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7/21/2017

Instructor
Dr.RaymondRumpf
(915)7476958
rcrumpf@utep.edu

EE5337
ComputationalElectromagnetics(CEM)

Lecture#28

MethodofMoments
forThinWireAntennas
Thesenotesmaycontaincopyrightedmaterialobtainedunderfairuserules.Distributionofthesematerialsisstrictlyprohibited
Lecture28 Slide1

Outline
Introduction
Pocklingtons andHallens IntegralEquations
MethodofMomentsSolutiontoPocklingtons Equation
ThinWireExcitations
ImpedanceLoading

Lecture28 Slide2

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Introduction

Lecture28 Slide3

TheMethodofMoments

Lf g
f an v n a Lv g Galerkin Method IntegralEquation
n n
n n

a n
n v m , Lv n v m , g
Convertsalinear UsuallyusesPECapproximation
v1 , Lv1 v1 , Lv 2
a v , Lg
1 1

equationtoamatrix Usuallybasedoncurrent

a1 v 2 , Lg
v 2 , Lv1 v 2 , Lv 2 equation

j L2
2 e jkr


aN v N , Lg

Ezinc I z z k 2 2 dz
L 2
z 4 r

TheMethodofMoments
z11 z12 z13 z14 z15 z16 z17 i1 v1
i1 z
i2 i3 21 z22 z23 z24 z25 z26 z27 i2 v2
i4 i5 i6 z31 z32 z33 z34 z35 z36 z37 i3 v3
i7
v1 v2 z41 z42 z43 z44 z45 z46 z47 i4 v4
v3 z51
v4 v5 z52 z53 z54 z55 z56 z57 i5 v5
v6 v7
z61 z62 z63 z64 z65 z66 z67 i6 v6
z z72 z73 z74 z75 z76 z77 i7 v7
71

Lecture28 Slide4

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Pocklingtons andHallens
IntegralEquations

Lecture28 Slide5

MaxwellsEquations
Maxwellsequationsinthefrequencydomaincanbewrittenas

E j H

H J j E

E 0


H 0
Frequencydomain
Differentialform
Constitutiverelationshavebesubstituted

Lecture28 Slide6

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DefinitionofMagneticVectorPotential

H 0 H
Since,thetermissolenoidal.Thismeansitonly
formsloopssoitcanbewrittenintermsofthecurlofsomeother

vectorfunction. A


H A

A
Wecallthatothervectorfunctionthemagneticvectorpotential
becauseitsharesmanyattributesoftheelectricscalarpotential.

Themagneticvectorpotentialisnotaphysicalquantity,butisuseful
insimplifyingthemathematicsofsomeelectromagneticanalyses.

Lecture28 Slide7

DefinitionofElectricScalarPotential

Wecansubstitutethemagneticvectorpotentialinto E j H
toarriveat

A
E j


E j A 0


E j A 0
Theterminsidetheparentheseshaszerocurl.Thismeansitis
conservativeandbehaveslikeastaticelectricfield.Wedefinethe
electricscalarpotential fromthisquantity.

E j A
Lecture28 Slide8

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LorentzGaugeCondition
Wenowhavemorevariablesthanwehavedegreesoffreedomso
weneedtofixthegauge.Wedothisberelatingsomeofthe
variables.

Wehaveyettospecifyanythingaboutthedivergenceofthe
magneticvectorpotential.Forconvenienceandtofixthegauge,we
let


A j

Lecture28 Slide9

WaveEquationinTermsofPotentials(1of2)

H J j E
First,wewriteintermsofthemagneticvector
potential.

A
J j E

Tosimplifythisfurther,wemustassumeourantennaisembeddedina
homogeneousmedium.Nowourequationreducesto


A 2 A J j E

Wenowsubstitutetheelectricscalarpotentialintothisequation.


2 A 2 A j A J

Lecture28 Slide10

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WaveEquationinTermsofPotentials(2of2)
Next,weeliminatetheelectricscalarpotentialusingtheLorentz
gaugecondition.


A A J
2 2

Wenowhaveavectorwaveequationthatrelatesthemagneticvector
potentialandcurrent.Thisisidealforantennaanalysis!

2 2 A
Recognizingthat,thevectorwaveequationcanalsobe
writtenas

A A J
2 2

Lecture28 Slide11

ZAxisThinWire
Thevectorwaveequationcanbewritteninmatrixformas
Ax Ax Jx

A 2 A J
2
Ay Ay J y
2 2
Az Az J z
Forthinwirestructures,weassumethecurrentsarerestrictedtothe
directionofthewire.Forazaxisorientedthinwire,thewave
equationreducesto

Ax Ax 0
Ay Ay 0
2 2
Az Az J z

Therefore, Ax Ay 0
Lecture28 Slide12

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RevisedEquations
Giventhezaxisthinwireapproximation,theLorentzgaugecondition
reducesto
Az
A j j
z
Ourdefinitionofelectricscalarpotentialreducesto

E j A Ez j Az
z
Combiningtheaboveequations,wearriveat

1 2 Az Thisisnotourdifferentialequation
Ez 2 Az
2 tosolve.Thisishowwewill
j z calculatetheelectricfieldfromthe
magneticvectorpotential.

Lecture28 Slide13

WhatisaGreensFunction
Supposeadevicecanbedecomposedintomanyidenticalsmall
elements.

Iftheresponseofoneoftheseelementscanbeobtained,thenthe
overallsolutionisthesuperpositionoftheresponseofallofthetiny
elementscomprisingthedevice.

TheresponseofoneofthesetinyelementsiscalledtheGreens
function.TheoverallsolutionisobtainedbyintegratingtheGreens
functionoverthedomainofthedevice.

Lecture28 Slide14

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IllustrationofaGreensFunction
WecanvisualizingintegratingaGreensfunctionthisway

Observationpoint

+ + + =

Lecture28 Slide15

GreensFunctionforSmallCurrentElement(1of2)

Ourwaveequationforthezaxisthinwireis

2 Az 2 Az J z

Awayfromthewire,Jz = 0 andthedifferentialequationreducesto

2 2 0
r observation point

R
Thishasasolutionof

r point along wire
e j R
G r , r R r r
4 R

r observation point

r location of point source of current
Lecture28 Slide16

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GreensFunctionforSmallCurrentElement(2of2)

Thetotalmagneticvectorpotentialisobtainedbyintegratingthe
Greensfunctioneverywhere.Thekernelofthisintegrationwillbe
zeroexceptwherethereiscurrentsotheintegralonlyhastobe
performedoverthevolumeofspacewherethereiscurrent.

Az J z Gdv
v

Forzaxisthinwires,thisbecomes

L 2 2 I z z e jkR
Az , , z

L 2 0 2 4 R
d dz
Wehaveassumedthecurrentisuniforminthecrosssectionofthewire.
Lecture28 Slide17

ThinWireApproximation
Assumethewireisverythinrelativeto
2a itslength.
I L 0
aL

Einc Theincidentwaveexcitesacurrenton
thethinwire.

I z
L k J r z z
2 a
I z Weassumethereisnodependenceon
thewireazimuthalangle.

Weassumethatthecurrentgoestozero
I 0 0 attheextremeendsofthewire.

I z 0 I z L 0
Lecture28 Slide18

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MagneticVectorPotential(1of3)
Themagneticvectorpotentialonthesurfaceofthewireduetothecurrentinthe
wireiswrittenintermsofasurfaceintegral.
L2 2 I z z e jkR
Az , , z
L 2 0 2 4 R
d dz

WhereR isthedistancefromthepointintheintegralto
theobservationpoint.

z z
2 2
R
Sincethemagneticvectorpotentialiswrittenonthe
surfaceofthewire,=a.

2 a 2 2 a cos
2

Duetothecylindricalsymmetry,wecanreplace
withjustwithoutlossofgenerality.


2
2 r 2 2 r cos Weintegrateonsurfaceof
cylinder
Lecture28 Slide19

MagneticVectorPotential(2of3)
Themagneticvectorpotentialcannowbewrittenas
I z z
L2 2
e jkR
Az , , z
L 2
2
0 4 R
d dz

z z
2
R 2 a 2 2 a cos
Ifa isverysmall,

z z
2
R 2
Thenthereisno dependenceandthemagneticvectorpotentialequationreduces
to
L 2
e jkR
Az , z
I z z dz Thinwireapproximationwith
L 2 4 R reducedkernel

Thesurfaceintegralhasbeenreducedtoalineintegral.
Lecture28 Slide20

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MagneticVectorPotential(3of3)
Forthelineintegral,weassumethetestingpointsarelocatedonthezaxis.When
thisisthecase,=a.andthemagneticvectorpotentialcanbewrittenasonlya
functionofz.
L2
e jkR
Az z
L 2
I z z
4 R
dz

z z
2
R a2

Lecture28 Slide21

IncidentandRadiatedField
Theradiatedfieldonthesurfaceofthewireisobtainedfromthemagneticvector
potentialonthesurfaceofthewire.

2 j 2 2
j
E j Az
rad
A k 2 Az
z
z 2 z z
k 2 k02 r r
Boundaryconditionsrequirethatthefieldonthesurfaceofthewireiszero.The
fieldonthesurfaceisthesumoftheincidentandradiatedfields.

Eztotal Ezrad Ezinc 0


Therefore,wecanwrite
PECApproximation
j 2 2
E inc
E rad
k 2 Az
z z
z
Lecture28 Slide22

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Hallens IntegralEquation
Recallthefollowingequations:
L2
e jkR
Az z
L 2
I z z
4 R
dz

j 2 2
E inc
k 2 Az
z
z

SubstitutingthefirstequationintothesecondleadstoHallens integralequation.

j 2 2 L 2
e jkR
Ezinc z

k 2
z L 2
I z z
4 R
dz

z z
2
R a2

Lecture28 Slide23

Pocklingtons IntegralEquation
StartingwithHallens integralequation

j 2 2 L 2
e jkR
E z k 2
I z z dz
inc
z
z L 2 4 R

Wemovethedifferentialoperatorundertheintegralsign.

j L2
2 e jkR
Ezinc z

L 2
I z z k 2 2
z 4 R
dz

WhilePocklingtons equationisthemostfamousandeasiertosolve,itisnotaswell
behavedasHallens equationresultinginslowerconvergenceandpooreraccuracy.

Lecture28 Slide24

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VisualizingPocklingtons IntegralEquation
j L2
2 e jkr

Ezinc z I z z k 2 2 dz
L 2
z 4 r

WeformulatedPocklingtons
Wewillimplementtheequation
integralequationwithbeinga
asatransmittingantenna.
receivingantennainmind.


Einc


Einc
k

Lecture28 Slide25

ConvergenceComparison

2a
L 0.477 0
a 0.001 0
r 1 L
r 1

Z in 70.3

Lecture28 Slide26

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MethodofMoments
Solutionto
Pocklingtons Equation

Lecture28 Slide27

SetupfortheGalerkin Method
WestartwithPocklingtons integralequationinthefollowingform.
L2
2 e jkR
L 2
I z z k 2 2
z 4 R
dz j Ezinc z

L f g
Thishastheformofwhere

1 L2
2 e jkR
L f
j L 2
I z z k 2 2
z 4 R
dz

f I z
g Ezinc z

Lecture28 Slide28

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RecalltheGalerkin Method
L f g

Step1 Expandunknownintosetofbasisfunctions

L an vn g
n
Step2 Testbothsidesagainstbasisfunctions.


vm , L an vn vm , g
n
Step3 Constructmatrixequation

a n vm , L vn vm , g v1 , L v1 v1 , L v2 a g
n 1 1
v2 , L v1 v2 , L v2 a2 g 2



vM , L vN aM g M

Lecture28 Slide29

Galerkin Method Step1


Pocklingtons integralequation
L2
2 e jkR
L 2
I z z k 2 2
z 4 R
dz j Ezinc z

Weexpandthecurrentfunctionintoasetofbasisfunctions.
I z z an vn z
n

SubstitutingthisintoPocklingtons equationyields
L2
2 e jkR

L 2 n
an vn z k 2 2
z 4 R
dz j Ezinc z

2 2 e jkR
n n n k z 2 4 R dz j Ezinc z
a v z
vn

Lecture28 Slide30

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Galerkin Method Step2


Wetestbothsidesoftheequationwiththebasisfunctionsusingtheinnerproduct.

2 2 e jkR
n n n k z 2 4 R dz j Ezinc z
a v z
vn
2 e jkR
vm z , an vn z k 2 2 dz vm z , j Ezinc z
n vn z 4 R

2 2 e jkR
n n m n k z 2 4 R dz j vm z , Ezinc z
a v z , v z
vn

Lecture28 Slide31

Galerkin Method Step3


Next,weconstructamatrixequationfromtheinnerproducts.

2 2 e jkR
n n m n k z 2 4 R dz j vm z , Ezinc z
a v z , v z
vn
zmn an g m

2 e jkR
zmn vm z vn z k 2 2 dz dz
vm vn z 4 R

g m j vm z Ezinc z dz
vm

Lecture28 Slide32

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PulseBasisFunctions(1of3)
Weletourbasisfunctionsbepulsefunctionsdefinedonlyonthesegments.
v1 z
0 z is outside m th segment v2 z
vm z th
v3 z
Thisiscalled
pointmatching.
1 z is inside m segment v4 z
v5 z

Usingthesebasisfunctions,wehave
2 e jkR
zmn vm z vn z k 2 2 zm z
2
dz dz R a2
vm vn z 4 R
z z
zm z zm
e jkR
2
1 jkR jkr 2
k z 4 R dz zm z R3 e z z z
2

zm m
2
2

g m j vm z Ezinc z dz
vm

j Ezinc zm
Lecture28 Slide33

PulseBasisFunctions(2of3)
Whencalculatingtheimpedanceelements,wemustevaluatethefollowingintegral
aspartofthosecalculations.
z
zn
2
e jkR
z 4 R dz zm z
2
R a2
zn
2

Whenm = n,wecanuseasmallargumentapproximation.
z
zm

1 1 2a z 1 jk z
z 2 2
e jkR
2
1 jkR
z 4 R dz 4 R
z 2
dz ln
4 1 2a z 2 1 4
zm
2

Otherwise,wemustnumericallyevaluatetheintegral.

Lecture28 Slide34

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PulseBasisFunctions(3of3)
Wecannowinterpret[a] asacolumnvectorcontainingthecurrentsineach
segmentoftheantenna.

i1 i2 i3 i4 i5 i6 i7
v1 v2 v3 v4 v5 v6 v7

a i

zmn an g m
Lecture28 Slide35

TransformationtoTrueImpedanceMatrix
Thematrixequationis

zmn an g m
Thean coefficientsarethecurrentsineachsegment.Thegm coefficientsarescaled
electricfields.Basedonthis,itismoreintuitivetowritethematrixequationas

zmn in j Ezinc zm
Wewouldliketheunitsontherighthandsidetobevoltagesothatthe[Z] matrixis
trueimpedance.Voltageisrelatedtotheelectricfieldthrough
Vm
Ezinc zm
z
Thefinalmatrixequationintermsofelementvoltageandcurrentis
j z j z
zmn in Vm zmn in Vm
k

True Z

Lecture28 Slide36

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SingularityinPocklingtons Equation
Recalltheequationtocomputetheimpedanceelements.

z

1 1 2a z 1 jk z
2 z zn
1 jkR jkr 2
zmn ln z m z e
4 1 2a z 2 1 4 R 3
z zn z
2

Strongsingularity!!
Slowconvergence
Pooraccuracy

Lecture28 Slide37

Implementation
BuildImpedanceMatrix Seenextslide
InitializeMATLAB
TransformtoTrueImpedance
DefineSimulationParameters z
Z j Z
Wavelength,0 k
Antennalength,L
Wireradius,a ComputeAdmittanceMatrix
Optional
Atmosphere,r andr Y Z 1
Numberofsegments,N
ComputeSourceVoltage
ComputeConstants
vm 0 0 1 0 0
T

k0 2 0
k k0 r r ComputeCurrent
z L N
i zmn v
1

za 0 : N 1 z

ComputeInputImpedance
Z in vn in fed at segment n

ComputeGain/Pattern
Lecture28 Slide38

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BuildingtheImpedanceMatrix

CalculationStep#1

zmm for m n
z
nz
2 e jkR
zmn
ComputeDiagonalTerm 4 R dz for m n
zn 2z

1 1 2a z 1 jk z
2


zmm ln
4 1 2a z 2 1 4

CalculationStep#2
zm zn z 2
2
r1 a2
LoopOverallm andn 1 jkr1 jkr1
t1 zm zn z 2 e
r13

zm zn z 2
2
r2 a2
1 jkr2 jkr2
t1 zm zn z 2 e
r23
t2 t1
zmn k 2 zmn

Lecture28 Slide39

ThinWireExcitations

Lecture28 Slide40

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WhatisanExcitation?
Manyantennaparametersaremosteasilycalculatedwhenthe
antennaistreatedasatransmittingdevice.
Theexcitationoftheantennaisthemannerinwhichenergyisfed
intotheantennafromanexternalsourcesothatitcanberadiated.
Thepropertiesofanantennadependverymuchonhowandwhere
energyisappliedtothestructure.
Thefeedsystemofanantennaisahugelycomplexsubjectsoour
approachwillbetomodelthefeedmethodandnotthefeeditself.

Feednetwork

Lecture28 Slide41

TheDeltaGapSource
Thedetlagapsourcemodelsthefeedasiftheincidentfieldexists
onlyinthesmallgapattheantennaterminals.
Thisisthesimplestsourcetoimplement.Itperformswellfor
computingradiationpatterns,butisusuallylessaccuratefor
impedancecalculations.

inc v0
z at the gap
v0 z Ez z z

0 elsewhere

Lecture28 Slide42

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TheMagneticFrillSource
Themagneticfrillsourcemodelsthefeedmagneticfieldcirculating
aroundthethinwireatthefeed.
Thissourceisslightlymoredifficulttoimplementandinvolvesmore
computationsforthesource,butismoreaccurate.

1 e jkra e jkrb
B Ezinc z
2 ln b a ra rb

ra z 2 a 2
b 3a
rb z 2 b 2
Lecture28 Slide43

ImpedanceLoading

Lecture28 Slide44

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IncorporatingImpedanceLoading
Pocklingtons IntegralEquation MatrixEquation
jkr

I z z k 4 r dz V z
j e Methodof
Z I V
2

z Moments
L

PerfectlyConductingDipole
z11 z12 z13 z14 z15 z16 z17 i1 v1
i1 z
i2 i3 21 z22 z23 z24 z25 z26 z27 i2 v2
i4 i5 z31 z32 z33 z34 z35 z36 z37 i3 v3
i6 i7
z41 z42 z43 z44 z45 z46 z47 i4 v4
v1 z51
v2 z52 z53 z54 z55 z56 z57 i5 v5
v3 v4
v5 z61 z62 z63 z64 z65 z66 z67 i6 v6
v6
v7 z71 z72 z73 z74 z75 z76 z77 i7 v7

ImpedanceLoadedDipole
z11 Z1 z12 z13 z14 z15 z16 z17 i1 v1
i1 z
i2 i3 21 z22 Z 2 z23 z24 z25 z26 z27 i2 v2
i4 i5 z31 z32 z33 Z3 z34 z35 z36 z37 i3 v3
i6 i7
Z1 z41 z42 z43 z44 Z 4 z45 z46 z47 i4 v4
Z2 Z3 z51 z52 z53 z54 z55 Z 5 z56 z57 i5 v5
Z4 Z5
v1 Z6 z61 z62 z63 z64 z65 z66 Z 6 z67 i6 v6
v2 v3 Z7 z z72 z73 z74 z75 z76 z77 Z 7 i7 v7
v4 71
v5 v6 v7

Lecture28 Slide45

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