jordan Canonical Form is of the form:

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