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By

Pavithran S. Iyer

Rohan Sinha

CMI Modulus of ElasticityYoung’s Modulus

An elastic modulus, or modulus of elasticity, is the mathematical description of an object or substance's tendency to be deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a force is applied to it. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress- strain curve in the elastic deformation region. Modulus of ElasticityYoung’s Modulus where λ (lambda) is the elastic modulus; stress is the force causing the deformation divided by the area to which the force is applied; and strain is the ratio of the change caused by the stress to the original state of the object. If stress is measured in pascals, since strain is a unit--less ratio, then the units of λ are pascals as well. An alternative definition is that the elastic modulus is the stress required to cause a sample of the material to double in length. This is not realistic for most materials because the value is far greater than the yield stress of the material or the point where elongation becomes nonlinear, but some may find this definition more intuitive.

Young'sYoung's modulusmodulus ((EE)) describesdescribes tensiletensile elasticity,elasticity, oror thethe tendencytendency ofof anan objectobject toto deformdeform alongalong anan axisaxis whenwhen opposingopposing forcesforces areare appliedapplied alongalong thatthat axis;axis; itit isis defineddefined asas thethe ratioratio ofof tensiletensile stressstress toto tensiletensile strain.strain. ItIt isis oftenoften referredreferred toto simplysimply asas thethe elasticelastic modulusmodulus Modulus of ElasticityYoung’s Modulus When the metal is devoid of force, the molecules are properly aligned.  EXTENSION CAUSED DUE TO
FORCE, ON AN ELASTIC MATERIAL  THE FIGURE ABOVE SOWS A SECTION OF THE
ATOMIC LAYER IN THE ELASTIC MATERIAL  EXTENSION CAUSED DUE TO FORCE, ON
AN ELASTIC MATERIAL  Force THE ABOVE DIAGRAM SHOWS THE ACTION OF FORCE, AT A
POINT ON THAT MATERIAL. NOTE: THE ELASTIC NATURE OF
THE MATERIAL IS ONLY SEEN WHEN THE FORCES ON
DIFFERENT POINTS ON THE MATERIALS ARE DIFFERENT.  EXTENSION CAUSED DUE TO FORCE, ON
AN ELASTIC MATERIAL  BUT WHEN FORCE IS APPLIED, THE MOLECULES START SHIFTING
AND ON THE WHOLE, THE MATERIAL APPEARS TO BE BENT.
THE ELASTIC MATERIAL BENDS, AT THE POINT OF APPLICATION
OF FORCE. THIS LENGTH THROUGH WHICH IT BENDS, OR THE
HEIGHT OF THE DEPRESSION IS WHAT WE ARE TRYING TO
DETERMINE IN THIS EXPERIMENT. Modulus of ElasticityYoung’s Modulus  Let’s
take the case of
a metal
strip, where the thickness is very
small compared to the length.
Let’s
take
the
bending
at
a
distance x from one end and let
the shear angle be ‘ ’.  RELATING THE EXTENSION WITH OTHER
EXPERIMENTAL PARAMENTERS – A FORMULA

The new depth or bend of the material can be calculated from the Formulations as before as:  Where:
L: Depth
L: Length of the scale between
knife edges.
B: Width of the scale
a: Thickness of Scale
Fy: Vertical Force
E: Young’s Modulus of Elasticity  EXPERIMENTAL SET UP AND UNDERSTANDING
THE PROCEDURE  The arrangement of the apparatus
can be shown with the help of the
following schematic diagram.
The metal strip is kept completely
symmetrical with respect to the knife
edge so that the torques on either
sides balance out. (otherwise they
provide a force that counteracts the
weight of the mass hung).
The weighs are loaded at the centre
since maximum extension occurs
there, and errors can be made small.
The knife edge on which the mass
was hung was ensured to be
balanced.
In case of zero error on the dial
gauge, the initial reading was taken. BRIEF PROCEDURE AND UNDERSTANDING ∑ The components are fitted to the correct apparatus.
∑ The knife edges are made to be at the same height using a spirit balance.
∑ The same procedure is repeated for the square-rod holding the dial gauge.
∑ Both the rods (the experimental rod and the rod on which the dial gauge is
mounted) are made to be parallel to each other.
∑ The axis of the Dial Gauge is made to be perfectly vertical by rotating the
circular rod to which it is attached. If this is not so, then the extension on the
rod will not be equal to the reading shown on the dial.
∑ Now, the rod on which measurements are made is kept symmetrically, i.e. the
centre of the Strip is at the centre between the knife edges.
∑ Now the mass hanger is kept at the centre and the hanger is attached onto it.
∑ Now the Dial Gauge is brought down onto the knife-edge, so that
it
is
perpendicular to the strips and hence vertical.
∑ The Readings are taken by subtracting the reading before the masses were
hung and after the masses were hung.
∑ Now, the necessary variations are made.  PRECAUTIONS WITH DIAL GAUGE Marking the Dial Gauge Readings, we
obtain
the
Shear-Strain
Graph
as
shown (in Black).
The ideal Stress-Strain Relation has
been shown in green.
This is
because of the errors in the
experimental
procedure
followed.
Since the analog meter showing the
extensions
was
very-very
sensitive,
any
mild
disturbances
changed
the
meter, and the original value could not
the masses a lot
of
care
to
be
taken to see that
there is
no extra
can
cause
permanent
shift
in
the
extensions. S
T
R
A
I
N
STRESS  OBSERVATIONS – EXTENSION vs. MASS The following graph shows change in extension observed with the mass
attached. As per the Hooke's law, all points must lie in a straight line, but  CALCULATING THE MODULUS OF RIGIDITY FROM DATA FROM THE ABOVE DATA COLLECTED (IN THE PREVIOUS GRAPH),
THE RIGIDITY MODULUS WAS COMPUTED.FOR THE STEEL
RODS. ALSO FOR OTHER RODS SUCH AS ALUMINUM AND BRASS
ALSO THE SAME WAS COMPUTED.
GIVEN BELOW IS A TABLE SHOWING THE COMPUTED VALUE OF
THE RIGIDITY MODULUS AND THE CORRESPONDING
THEORETICAL VALUE (THAT WAS GIVEN)
 MATERIAL EXPERIMENTAL (N/m -2 ) THEORITICAL (N/m -2 ) STEEL (10X2X500) mm 4.40 X 10 10 2.06 X 10 10 ALUMINUM 4.22 X 10 10 6.70 X 10 10 BRASS 5.92 X 10 10 9.22 X 10 10 OBSERVATIONS – EXTENSION VS. LENGTH Below graph shows the change in Extension for different lengths of the
rods used. The effects of hysteresis here appear magnified because the
relation is a cubit one. So, any error, in principle will get magnified three
times. But one thing that is clear is that it is not a linear relationship. This
agrees with the formula that was given earlier.   OBSERVATIONS – EXTENSION VS. WIDTH
The graph below shows the change in extension with the width of the steel rod
used. The relation, as per the formula is inverse cubic. Here we see that there is
some considerable error. It can be attributed to systematic error on the dial. Here
each time, we need to remove the rod and fix the masses again. Due to this
is reset. In case of any hysteresis, the initial reading must be repeated.  OBSERVATIONS – EXTENSIONS AT VARIOUS
POINTS OF THE ROD In this section, our intention was to determine the extension caused in the rod,
at points further away from the point of suspension of the mass. As expected,
we have the greatest extension at the point of suspension of mass, and the
extension was seen to decrease linearly with distance from the center.  CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES From this experiment, the relation between various
parameters
like
Force,
extension,
and
the
properties
of
the
rod
were
verified.
A
major
difficulty faced by us during the experiment was
that every time the masses were loaded and
from
the
hanger,
there
was
some
hysteresis observed in the readings. Due to this